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弟子規淺釋
Standards for Students

孫果秀註釋 Explained by Jennifer Lin

目錄

第五章﹕信

Chapter Five: LEARNING TO BE TRUSTWORTHY

凡出言,信為先,詐與妄,奚可焉。
話說多,不如少,惟其是,勿佞巧。
苛薄語,穢污詞,市井氣,切戒之。
見未真,勿輕言,知未的,勿輕傳。
事非宜,勿輕諾,苟輕諾,進退錯。
見人善,即思齊,縱去遠,以漸躋。
見人惡,即內省,有則改,無加警。
凡道字,重且舒,勿急疾,勿模糊。
彼說長,此說短,不關己,莫閒管。
惟德學,惟才藝,不如人,常自勵。
若衣服,若飲食,不如人,勿生慼。
聞過怒,聞譽喜,損友來,益友卻。
聞譽恐,聞過欣,直諒士,漸相親。
無心非,名為錯,有心非,名為惡。
過能改,歸於無,倘掩飾,增一辜。

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wu

xin

fei

ming

wei

cuo

不存

心地

做錯

稱呼

錯誤

not on purpose

to do things wrong

 

to be called

as

mistake

不小心做錯了事,叫做過失。
When an error is not made on purpose, it is simply called a mistake.

you

xin

fei

 

ming

wei

e

故意

做錯

 

 稱、叫

罪惡

on purpose

to do things

 

to be called

as

evil

故意做錯事情,就叫做罪惡。
To deliberately do something wrong is not just a mistake, but an evil.

guo

neng

gai

 

gui

yu

wu

過錯

能夠

改正

 

沒有

to do things wrong

can

to reform to change

 

goes back

to

nothing

犯了過錯而能改正,對我們的人格終歸無損。
If we can reform our offenses, our offenses will all disappear.

tang

yan

shi

zeng

yi

gu

如果

掩蓋

文飾

 增加

一個

if

to cover up

to hide and gloss over

 

to increase

one

offense

倘若再加以掩飾覆藏,那就是一錯再錯,罪加一等。
But trying to cover them up will make our offenses much worse.

我們常連著說「過錯」或「罪惡」,其實「過」、「惡」與「罪」三者統而言之,雖然都是犯了錯,但錯得不一樣。怎麼的不一樣法呢?其不同在「用心」。無心造成的過錯,只有造錯的業,而無犯戒的惡;有心造出的過錯,既有造惡的業,亦有犯戒的罪;而不管起初犯錯是無心或有心,錯了怕人知道,因此一而再,再而三地企圖掩飾,把心都染污了,這就罪上加罪,罪不可赦,終難逃惡報。只因為「初發心」的些微之差,就演變成非常不同之結果,正是「失之毫釐,謬以千里」,怎麼可以不戒懼謹慎呢?

 

We often talk about mistakes, evil, and offenses in the same breath. But actually, although they all refer to wrongdoings, they are not the same. In what way are they different? In the underlying mental state. When one unintentionally does something wrong, one creates wrong karma, but is without the evil of breaking precepts. When one deliberately does something wrong, one not only creates evil karma, but has the offense of breaking precepts. And regardless of whether or not one's wrongdoing was intentional or not, if one is afraid of people finding out, then one will cover it up again and again, defiling one's mind and adding to one's offenses until they become unpardonable and there is no way to avoid one's evil retribution. Such subtle differences in one's initial thought can lead to such widely different results. It is truly a case of, "Off by a hairsbreadth in the beginning, one misses by a thousand miles in the end." How can we not be careful?

有一位心理學老師上課時,拿了一張白紙,在上面點了個黑點,然後問學生﹕「這是什麼?」學生毫不遲疑,異口同聲回答﹕「一個黑點!」老師就問﹕「這明明是一張白紙,你們為什麼都說是一個黑點呢?」學生都張口結舌,答不上來。老師就說﹕「這張白紙,好比是我們本來清淨的自性,黑點,就是我們所犯的過錯,當我們犯了過錯,別人一眼就看得出來;就好像你們只注意到這個黑點,而忽略了它是張白紙的本質──至少它白的部分,也仍然大過黑的。所以人是犯錯不得的!」

 

Once a psychology teacher held up before her class a sheet of blank white paper, on which she drew a black dot. Then she asked her students, "What is this?" The students replied in unison, "A black dot!" The teacher said, "This is clearly a sheet of white paper. Why does everyone say that it's a black dot?" The students were speechless and could not reply. The teacher said, "This white sheet of paper is like our own nature, which is originally pure. The black dot is like the mistakes we make. When we make a mistake, other people can tell right away, just as you only noticed this black dot. Therefore, we'd better not do things wrong." 

 

 

老師停了一停,繼續問﹕「萬一犯了過錯,怎麼辦呢?」有幾個學生回答﹕「改過!」「好!你們再看這個!」老師拿起筆,很快地在那黑點上加了幾筆,畫成一隻蜜蜂,再問﹕「這是什麼?」有的學生就說是一隻蜜蜂,有的遲疑著說﹕「是一幅畫吧?」老師就問﹕「這比原來的一張白紙好看嗎?」學生都毫不遲疑地又齊聲回答﹕「好看!」老師拿了另一張點了個黑點的白紙,用白粉塗掉,然後再剪一小塊白紙貼上,又問﹕「好看嗎?」學生都笑起來﹕「好醜怪喔!」老師便說﹕「當我們犯了錯,企圖粉飾,別人還是看得出白紙上的痕跡,只覺得更醜更作怪;可是如果從錯誤中學到教訓,而切實改過了,便是把有黑點的白紙,提昇成為一張漂亮的畫了!」

 

The teacher paused, and then continued, "If you do make a mistake, what should you do?" Several students answered, "Correct it!" "OK! Watch this!" The teacher picked up a pen and quickly added a few more strokes to the black dot, turning it into a bee. Then she asked, "What's this?" A few students said it was a bee. Others asked, "Is that a picture?' The teacher asked, "Is this prettier than the blank white pa- per?" The students replied together, "Yes!" The teacher then took another sheet of white paper that had a black dot on it, covered it with white powder, then cut out a small piece of white paper and pasted it over the area. Then she asked, "Does this look nice?" The students all laughed and said, "That's ugly!" The teacher said, "When we do something wrong and try to cover it up, other people can still see the marks on the white paper and think it's very ugly and strange. However, if you can learn from your mistakes and sincerely reform, it is like transforming the black dot on the paper into a beautiful picture." .

《孟子》上也有一段類似的描述和比方﹕「古之君子,其過也,如日月之食,民皆見之;及其更也,民皆仰之。」這堛滿u食」就是現在的「蝕」字。日蝕和月蝕,本是一種自然的天象,古時候的人卻以為是不祥的徵兆,都爭先恐後地出來看,又求神問卜的;等到日月恢復光明了,大家才鬆下一口氣,歌舞慶祝。這是用光明的日月,來比方有道德的君子,他的一言一行,都是人們所仰望的;日蝕和月蝕,比喻君子的德行有了污點。但君子並不企圖掩飾污點,只是努力改過,使自己重現光明。

 

Mencius used a similar analogy when he said, "The errors of the ancient worthies were like eclipses of the sun or moon; all the people could see them. When they corrected their faults, the entire populace looked up to them." Solar and lunar eclipses are natural phenomena. However, people in ancient times considered them bad omens and would rush to inquire about their meaning from oracles and deities. When the sun and moon regained their full radiance, everyone would sigh in relief and sing and dance in celebration. The shining sun and moon are analogies for a virtuous person whose every word and deed is admired by the people. A solar or lunar eclipse represents the staining of a worthy man's virtue. However, a worthy person would not try to cover up those stains; he would simply diligently reform so that he could be radiant again.

人們對於日月重光,只有更欣喜,更感激;對君子的改過,也是只有更仰慕,更佩服。本來嘛,「人非聖賢,孰能無過?」但我們卻不可以因循苟且,拿這兩句話當藉口;要緊的是「過則勿憚改」,不要怕改過。人為什麼怕改過?因為犯了過錯,不但英名掃地,引來別人的訕笑辱罵,就改過的過程中,也有許多身心的磨難。若能不怕這一切,努力克服自己內心的障礙,這才是大勇。所以說﹕「過而能改,善莫大焉。」若是「過而不改」呢?那可是「不祥莫大焉」了!

 

When the radiance of the sun or moon reappears, people feel only joy and gratitude. When a worthy person reforms, people only admire and look up to him more. Basically, "People are not sages; who can be without faults?" However, that doesn't mean we can use this statement as an excuse to be careless. The important thing to remember is, "If you have faults, don't be afraid to change." Why are people afraid to change their faults? Because once your mistakes are known, your reputation is ruined and people may make fun of you or scold you. The process of reforming can be full of ordeals. To not fear anything and diligently overcome the obstructions in your mind is to be truly courageous. And so it's said, "There is no greater good than being able to change your faults." What if you have faults but do not change? There is "no greater misfortune" than that!.

佛云「萬法唯心造」,若把心譬之於水,水能載舟,亦能覆舟;心能造罪,亦能滅罪。佛門的「懺悔偈」說得很切當:

 罪從心起將心懺,
 心若滅時罪亦亡。
 心亡罪滅兩俱空,
 是則名為真懺悔。

 

The Buddha said, "The ten thousand dharmas are made from the mind alone." We can compare the mind to water. Boats can travel in water, and they can also sink in water. Offenses can be created by the mind, and they can also be eradicated by the mind. A Buddhist repentance puts it aptly: 

Offenses arise from the mind and 
must be repented in the mind. 
When the mind is gone, offenses are also gone. 
With mind and offenses gone, both are empty .
That is called true repentance and reform.

 

懺悔必要改過,改過要自根本處下手,把罪福的本源──心,持正了。《大學》奡ㄗ魽u正心」的功夫﹕

 不欺暗室,不愧屋漏。

 

Repentance involves changing one's faults. Faults must be changed at their root. One must rectify the mind-the source of all offenses and blessings. The Great Learning discusses the skill of rectifying the mind: 

Do not cheat even when alone in a dark room; 
do not be ashamed of a leaking house.

 

《格言聯壁》也有一聯﹕

 青天白日之節義,
 自暗室屋漏中培來;
 旋乾轉坤之經綸,
 自臨深履薄處得力。

 

There is a proverb: 

Righteousness resembling the blue sky and white sun
is nurtured in situations like a dark room or a leaking house. 
The power to change the world comes from being 
as cautious as if one were walking on a precipice or treading on thin ice.

 

這是教人要知道「戒懼謹慎」,獨處暗室,一如在大庭廣眾間,堨~如一,毫不欺瞞造作;就是在造次慌亂之時,或顛沛流離之際,亦必如是。

 

This is telling us that we should be as cautious and scrupulous when alone in a dark room as when we are in a crowd. Our inner thoughts and outer actions should correspond, so that we are not the least bit deceptive. We must be this way even when we find ourselves in chaos or wandering without a home. 

《朱子治家格言》上亦說﹕「善欲人見,不是真善;惡恐人知,便是大惡。」我們做人若能心胸光明坦蕩,不為別人的稱譏譭譽造作,也不為自己的利衰得失逐求,自然就是個「大丈夫」,活得也才有意義。千萬不要只顧一時的輕鬆光鮮,而令自己「遺臭萬年」啊!

 

Mr. Zhu's Guidelines for Managing the Household say, "Good deeds that are done for others to see are not truly good. Evil that is done fearing others will find out is great evil." If our hearts are bright and forthright, and we do not act in ways to seek praise from others or benefit for ourselves, we will naturally be great heroes and our lives will be truly meaningful. We should never let ourselves be tempted by momentary enjoyment or fame into doing something that will bring on eternal disgrace.

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