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弟子規淺釋
Standards for Students

孫果秀註釋 Explained by Jennifer Lin

目錄

第四章﹕謹

Chapter Four: LEARNING TO BE CAREFUL

朝起早,夜眠遲,老易至,惜此時。
晨必盥,兼漱口,便溺回,輒淨手。
冠必正,紐必結,襪與履,俱緊切。
置冠服,有定位,勿亂頓,致污穢。
衣貴潔,不貴華,上循分,下稱家。
對飲食,勿揀擇,食適可,勿過則。
年方少,勿飲酒,飲酒醉,最為醜。
步從容,立端正,揖深圓,拜恭敬。
勿踐閾,勿跛倚,勿箕踞,勿搖髀。
緩揭簾,勿有聲,寬轉彎,勿觸稜。
執虛器,如執盈,入虛室,如有人。
事勿忙,忙多錯,勿畏難,勿輕略。
鬥鬧場,絕毋近,邪僻事,絕勿問。
將入門,問誰存,將上堂,聲必揚。
人問誰,對以名,吾與我,不分明。
用人物,須明求,倘不問,即為偷。
借人物,及時還,人借物,有勿慳。

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huan

jie

lian

 

wu

you

sheng

慢慢地

揭開

門簾

 

不要

發出

聲響

slowly

to lift

door curtains

do not

make

sound

開門時要動作輕緩,不要弄出很大的聲響。
When opening or closing a door, do it slowly, without making too much noise.

kuan

zhuan

wan

 

wu

chu

leng

有餘的

轉移

彎曲處

 

不要

碰到

稜角

wildly

to turn

corner

do not

to bump into

angle, edge

轉彎時要留有餘地,不要碰到任何的稜角。
When going around a corner, make a wind turn and don't bump into sharp edges.

zhi

xu

qi

 

ru

zhi

ying

空的

器皿

 

好像

滿的器皿

to carry

empty

container

as if

to carry

a full container

端著空的容器,小心地好像裝滿東西時一樣。
You should carry an empty container just as carefully as one that is full.

ru

xu

shi

 

ru

you

ren

進入

空的

房間

 

好像

 

 

to enter

empty

room

as if

have

people

進入空的房間,謹慎地就如同堶惘酗H時一般。
And enter a room that is empty, just as cautiously as one in which there are people. 

前一節提到行住坐臥四大威儀,說要「行如風」;我們把它再衍申一下,這個「行」,還不只是「行走」,應該包括一切諸如開關門戶,進出轉彎,甚至取物執事的種種行動。一個人的動作,不但反映出他的個性,也反映了他的道德和教育水準。

 

The previous section mentioned the four modes of deportment—walking, standing, sitting, and reclining--and said one should "walk like a breeze. " We can extend this a bit because the word xing (行) not only means walking, but also includes various motions such as opening and closing doors and windows, entering and exiting, turning corners, picking things up, handling things, and so forth. The way a person moves is a reflection not only of his character, but also of his ethical standards and his education.

古時候,進出之處如無門戶,至少會有簾子來分隔內外。簾子的質地種類不一,或者布簾,或者紗簾、竹簾,又或者珠簾、水晶簾、翡翠簾等。總之,都不如木門、鐵門來得堅實。如果粗粗魯魯地一掀一甩,可能不小心波及站在簾邊的人或動物,或驚擾到室內的人,簾子也容易脫落破壞。掀簾、放簾的動作輕緩,不但不會讓聲響干擾他人,也可延長簾子的使用壽命。

 

In ancient times, in entrances where there were no doors, there would be a curtain to separate the inside from the outside. The curtains were made of various materials, such; as cloth, gauze, bamboo, beads, crystal, and jade. In general, they were not as hard and solid as wooden doors or iron gates. If you roughly whisk the curtain aside, you might disturb the people or animals on the other side or startle those inside the room. The curtain will also fall apart more easily. If you lift the curtain and let it down slowly and gently, you won't make any sound that would disturb other people, and the curtain will also last longer. 

現代人已少有使用門簾的了,但各種質地的門戶雖然較為堅實,相對的,其撞擊所發出的音響和反震力也更大,造成的損傷也更嚴重。因此,開關的動作更要輕緩,以免釀成意外,製造噪音,耗損門戶。

 

Nowadays door curtains are seldom used, and doors made of various materials are more solid. However, the noise is also louder when you knock against them, and the injury is more serious. For those reasons, we should open and close them gently and slowly to avoid causing accidents, making a lot of noise, and damaging the doors. 

 

手輕輕扶著把手來開關門的,是謹慎而負責的人;用力推門就走,任由門在身後自動合上而發出巨響的,是膽識有餘,不計後果的人,但也往往是不負責任或不太考慮別人感覺的人;握緊把手,慢慢推開門,然後緊緊關上門的,是認真負責,但有時不免畏怯或神經質的人;開門時用力扭轉把手,卻會忘了關門的,是有心負責,卻無力收拾殘局的人。從人開關門戶的動作,真的可以觀察一個人的個性和品行,從而衡量出他將來的成就。

 

One who gently grasps the doorknob to open and close the door is a careful and responsible person. One who barges through a door and lets it slam shut by itself is someone who has plenty of daring and knowledge, but who doesn't consider the consequences of his actions. Or he might be an irresponsible individual or a person who isn't very considerate of others' feelings. Someone who grasps the doorknob tightly, very slowly opens the door, and then closes it tightly behind him is a diligent and responsible person who is sometimes a bit timid or nervous. Someone who forcefully turns the doorknob to open the door, but then forgets to close it, is one who has good intentions but isn't able to finish the jobs he starts. From the way a person opens a door, you can tell what his character and personality are like and judge what his future accomplishments might be. 

 

同樣地,在穿越堂屋或轉彎時,不是撞倒這,就是碰翻那,甚至弄傷了自己,總見出這個人莽撞不慎重的個性;而小心翼翼地緊貼著桌椅牆壁走,沒給自己留個空間,又顯得這個人過分的拘執。動作上的「寬」、「緩」,和前一節所強調的「深」、「圓」,正是展現君子自然自在,不卑不亢的瀟灑風度。

 

Similarly, if a person habitually bumps into things, knocks things over, or even hurts himself when he walks through a room or turns a corner, it reveals a rash and incautious personality .If someone carefully walks along the edges of the tables, chairs, and walls without leaving much room for himself, this shows that he is a little too uptight. The qualities of one's movements being slow and spacious, like the qualities of being deep and full mentioned in the previous section, illustrate the natural ease and carefree air of a great person who is neither arrogant nor self-demeaning.

當我們執持器物時,不管東西的盈虛輕重,總以兩手端捧在胸前為佳;這樣,不但是一種禮貌,還能培養好「慎始慎終」的習慣,更可以訓練出目不斜視,專心一意的態度。至於進入空屋或獨處虛室之時,還能如同有他人在側,沒有一絲一毫的隨便和放逸,這更是自我淬鍊之所在。古聖人十分強調「誠意正心」的內修工夫,認為應該從「慎獨」著手,曾子說一個人即使是獨處時,也應該嚴謹自持,就像有「十目所視,十手所指」一樣;這是描述君子秉心正氣,端正不阿的獨特品格。

 

When we carry a container, regardless of whether it is empty or full, light or heavy, the best way is to hold it with both hands in front of our chest. This is the respectful way, and it also trains us to be careful from beginning to end and to focus our attention and not be glancing here and there. When we go into an empty room or stay alone in one, we should act the same as when there are people around; we shouldn't be the least bit casual or lax; this is the essence of self-cultivation. The ancient sages put great emphasis on the inner cultivation of "making the will sincere and the mind proper," which they thought should begin with being cautious when one is alone. Zeng Zi [a disciple of Confucius] said that when a person is alone, he should act as prudently as if there were ten eyes watching him and ten hands pointing at him. This describes the unique character of a superior person who maintains right thoughts and is proper at all times.

君子為什麼能做到這樣呢?因為他沒有妄起我法二執;我法二執,就是眾惡的根本。那我法二執又是什麼?說穿了,其實就是意念不誠而已;意念不誠,也就是有個自私心和名利心。人如沒有自私心,哪媟|產生我執?若沒有名利心,更有何法執可言?就因為生出這二種根本的執著,於是乎各種勾心鬥角的是非爭端都跟著衍發了!所以才說,我法二執是眾惡的根本。

 

Why is a superior person able to be like this? Because he doesn't have the two attachments to self and dharmas. The attachments to self and dharn1as are the root of all evil. What are these two attachments? Actually, they are just a result of a lack of sincerity .When one is insincere, one is selfish and seeks after fame and profit. If a person is unselfish, how could he have the attachment to self? If he doesn't seek fame and profit, what attachment to dharmas could there be? Because of these two fundamental attachments, all manner of fighting, scheming, gossip, and arguments arise. That's why these two attachments to self and dharmas are the source of all evil. 

 

一個人的意念誠不誠,往往流露於舉手投足之際。在人前,他或者警覺性高,還會加以掩飾;獨處時,就難免鬆懈而漏了底,明眼人當然看得出來。所以《大學》上才說﹕「誠於中,形於外,故君子必慎其獨也。」

 

The degree of a person's sincerity can be seen in his ordinary gestures. In front of others, he may be very alert and cover up his true thoughts, but when alone he is likely to relax and let his real self show through. Of course an intelligent person can see through his phoniness. Thus the Great Learning says, "When there is sincerity within, it manifests in one's external appearance; hence the superior person must be cautious when he is alone."

那麼,君子又為什麼要做到這樣呢?《大學》上說﹕「富潤屋,德潤身,心廣體胖。」想想看﹕人生在世,富貴壽考,都只如海上浮漚,長久幾何?不少生前金玉滿堂,卻諸善莫作,眾惡奉行的人,死後不但遺臭萬年,甚至痛失人身,永劫沉淪地獄、餓鬼、畜生三惡道;反之,以道德嚴身,諸惡莫作,眾善奉行者,生前是坦坦蕩蕩,身後也流芳百世,更有超昇三界、永享極樂的。各位都是聰明的,與其享一時之樂,而身後累世挨罵受苦,何不趁此生嚴持戒律,早修無上道呢?

 

Why does the superior person want to be like this? The Great Learning says, "Riches enhance the household, while virtue enhances one's self, so that one has a broad mind and a healthy body." Think about it: All the riches, honor, and longevity that we enjoy in this world are like mere bubbles in the sea--how long do they last? There are many people who are incredibly rich, but who do no good deeds whatsoever and only indulge in all manner of evil. After they die, not only does their notoriety live on, but they may lose their human body and fall into the three evil paths of the hells, hungry ghosts, and animals forever. Conversely, those who conduct themselves ethically, avoiding all evil and practicing many good deeds, enjoy a smooth and carefree life, leave behind a good name, and are able to transcend the Triple Realm and enjoy eternal happiness. All of you are intelligent people. Compared to the prospect of enjoying momentary pleasure and then enduring scoldings and sufferings for many lifetimes afterwards, wouldn't it be better to seriously uphold the precepts in this very life and quickly cultivate the unsurpassed Path?

明朝的大將軍戚繼光還沒做官時,跟一位朋友進京應試。到了京城,肚子餓了,兩人就在路邊攤子吃飯。吃完,賣飯的不小心,一個銅錢滾落到地上;那位朋友趕緊用腳把銅錢踩住,等賣飯的不注意時,再把錢撿起。他自以為神不知鬼不覺,沒想到被一位散步的過路人瞧見了,而那人正是此次考試的監考官。到了考試那天,那位朋友交卷時,監考官就把他的名字暗地記下;結果戚繼光考取,他卻落了榜。按理,他的文章比戚繼光好,應該考取;可是那位監考官卻說﹕「賣飯的一個銅錢他都想要,如果讓他作了官,他還能不貪污嗎?」由此看來,人怎能不誠乎其中,而慎乎其獨呢?

 

In the Ming Dynasty, there was a great general named Jiguang Qi. Before he became an official, he went with a friend to the capital to take the civil examination. When they reached the capital they felt rather hungry, so they stopped by a roadside stand to get something to eat. After they had finished their meal, the food vendor accidentally dropped a coin on the ground. Qi' s friend quickly stepped on the coin and then picked it up when the vendor wasn't looking. He thought no one, not even the ghosts, would know what he'd done, but actually his act had been observed by a passerby who happened to be the examination proctor. On the day of the examination, when Qi's friend handed in his paper, the proctor silently noted his name. Later it turned out that Jiguang Qi passed the exam, while his friend did not. Actually, Qi' s friend should have passed, for his essay was better than Jiguang Qi's. But the proctor had said, "He even wanted that food vendor's one little coin. If we allow him to become an official, how could he not be corrupt'?" Hearing this story, how can we not maintain an inner attitude of sincerity and not be cautious whenever we are alone?

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