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宣化上人開示錄(一)
Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma Volume One 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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學佛要修戒定慧

To Study Buddhism, We Must Cultivate Precepts, Samadhi, and Wisdom


常常拿「戒定慧」來警惕自己,這對於修行是會有所幫助的。
Always use precepts, samadhi, and wisdom to alert yourself; this will help you in your cultivation.

戒、定、慧三無漏學,是修行人所必須具有的。

 

Every cultivator needs to have the Three Non-Outflow Studies of precepts, samadhi, and wisdom.

戒,雖然有五戒、十戒、菩薩戒等等,然而最基本的,要算是五戒,那就是戒殺、戒盜、戒邪淫、戒妄語和戒飲酒。能持戒,就不會造罪。

 

Precepts: Although there are the Five Precepts, the Ten Precepts, the Bodhisattva Precepts, and so on, the Five Precepts are the most fundamental. They are: do not kill, do not steal, do not engage in sexual misconduct, do not engage in false speech, and do not take intoxicants. If one can hold the precepts, one will not make transgressions.

什麼是「定」呢?照普通來說,就是禪定。範圍廣一點來說,就是不變的意思。有些人修行,妄想很多,今天參禪,明天聽說念佛的功德大,於是便捨參禪而念佛,過兩天又聽說念咒的功德殊勝,於是又不念佛而念咒,諸如此類。今天修這個法門,明天又修那個法門,結果一事無成。又有些人對於念佛和念菩薩,一曝十寒,今天念,明天便不念,這都是沒有定力的緣故。定力對於我們修行,是非常重要的,如果沒有定力,那麼,修道一定不成,而且也會因為缺乏定力、道心不堅的緣故,很容易受到外來的引誘而墮落。

 

What is samadhi? Ordinarily, samadhi refers to Dhyana (Chan) samadhi. Generally speaking, it means “unchanging.” When some people cultivate, they do a lot of idle thinking. Today they practice Chan meditation, but tomorrow they hear that reciting the Buddha's name has a lot of merit and virtue, so they give up Chan and go recite the Buddha's name. Two days later they hear the merit and virtue of reciting mantras is supreme, so they stop reciting the Buddha's name and start reciting mantras instead. In general, that's how they carry on. Cultivating this Dharma-door today and that Dharma-door tomorrow, they end up achieving nothing. There are also some people who recite the Buddha's or Bodhisattva's name with the attitude of “sunning it one day and freezing it for ten.” They recite today, but quit tomorrow. This is because they have no samadhi. Samadhi is extremely important in our cultivation. If we have no samadhi, we will surely have no success in cultivation. Moreover, if we do not have sufficient samadhi and we lack a firm resolve in the Way, external temptations can easily influence us and cause us to fall.

   

其次,說到「慧」,就是智慧。世界上的人,有賢愚之分,究竟為什麼有些人聰明,而有些人卻愚癡?當然有其中的因果,凡是在過去生中修行念佛的人,今生較有智慧,反之,不曾種下善根的,智慧便遜人一籌了。

 

Next there is “wisdom.” In the world, there are wise people and stupid people. Why is it that some people are smart and some are stupid? Of course, it involves cause and effect. All those who cultivated by reciting the Buddha's name in former lives have comparatively more wisdom in this life. But those who didn't plant good roots in the past have less wisdom than most people.

   

《大學》婸﹛G

定而後能靜,
靜而後能安,
安而後能慮,
慮而後能得。

 

The Great Learning says,

When a person has concentration,
he can be still.
When he is still, he can be at peace.
When he is at peace, he can reflect.
Upon reflection,
he can obtain what he wants.

所以由「定」中,也可以產生出「慧」,若是不「定」的話,那麼雜念叢生,奔波勞碌,又怎能冷靜地判別是非、明白真理呢?

 

If you are in samadhi, you can produce wisdom. But if you are not concentrated, if you produce droves of scattered thoughts, if you are hasty and flighty, then how can you calmly distinguish right from wrong and understand the truth?

     

「戒」,是一種規律,防止我們犯罪的;在不犯罪中,我們又要修道。而修道的祕訣是「定力」。有了定力,便能產生智慧,更能進一步地了道,成佛。所以,「戒定慧」這三個字,是修行人所必須具有的條件。不持戒,就會造罪招業;缺乏定力,就會修道不成;沒有智慧,便會愚癡無知。

 

Precepts are rules which keep us from committing offenses. While refraining from committing offenses, we should also cultivate the Way, and the secret to cultivating the Way is samadhi power. Once you have samadhi power, you can develop wisdom, and if you can progress one step further, you can understand the Way and become a Buddha. That is why the three studies of precepts, samadhi, and wisdom are the essential requirements which all people who cultivate the Way should possess. If you do not hold the precepts, then you can create offenses and call forth karma. Lacking samadhi power, you will not be able to accomplish cultivation of the Way. You will not have any wisdom and will become dull-witted.

   

我勸在座各位,都能把「戒定慧」這三個字,作為修道的座右銘,常常拿來警惕自己,那麼,我相信對於修行,是會有點幫助的。

 

I exhort you all to take special note of the three studies of precepts, samadhi, and wisdom in your cultivation; always use them to alert yourself and I believe it will help you in your cultivation.

   
   

一九五八年六月十八日下午開示

 

A talk given on the afternoon of June 18, 1958

 

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

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