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宣化上人開示錄(六)
Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma Volume Six 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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貪愛生煩惱

Greed and Love Lead to Affliction


世間人所貪的,佛不貪;世間人所愛的,佛不愛,
因為沒有貪愛,就沒有煩惱。
The Buddha doesn't crave the things that worldly people crave. The Buddha doesn't love the things that worldly people love. Since he is free of greed and love, he has no affliction.

佛陀雖為印度的太子,可是他對世間的富貴,深生厭離,願意捨離國榮王位,出家修道。他也願意令一切眾生,知道世間法皆是妄想。這世界怎麼成就的呢?就是由於眾生的妄想而成的,將來也是由眾生的妄想而毀壞,所謂「如是因,如是果。」

 

Although the Buddha was a prince in India, he was deeply weary of worldly fortune and honor. He wanted to renounce the glory of his royal position and leave the home-life to cultivate the Way. He wished to make all living beings realize that worldly dharmas are nothing but false thoughts. How did the world come into being? It was created by the false thoughts of living beings, and in the future it will be destroyed by the false thoughts of living beings. This is the correspondence between cause and effect.

世間一切都是無常敗壞。菩薩也厭離世間法,佛更是厭離世間的一切法,不生一切染污和執著。佛是永遠斷棄世間人所有的一切貪心愛欲,世間人所貪的,佛不貪;世間人所愛的,佛不愛,因為沒有貪愛,就沒有煩惱。我們人的煩惱,是怎麼生的呢?就因為「貪」和「愛」生出來的。若不貪,就沒有自私;沒有自私,也就沒有煩惱。為什麼要貪?就因為被欲念所支配,所以生出貪愛來;有了貪愛,不能遂心如意,就生出煩惱;有煩惱就有顛倒,有顛倒就有染污。修清淨行,就是破除一切染污。

 

All things in the world are impermanent and subject to decay. Bodhisattvas detest worldly dharmas, and Buddhas detest worldly dharmas even more. They are not defiled by craving for them, and they are not attached to them. The Buddha has forever ended the greed, love, and desires that worldly people feel. The Buddha doesn't crave the things that worldly people crave. The Buddha doesn't love the things that worldly people love. Since he is free of greed and love, he has no affliction. Our afflictions come from our greed and love. Without greed, we won't be selfish; and without selfishness, we won't be afflicted. When we feel greed and love, and things do not go as we wish, we become afflicted. Once we are afflicted, we become muddled. Once we are muddled, we are defiled. When we cultivate pure conduct, we destroy all defilements.

佛時時刻刻都利益一切眾生,佛在王宮時,不貪著一切愛欲和世間的榮華富貴;出家之後,他捨棄世俗的一切威勢,不和人鬥爭與爭論,他得到無諍三昧。所謂

爭是勝負心,與道相違背;
便生四相心,云何得三昧?

佛住於無諍法。

 

The Buddha was able to constantly benefit all living beings. When the Buddha was still living in the palace, he did not covet sensual pleasures, nor did he crave worldly splendor, wealth, and honor. After he left the home-life, he completely renounced the behavior of worldly people. He refrained from contending and arguing with people, and thus attained the samadhi of non-contention. As it is said,

Contention involves thoughts of
 winning and losing;
It goes against the Way.
Thinking about the four marks,
How can one attain samadhi?

佛成就往昔所發的願,具有無量的功德,他以大智慧的光明,滅除世間一切愚癡、一切黑暗;做世間眾生無上的福田;時時都為一切眾生,讚歎十方三世諸佛的功德,令一切眾生,在三寶媞媞痋B求慧、種一切善根。佛以智慧眼,見到一切真實的道理,又為一切眾生,讚歎出家的功德。

 

The Buddha fulfilled the vows he had made in the past and became endowed with limitless merit and virtue. With the light of great wisdom, he eradicated all the stupidity and darkness in the world. He served as a supreme field of blessings for living beings in the world. On behalf of all living beings, he constantly praised the merit and virtue of all Buddhas throughout the ten directions and three periods of time. Thus he enabled all living beings to cultivate blessings, seek wisdom, and plant various roots of good¬ness by drawing near to the Triple Jewel. The Buddha used his Wisdom Eye to contemplate genuine truth. On behalf of all living beings, he also praised the merit and virtue of leaving the home-life.

出家是「出三界家」──欲界、色界、無色界;也是「出世俗家」,世俗就是世間俗人的家,出家也就是沒有世俗的觀念。又是「出煩惱家」,我們每一個人在世間,都住在這煩惱的家堙A一發脾氣,就覺得比吃什麼珍饈美味更有味道,所以出家就要出這「煩惱家」。又要「出無明家」,無明就是無所明瞭,什麼事情也不明白,所行所作顛顛倒倒,所以要出這個無明家。

 

Leaving home means leaving the home of the Three Realms: the Desire Realm, the Form Realm, and the Formless Realm. It also means leaving the home of an ordinary person in the world. One leaves behind one's worldly ideas. It also means leaving the home of affliction. Every person in the world dwells in the home of affliction. When we lose our tempers, we feel it tastes more flavorful than any delicious food we could eat. Therefore, when we leave home, we mean to leave the home of affliction. We should also leave the home of ignorance. Because of ignorance, we don't understand anything, and all of our actions and deeds are deluded. So we ought to leave the home of ignorance.

出家又有種種的分別,好像中國的出家人,有的因為年老,無依無靠,出家以後吃飯比較容易,所以就出家;有的被環境所迫而出家,或許犯了法、殺了人,就改名換姓,做一個出家人,王法也不管他了,找也找不到他了;有的小孩因為不容易養,就送到廟上去出家。

 

People leave the home-life for various reasons. For example, in China, some people leave the home-life because they are old and have no one to support them, and leaving home makes it easier to get meals. Others are forced by circumstances to leave the home-life. Perhaps someone has broken the law or committed murder, so he changes his name and leaves the home-life. Then the authorities pay no more attention to him, and they cannot track him down, either. Some children are sent to a temple to leave the home-life because their families have difficulty raising them.

以上這三種出家人,能不能修行?不知道,或者能、或者不能。又有一種是真為生死,發菩提心而出家的,這種出家人,如果不退心,就真能痛念生死發大菩提心,依照諸佛所說的法去修行,所以出家也有這種種不同的情形。可是出家後要清淨過失,沒有一切的過失,離過絕非,恢復本有的清淨,永遠出離三界的家、煩惱的家、無明的家、世俗的家。

 

It is not certain whether people who leave the home-life for the above three reasons will be able to cultivate. They may or they may not be able to. Finally, there is the person who leaves the home-life because he genuinely wants to end birth and death. If such a left-home person doesn't retreat from his resolve, he will be able to cultivate. Being painfully aware of birth and death, he will make the great resolve to reach enlightenment and cultivate according to the Dharma spoken by the Buddha. There are various situations under which people leave the home-life. After leaving the home-life, you should purify yourself of offenses and get rid of all your faults. Stay away from offenses and put an end to evil deeds. Regain your original purity. Leave the home of the Triple Realm, the home of affliction, the home of ignorance, and the worldly home forever.

問:為何沒有女佛?

 

Question: Why are there no female Buddhas?

上人答:不是沒有女佛,也有的。《法華經》上說得很明白;「龍女獻珠,立地成佛。」龍女是女的,她把寶珠獻給佛,便立地成佛。這證明女身也可以成佛,不過很少的。至於為什麼做男人?為什麼做女人?就因為歡喜。歡喜女人的念頭多,就做女人;歡喜男人的念頭多,就去做男人。這是受自己所造這種業的果報,這叫造業受報,自己跟著這個業轉。

 

Answer: That's not quite true. As the Dharma Flower Sutra says, the Dragon Girl offered her precious pearl to the Buddha and immediately attained Buddhahood. This proves that those in female bodies can also become Buddhas; however, it is quite rare. As to why some are born to become men and others women, it's a question of personal preference. If one longs to be a woman, one will become a woman. If one likes to be a man, one will become a man. Your karma controls you, and you undergo the retribution of the karma you create.

然而也有人能支配自己的業,自己不隨境界轉,而能旋轉乾坤,能把業轉變過來,能做主。若是隨業轉,就不能控制;若能轉業,就能控制。為何菩薩要發願呢?就是為了控制自己不隨業流轉,有這一種大願做支柱,就能轉業。所謂「人能轉業,而業不能轉人;人能轉境界,而境界不能轉人;人能轉果報,而果報不能轉人。」所以這是可以控制的,可是要有智慧,才可以控制;若是盡愚癡、無明、做顛倒事,則不能控制。我問:「你為何要做顛倒事情?」你說:「不知道。」不知道,就跟著業跑了。

 

Nevertheless, some people can control their own karma. Instead of being turned around by a situation, they can turn the situation around. They can alter their karma and be their own masters. If you follow your karma, you are not in control. But if you can direct your karma, then you are in control. Why do Bodhisattvas make vows? Because they want to control the flow of their karma. Relying on their great vows as a foundation, they can direct their karma. In their case, they can control their karma, but their karma cannot control them. They can control states of mind, but states of mind cannot control them. They can control their retribution, but retribution cannot control them. One can control these things, but only with wisdom. Someone who is always stupid and ignorant and doing muddled things will not be able to control his karma. When asked why you do muddled things, you answer that you don't know. Your not knowing means you are being led by your karma.

並不是女人不能成佛,也不是說佛就是陽,鬼就是陰。不錯,可以這麼說,佛是純陽,鬼是純陰,人是半陰半陽的,不是男人就完全陽,女人就完全陰。如果男人是完全陽,就不必與女人結婚;如果女人是全陰,也不必與男人結婚。結婚之後,就變成半陰半陽了,不是純的了。要是修行修到無漏,就是純陽。男是陽,但陽中有陰;女是陰,但陰中有陽,所以結婚之後,可以生小孩子,都是陰陽變化,這不是絕對的,不是男人一定是陽,女人一定是陰。《易經》上說:

 

It is not the case that women cannot become Buddhas. You could say that Buddhas are purely yang and ghosts are purely yin. People are partly yin and partly yang. It is not the case that men are completely yang and women are completely yin. If men were completely yang, they would not need to marry women, and if women were completely yin, they would not need to marry men. After marriage, people become partly yin and partly yang and are no longer purely one or the other. When you reach a state of being without outflows, you are purely yang. Although men are yang, there is yin within the yang. Although women are yin, there is yang within the yin. Therefore, when a man and woman are married, they are able to have children: these are all transformations of yin and yang. It is not a fixed rule that men are definitely yang and women are definitely yin. The Book of Changes says,

一陰一陽之謂道,
偏陰偏陽之謂疾。

 

A balance of yin and yang is the Way.
An excess of either yin or yang is sickness.

要是偏一邊就有毛病了,「不偏之謂中,不易之謂庸。」這是中庸之道。所以做男人的,不要以為我是陽。如果你是陽,那為什麼你要結婚?一結婚就陽中有陰;女人結了婚,就陰中有陽了,這互相交換,這是陰陽問題。

 

An excess on either side will cause problems. What is not excessive in either direction is called the middle. What admits of no change is constant. This is the Way of the constant middle. Therefore, men should not think they are yang. If you were, why would you want to get married? After you are married, there is yin within the yang. After women are married, there is yang within the yin. There is a mutual interchange. That's yin and yang.

至於什麼叫「人」?「人」只是個假名而已。以前我不是講過很多次嗎?我說:以前一開始人就叫做「人」,若是那時候把人叫做「狗」,那就叫狗了。因為叫久了,就成習慣了,所以「人」只是個名字而已。所謂一陰一陽為人,陰中有陽,陽中有陰。冬天媄鞃繭萛L天,夏天媄鉹S藏著冬天,冬至這一天是一陽生,夏至那一天是一陰生。所以一年也是陰陽,陰到極點就是陽,陽到極點就是陰了。我們人生來是陽,死了就是陰,這道理也是一樣的。

 

As to what a person is, a person is merely a false name. We use the word person, but, when language was invented, if the word dog had been applied to people, people would be called dogs now. Names of things become habitual. So person is a mere name. It is said that one yin and one yang make a person. Within the yang there is yin, and within the yin there is yang. Summer is included in winter, and winter is hidden in summer. On the day of the winter solstice, yang is born. On the day of the summer solstice, yin is born. A year is divided into yin and yang. When the yin reaches an extreme, it becomes yang. When the yang reaches the utmost point, it becomes yin. When people are born, they are yang, and when they die, they become yin. It's the same principle.

所以你說我們叫做人,若是當初叫做雞,人的名字就是雞,叫慣了,就不覺為怪。好像小孩給他取個名字,叫小狗;長大後,誰叫小狗,他就知道是叫他,這只是假名而已。姓張的說:「我姓張。」問他為何姓張?他說:「因他爸爸姓張。」那他爸爸的爸爸又姓什麼?也是姓張。爸爸的爸爸的爸爸往上追,追到不可追,那時候他姓什麼?那就不知道了,因為這都是假的。

 

You say we are called people, but if in the beginning people had been called chickens, then we would be called by the name of chicken. After we became used to being called that, we wouldn't feel it was so strange. For example, if you give a child the name Little Dog, then when he grows up and someone calls out, Little Dog, he will know he is being called. That's just a false name, nothing more. If you ask a man named Smith why his name is Smith, he will say it's because his father's name is Smith. What was his father's father's name? It was also Smith. How about his father's father's father? Keep tracing the generations back until you can go no further. What was the first ancestor's surname? You don't know, because it's all false anyway.

所以人不要執著,說我怎麼樣,又怎麼樣。這都是有個「我」,有個「自私」,所以有煩惱。假如沒有一個我,沒有自私,那又有什麼麻煩?人為何發脾氣?就因為覺得別人對不起自己。對我有損害了,就發脾氣;對自己有利益了,就高興。這都是被無明的境界所轉。

 

People shouldn't become too attached to being a certain way. The only reason we become afflicted is because of our ego and our selfishness. If we had no ego or selfishness, how could we have afflictions? Why do people lose their tempers? They feel others have done them wrong. When we take a loss, we get angry. When we gain some advantages, we feel happy. In both cases, we are being affected by the situations, due to our ignorance.

一九八二年九月一日開示
於萬佛聖城

 

A talk given on September 1, 1982,
at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas

 

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

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