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宣化上人一九九三年訪臺開示
Venerable Master Hua's Talks on the Dharma in 1993 in Taiwan

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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真正科學就是佛教

TRUE SCIENCE IS JUST BUDDHISM


戒、定、慧,這是科學、哲學的一個根本。

Precepts, concentration, and wisdom are the fundamentals of science and philosophy.

各位善知識:我也沒有讀過科學,也沒有讀過哲學,所以對於這個science(科學)、philosophy(哲學),都是一個門外漢。今天你們各位要求講這個題目,這真是強人所難。雖然如此,我略說幾句,是不科、也不學、也不哲的話。

All Good and Wise Advisors: Since I never studied science or philosophy, I am an outsider to these subjects. You are really giving me a difficult task by asking me to speak on these subjects. Nevertheless, I will say a few unscientific and unphilosophical words.

什麼叫科學?什麼叫哲學?這兩個名詞都很抽象的,為什麼呢?科學是屬於慧性,哲學是屬於理性。這慧性和理性沒有一個進步,也沒有一個退步,它都是宛然存在的,在聖不增,在凡不減。

What is science? What is philosophy? These two terms are very abstract. Science deals with wisdom, and philosophy deals with reason. As for wisdom and reason, there is no progress and no retreat in them. They exist in completion, with neither more in sages, nor less in ordinary people.

什麼叫慧學?慧學就是「戒定慧」這個「慧」。你想要有真正的智慧,首先必須要有定力,才能分辨是法、非法,善法和不善法;你想要有定力,先要持戒。持什麼戒呢?這個戒,就是止惡防非的,我們「諸惡不作,眾善奉行;自淨其意,是諸佛教。」這屬於慧性。說「諸惡不作」,誰都知道,那有什麼慧性?「眾善奉行」,也誰都知道,怎麼又能講得上慧性呢?你若能「諸惡不作」,就是個戒力;你若「眾善奉行」,就是個慧力。你有戒力了,中間產生一種定力;定力可以支配這個慧力,這個慧性,智慧之性。

What is the study of wisdom? It refers to the wisdom in the threefold study of precepts, concentration, and wisdom. If you want to have real wisdom, you must first have concentration. With concentration you can distinguish true dharmas from false dharmas and good dharmas from bad dharmas. To obtain concentration, you must first observe the precepts. What are the precepts? The precepts guard against wrongdoing. We should follow the saying:

Do no evil, practice all good, and purify your own mind.
That is the teaching of the Buddhas.

This is considered wisdom. You say, "Everyone understands the principle of doing no evil. How can that be wisdom?" "Anyone can understand the principle of practicing only good. How is that wisdom?" If you can do no evil, then you have the power of the precepts. If you practice only good, then you have the power of wisdom. Once you have the power of precepts, the power of samadhi arises. The power of concentration can regulate the power of wisdom, the nature of the wisdom.

談起這個科學,我是門外漢,可是我說幾句行家話。科學,是無窮無盡的。五百年以前,人家就懂得科學。在中國來說,三千年以前已經有人懂得科學。軒轅黃帝發明指南車,這是在四、五千年以前就發明了;直至今日,東、西方還是根據指南針來判定方向,這都是一種科學的產品。中國的科學,在周朝以前,很早已經有火炮、火藥;可是那時候,不用它來打仗、作戰,用它來鳴炮舉聲,這表示事情的隆重。那時候中國就有科學的發展,乃至於墨子那時候,就發明飛機,但它的名詞不叫飛機,叫飛雁。

I am an outsider to science, but I will say a few "professional" words. Science is limitless and inexhaustible. Five hundred years ago, people already understood science. Over three thousand years ago, there were already people in China who understood science. Xuan Yan, the Yellow Emperor, invented the compass four or five thousand years ago, and it is still being used today to tell direction in both the East and the West. Such things are the products of science. Very early on in Chinese science, before the Zhou Dynasty, they had cannons and gunpowder, but they didn't use them in warfare. They would just set off the cannons a few times to celebrate important occasions. Science was already developing in China then, and by the time of Mocius, the plane was already invented. Instead of calling it a plane ["flying machine" in Chinese], they called it a "flying goose."

可是中國人做事,好讀書不求甚解,發明了一種東西,他不向深了去研究,所以日久又都忘了,這在歷史上可考據的。漢朝諸葛亮造「木牛流馬」,也不吃草,也不吃料,也不睡覺,就能運輸糧草給軍人用。到現在嘛,把這個方法也都失去了。這都是屬於科學。

Although the Chinese people like to study, they do not try to deepen their understanding. They invent something, but do not investigate it deeply, so after a long time, it is forgotten. There is historical evidence for this. During the Minor Han Dynasty of the Three Kingdoms Period, Zhuge Liang [a brilliant military strategist] built wooden horses and oxen that could transport food and supplies for the army without needing to eat hay or grain or to sleep. Although that technology has now been lost, it was also a scientific development.

這科學,五百年以前的科學研究,說科學是這個樣子;等到五百年以後,又變了樣子,以前所發明的又都沒有用了,所以這個道理是無窮無盡的。說科學有進步,它不是進步的時候,人才知道;就不進步的時候,它也存在的,就是因為我們人智慧、智力達不到這種境界,所以不知道這科學。

In speaking of science, we must realize that the scientific research of five hundred years ago defined science a certain way, but that definition has changed after five hundred years. What was considered a scientific invention in the past is no longer used now. So the principles are endless and inexhaustible, and when we say there is progress, it does not mean that we invent something new. Even when there is no progress, the principle is always there. It is just that our wisdom and intelligence may not have reached that kind of state, and so we are unaware of that kind of science.

電腦,這也是屬於一種科學的結晶,可是我們人現在迷到電腦上了,用電腦來賺錢。若懂得電腦了,就能賺不少錢;不懂得電腦,就要失業了。我在十多年以前就對人講過,我說這個電腦不如神腦。神腦不是用電來支配,是用自己的智慧來駕御它。你有智慧了,什麼問題都迎刃而解,能當機立斷;沒有智慧,愚癡的人,學的東西不會很圓滿。所以這個神腦,我們每一個人都有,不用錢去買,你把神腦若會用了,那又超過那個電腦了。可是現在一般人研究的科學,也不知道有個神腦。這個神腦是自性具足的,不需要到外邊找。

Computers are also a result of science, but nowadays everyone is infatuated with computers, and many are using them to make money. If you understand computers, you can make a lot of money, but if you don't, you might lose your job. Over ten years ago, I said that the computer ["electronic brain" in Chinese] cannot beat the "spiritual brain" which runs not on electricity, but on our own wisdom. If you have wisdom, then you can resolve any problem right away. Fools who lack wisdom cannot learn anything well. Each one of us has a spiritual brain. We don't need to go out and buy one. If we know how to use our spiritual brain, then it can surpass the electronic brain--the computer. However, those who study science today don't know about the spiritual brain, which is inherent in their own nature and need not be sought outside.

這個哲學也是一種理性,講這個道理,合乎邏輯、不合乎邏輯?這兩種的學問,有的研究來、研究去,愈研究愈迷糊,研究到老死,也沒研究出個所以然;等到再世為人,把所研究的又都忘了,又是要重頭練過。所以說科學、哲學它是宛然存在的,並沒有什麼進步和退步。退步、進步,這都是我們人心在那兒分別。我在各位科學家面前講的話,你們聽得出一定是個外行所講的。

Philosophy deals with reason, with the study of what is logical and what is not. The more people study this kind of knowledge, the more muddled they become, until they grow old and die without having reached any conclusion in their studies. When they are reborn as people in their next life, they will have forgotten everything they studied previously and will have to start all over again. Science and philosophy exist by themselves, and there is no such thing as their progress or decline. Progress and decline are just discriminations that we make. As all of you scientists can tell, I am just speaking the words of an outsider.

真正科學是什麼呢?不爭是科學,不貪是科學,無所求是科學,不自私那是真科學,不自利那也是真正哲學,再不打妄語。若有這六種毛病,不管研究什麼,研究來、研究去,都是在皮毛上打轉轉,愈研究愈迷惑,沒有一個頭緒,所謂循環無端,無窮無盡的。那麼與其無窮無盡,我們何不返本還原,把我們這個神腦修理好了。這時候,不動而知天下,無所不知,無所不明,這所謂「而一旦豁然貫通焉,則眾物之表媞貒妗L不到,而吾心之全體大用,無不明矣!」你真能修習定力、修習戒力、修習慧力,戒、定、慧,這是科學、哲學的一個根本。可是我們人在這個地方恐怕都忽略了,沒注意這個。沒有注意這個,所以就像在那個輪子娷鉰鄏的,轉來轉去,找不著出頭的地方。

What is true science? Not fighting is science; not being greedy is science; seeking nothing is science; being unselfish is true science; not pursuing personal profit is true philosophy, and so is not lying. If you have these six faults, then no matter how much research you do, you are just circling around on the surface. The more you study, the more muddled you get, and you will never get a handle on it. It never ends, but just goes on and on. Wouldn't it be better for us to return to the source and improve our spiritual brains? Then, without making a move, we would understand the universe. Nothing would be beyond our knowledge. As it is said, "one suddenly penetrates everything and understands all the inner, outer, coarse, and fine aspects of the myriad phenomena, as well as the overall great functioning of one's mind." If you can truly cultivate precepts, concentration, and wisdom, they are the fundamentals of science and philosophy. I'm afraid we have neglected them and paid no attention to them. We are just spinning in circles, round and round, unable to find a way out.

我們要研究科學、哲學,首先一定把這個本身的科學、哲學,研究徹底明白了。你自己本身的問題,還沒明白,就只是到外面去找。研究、研究,用多少錢來研究,研究來研究去,也是沒有什麼成就。因為你捨本逐末,沒能在心地法門上用功夫。你向外馳求,到外邊去找去,外邊找來的都不是的。

In studying science and philosophy, we should first thoroughly investigate the science and philosophy of our own selves. If you study what is outside, without first understanding your own problems, then no matter how much money and effort you expend in your research, it will come to nothing. This is because you are abandoning the root to pursue the branch tips. You are looking outside instead of applying effort internally, in the mind. If you search for and study the Dharma external to your mind, what you find will not be the real thing.

我說的話一定很多人不願意聽的,說:「你講來講去,真是荒唐透頂!我從來就沒有聽過人家講科學、哲學,說要由戒定慧上著手。戒定慧那是你們和尚的事情,與我們科學、哲學有什麼關係?」你因為沒找到根本,就認為這是和尚的事。和尚根本也是個人,他是由人而做和尚的,我們大家不要忘了,「人同此心,心同此理」,不要認為這有什麼了不起。

I am sure some people are objecting, "What you are saying is totally absurd. We've never heard anyone say that science and philosophy should be based on precepts, concentration, and wisdom. Precepts, concentration, and wisdom are the business of monks--what do they have to do with science and philosophy?" It is just because you haven't found the root that you think they are the business of monks. Actually, monks are just people, and it is people who become monks. It is said, "People's minds are all the same, and all minds follow the same principle." You shouldn't think what I said is a big deal.

真正的科學就是佛教,佛教包羅萬有,再沒有什麼學問超過佛教了。所以你若想廣博多聞,要先來研究佛法;你把佛法了解了,研究科學也容易,研究哲學也容易,因為你開大智慧了,一切問題都迎刃而解。

The true science is just Buddhism. Buddhism encompasses the myriad things, and there is no field of study which goes beyond Buddhism. Therefore, if you want to study extensively, you should first investigate the Buddhadharma. Once you understand the Buddhadharma, it will be easy to study science and philosophy, because you will have great wisdom, and all problems will be solved as soon as they arise.

我說的,如果有點道理嘛,你們各位就不妨試一試;若沒有道理呢,就算我浪費你們每一個人的時間,你把它忘了!

If what I have said makes sense, you can try it out. If it doesn't make sense, then I have wasted everyone's time, and you should forget it.

問:如何學佛無障礙?

Q: How can we study and practice Buddhism without obstructions?

答:師父給你的障礙嗎?學佛一樣有障礙,就看你有沒有定力。你若有定力、有慧力,遇到什麼事情都可以迎刃而解,不被這個障礙所障;你若很愚癡的,蚊子咬一口,也是障礙:這個蒼蠅踢一腳,也是障礙。這類障礙是沒有完的時候,你自尋苦惱,自己給自己麻煩,找障礙。

A: Is your teacher obstructing you? Even in the cultivation of Buddhism, you are bound to encounter obstructions. It all depends on whether or not you have concentration. If you have concentration and wisdom, you will be able to deal effectively with every situation, and not be obstructed by it. If you are very stupid, and you feel obstructed when a mosquito bites you or a fly kicks you, then there will be no end to your obstructions. You bring suffering and vexation upon yourself. You're just asking for trouble and obstructions.

問:請問三世因果中,未來世受業報的我,與今世造業的我,是否相同?

Q: In cause and effect, which spans the past, present, and future, is the "I" who will receive the retribution in the future the same as the "I" who is creating karma in this life?

答:你「要知前世因,今生受者是」,你今生所遭受的,都是前世你造成的。「要知來世果,今生做者是」,你想知道來世有什麼結果,看你今生做一些個什麼業障。譬如你盡殺生,來生就得短命報;你盡偷盜,來生你就遭人家打劫報。

A: If you want to know the causes you planted in past lives, just look at what kind of retribution you are receiving in this life. Your present retribution is based on your past causes. If you want to know the retribution you will receive in the future, just look at what you are doing in this life. How your future turns out depends upon the karma you create in the present. For example, if you do a lot of killing, then you will have the retribution of a short life in your next life. If you do a lot of stealing, then you will be robbed by others in your next life.

問:學生最喜歡看師父的書,但有一個重要問題,想請教師父,師父提到〈楞嚴咒〉有兩句話可以開智慧,不知道可不可以告訴我們是哪兩句?謝謝師父慈悲開示,南無大慈大悲觀世音菩薩!

Q: I'm a student, and I love to read the Venerable Master's books. I have an important question. The Master has mentioned that there are two lines in the Shurangama Mantra that can bring forth our wisdom. Could the Venerable Master tell us what those two lines are? Thank you for your compassionate instruction. Homage to Greatly Kind and Compassionate Guanshiyin Bodhisattva.

答:我聽到了。這兩句我可以告訴你們,信不信呢?我不能告訴你們。你們信不信我會告訴你們?你們會不會念?你要先向我說一說。我告訴你們,你們又把它忘了,也不念,過了一個時期,說:「告訴我那兩句,到現在我也沒開智慧。」為什麼你沒開智慧?你沒有念,你怎麼開智慧?所以你想要學,一定要念,念茲在茲的,甚至於你不吃飯可以,不念這個咒不可以;不穿衣服可以,不念這個咒不可以;不睡覺可以,不念這個咒不可以。你若有這樣的決心,那一定開智慧的;你沒有這個決心,想要投機取巧,叫我教你,你以為就得了寶了,結果是什麼也沒有。你們誰若相信,不妨就試一試,你若不念,那你沒開智慧,不要怪我。

A: Yes, I can tell you, but will you recite them? First tell me that. Suppose I tell you, and you forget it and don't recite it. After a while, you complain, "You told us those two lines, but my wisdom still hasn't come forth." Why hasn't your wisdom come forth? Well, you didn't recite them, so how could your wisdom come forth? Therefore, if you want to learn them, you have to be mindful of them at all times. You have to think, "I can go without eating, I can go without wearing clothes, and I can go without sleeping, but I can't go without reciting this mantra." If you have that kind of resolve, your wisdom will certainly come forth. If you don't have that kind of resolve and are just looking for a quick "fix," thinking that you'll obtain a treasure if I tell you the mantra, then you'll end up with nothing. If you believe it, you can try it out. But if you don't recite it, don't blame me if your wisdom doesn't come forth.

問:這兩句是什麼意思?

Q: What do these two phrases mean?

答:你若想知道意思,就不會開智慧了!

A: If you want to know the meaning, you won't bring forth wisdom.

問:這也許是一個梵文,請上人告訴我們這是什麼意思?

Q: These are Sanskrit words. Could the Venerable Master please tell us what they mean?

答:我可以把它來解釋一下。這兩句就是「要求諸佛菩薩令我開智慧,開真正的智慧,不是世間智,會認識一切的法、非法,有擇法眼。」這個咒語是釋迦牟尼佛無見頂相所說的,所以每一句都是靈文,都是真言妙語。

A: I can explain a bit. These two phrases request the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas to bring forth our wisdom, that is, our true wisdom, not worldly wisdom. It refers to the Dharma-Selecting Vision that can distinguish true Dharma from false Dharma. These mantric syllables are spoken by the invisible transformation Buddha atop Shakyamuni Buddha's crown. Each of these mantric syllables are divine, true, wonderful words.

這個「咒」的意思,又叫「真言」,又叫「靈文」。怎麼叫真言呢?這堣@點假的也不摻雜。怎麼叫靈文呢?這個咒是梵天的,是釋迦牟尼佛用它來救阿難所說的咒,所以一般人都不會用。我再告訴你們一句,我從小到處降妖捉怪,能變化人形的妖魔鬼怪,我遇到很多,大略也有一百多,他們到處害人,我就用這個〈楞嚴咒〉來降伏牠們。結果這個妖魔鬼怪都想和我決一死戰,所以麻煩就來了,惹出很多麻煩來。因為這個,所以年紀老了,可能是老奸巨滑了,就再不和牠們鬥了。

This mantra is also called "true words" and "divine text." It is called "true words" because it does not contain the slightest trace of falseness. It is called "divine text" because it is from the Brahma Heaven and was spoken by Shakyamuni Buddha to rescue Ananda. But ordinary people do not know how to use it. I will tell you that since I was little, I went around defeating and catching monsters and goblins. I've encountered probably over a hundred demonic beings who can take on human form. They were harming a lot of people everywhere, so I used the Shurangama Mantra to subdue them. As a consequence, all the demons wanted to fight me to the death, and that was when the trouble came. Now, because I'm getting on in years--perhaps I'm getting to be an old rogue--I've quit fighting them.

因為「爭是勝負心,與道相違背;便生四相心,由何得三昧?」三昧,就是正定、正受。你和人家去一爭,就爭勝負了,或者你勝我輸,我勝你輸,這爭是勝負心。「與道相違背」,這和修道是相違背的。「便生四相心」,就有我相、人相、眾生相、壽者相。有這四相一現前,你怎麼會有定力?怎麼會有正定正受?所以我們什麼事情,不要用暴力來解決問題,要和平解決問題,不要上下交征利,要大家和氣慈祥。這個國家若都和和氣氣的,這國家一定昌盛;你們大家一天到晚打架,你爭我奪的,你打我罵的,這樣子這是一個不祥的預兆,所以我希望臺灣各位聰明人,不要盡做一些個糊塗事。

Fighting involves the thought of victory and defeat,
And goes in opposition to the Way.
When the four marks arise in the mind,
How can we obtain samadhi?

Samadhi refers to proper concentration. As soon as you fight with others, there will be victory and defeat. Either you win and I lose, or I win and you lose. So fighting involves the thought of victory and defeat. That contradicts the cultivation of the Way. When the four marks (the mark of a self, the mark of others, the mark of living beings, and the mark of a life span) arise, how can you obtain samadhi? How can you have proper concentration? Therefore, we should not solve problems by force. We should use a peaceful method. We should not fight with each other for the sake of gain. Everyone should be kind and courteous. If the country is in harmony, it will certainly prosper. If people fight, rob and scold one another all the time, that is really an inauspicious sign. Therefore, I hope all the intelligent people of Taiwan will stop doing muddled things.

問:國家目前亂象太多,今後國運如何?

Q: There are many signs of chaos in this country. What is the destiny of this country?

答:這不要問我,你們誰都應該知道的,不必明知故問。

A: Don't ask me about this. All of you should know. Don't ask what you already know.

「國之將興,必有禎祥;國之將亡,必有妖孽。現乎蓍龜,動乎四體;禍福必先知之,善必先知之,不善必先知之。」

There is a saying:

If the country is about to prosper,
There will be auspicious omens.
If the country is about to perish,
There will be evil portents.
The oracles will manifest signs,
And the people's actions will be affected.
Thus, calamities and blessings can be known in advance.
Good things can be known in advance;
Bad things can also be known advance.

那個商湯王他自己向上帝來告罪,說:「曰予小子履」,說我這個小子叫湯履,「敢用玄牡」,用一個黑牛,「敢昭告於皇皇后帝,……朕躬有罪,無以萬方;萬方有罪,罪在朕躬。」他說我一個人有罪,你不要給加到我老百姓身上;如果老百姓有罪,都是因為我沒教化好他們,你把他們的罪業都加到我身上,我一個人承受。古聖明王都是這樣來勇於改過,勇於認錯,納諫如流,這才是真正人民的一個榜樣、領導者。

King Tang of the Shang Dynasty appealed to the Lord of Heaven, saying, "I, this little boy, Tang L?, offer up a black cow and address Lord Heaven and Lord Earth. If I have offenses, do not punish the people. If the people have offenses, it is because I have not taught them well, and you should punish me for their offenses. I alone should take the blame." The renowned sage-kings of ancient times courageously reformed themselves, confessed their mistakes, and accepted criticism with grace. They are truly good models and leaders.

那我們就這樣了,See you next time(下次再見)。現在和你們各位問午安 Good afternoon!

That's it for today. See you next time. Good afternoon!

一九九三年一月十日
開示於臺灣臺北工業技術學院

A talk by the Venerable Master Hua on January 10,1993,
at the Taiwan Institute of Industrial Technology

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法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

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