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弟子規淺釋
Standards for Students

孫果秀註釋 Explained by Jennifer Lin

目錄

第四章﹕謹

Chapter Four: LEARNING TO BE CAREFUL

朝起早,夜眠遲,老易至,惜此時。
晨必盥,兼漱口,便溺回,輒淨手。
冠必正,紐必結,襪與履,俱緊切。
置冠服,有定位,勿亂頓,致污穢。
衣貴潔,不貴華,上循分,下稱家。
對飲食,勿揀擇,食適可,勿過則。
年方少,勿飲酒,飲酒醉,最為醜。
步從容,立端正,揖深圓,拜恭敬。
勿踐閾,勿跛倚,勿箕踞,勿搖髀。
緩揭簾,勿有聲,寬轉彎,勿觸稜。
執虛器,如執盈,入虛室,如有人。
事勿忙,忙多錯,勿畏難,勿輕略。
鬥鬧場,絕毋近,邪僻事,絕勿問。
將入門,問誰存,將上堂,聲必揚。
人問誰,對以名,吾與我,不分明。
用人物,須明求,倘不問,即為偷。
借人物,及時還,人借物,有勿慳。

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zhi

guan

fu

 

you

ding

wei

置放

帽子

衣服

 

 

固定的

位子

to place

hat

clothes

have

fixed

place

擺放帽子和衣服,都要有一定的地方。
Our hats and all others should be put in their own places.

wu

luan

dun

 

zhi

wu

hui

不要

隨便地

擺放

 

招致、弄

髒的

醜惡的

do not

sloppily

to lay

to cause

to get dirty

to get soiled

不要隨便亂放,以致於弄得又縐又髒。
They should not be left lying around, they are sure to get wrinkled and soiled. 

yi

gui

jie

 

bu

gui

hua

衣服

注重

整潔的

 

 

注重

華麗的

clothes

to emphasize

clean

not

to emphasize

splendor

衣著注重整潔,而不講究華麗。
We should always make sure our clothing is neat, but not care too much about fashion

shang

xun

fen

 

xia

cheng

jia

往上來說

依照

身分

 

往下來說

配合,衡量

家境

above (first)

to accord with

one's status or position

below (next)

to suit, to match

the financial condition of a family

首先要符合自己的身分,其次要衡量自己的家境。
What we wear should reflect common sense and not go beyond our budget.

這一章講衣著方面要注意的事情。首先還是強調衣物的擺放要整潔有序,不要隨隨便便,邋邋遢遢的。在有限的存放空間堙A我們如何把四季應用的衣物擺放整齊,而又方便取用,這是一門書本上都學不到的經濟學。

 

This section discusses the points we need to pay attention to with regard to clothing. First of all, it emphasizes that we should put our clothes away in a neat and orderly fashion, and not be sloppy or messy. Making the most efficient use of limited closet space to organize clothing for the four seasons neatly and yet allowing clothes to be taken out conveniently, is a lesson in economics that isn't found in any book. 

 

你或者會說﹕「為什麼我們談著道德的培養,卻又牽扯上經濟學呢?」好似注重道德的人,不應該講究經濟,太世俗了!這你就錯了。真正有道者,是珍惜人力物命,十分注重經濟效益的。我們如果能這樣做,一則已延續了衣物的使用壽命;二則可提昇衣物的外觀價值;三則又絕對會節省下每日的更衣時間;這不就是經濟學所強調的經濟效益嗎?那麼一個懂得生活品質的有道之士,又怎能忽略這種經濟效益呢?

 

"We're supposed to be talking about cultivation of virtue; what does that have to do with economics?" you might ask, thinking that people who value virtue aren't supposed to be concerned with such a worldly matter as economics! You're wrong on that one. People who truly understand the Way will cherish people's energy and want objects to last long; they are very concerned with economics. If we can practice in this way, then first of all our clothes will last longer, second of all we will look more well-dressed, and thirdly, we will lessen the time it takes to change clothes. Isn't that the "economic value "that economists are always stressing? How could a person of integrity who appreciates the quality of life disregard economic value in this sense? 

 

有道者,大都有節儉的美德。很多人就又產生一種錯誤的觀念,就把他們的形象局限在衣衫襤褸,不修邊幅,甚至是赤膊跣足,蓬頭垢面可也;這更是大錯特錯了!賢者也有貧富貴賤不同的命運,但是真正到了證聖地步的大聖人,即使再顯貴,也不會驕奢浪費,開了冷氣穿貂皮大衣;再清寒,也不會縐衣髒帽上殿堂。他們一衣一履,都切合自己的身份,也配合場合來穿著,因為這是禮儀,也是戒律。

 

Since people of moral caliber are usually thrifty, they are often misportrayed as being disheveled and sloppy, and even going around barefoot, with mussed up hair and grimy faces. This is an inaccurate picture. Virtuous people may be rich or poor, noble or common, but if they have reached sage hood, then no matter how rich or noble they may be, they would never be so extravagant and wasteful as to turn on the air-conditioning and wear a fur coat; no matter how destitute they are, they would never go to a formal place with messy clothes or a dirty hat. They always dress fittingly for their own position and for the situation or place they are in; that is the observance of etiquette and precepts.

所謂「貧家淨掃地,貧女淨梳頭;景色雖不豔麗,氣度自然可觀。」這才叫窮得瀟灑!諸如嬉皮妄作灑脫狀,或假道學故示寒酸狀的,莫說不是聖人,連自然忘俗的狂者也稱不上;只能說他們是社會的「剩人」罷了!至於打腫臉充胖子,盡在衣著上費錢費工夫,甚至等而下之,硬在衣著上作怪的「閒人」和「嫌人」呢,實在也犯不著去對他們側目而視,因為他們都是心靈空虛的可憐人,沒有自知之明。

 

As it's said, "If a poor household is swept clean and a poor girl combs her hair neatly, then although their appearance is not gorgeous, they will naturally have a pleasing air." That's what's meant by the care freeness of poverty! As for hippies who make a pretense of being free and relaxed, or those hypocrites who deliberately dress in rags, not only are they not sages, they don't even match up to naturalists who have forgotten the mundane. They can only be called the outcasts of society. As for those who "slap their cheeks so they can pass for plump (affluent) people," those who spend all their time and money on clothing, or even worse, the leisurely rich or punks who insist on dressing in bizarre styles, there's no need to be surprised by them. They're to be pitied because their lives are spiritually empty and they don't understand themselves.

所以我們要有正知正見,即便在穿衣戴帽上的生活瑣事上,也要嚴謹自持 ,以中道為依歸。所謂「小事不察,大事不明」,過去不知今已知,改過即是聖賢;千萬不要錯拿了「大行不顧細節」或「難得糊塗」作擋箭牌,來給自已做辯護律師。

 

So we must have proper knowledge and understanding, and even in the trivial matter of clothing, we have to be scrupulous and follow the Middle Way. It's said, "If we don't pay attention to small matters, we won't be clear about the big matters." Now that we know this, if we can correct our faults, we can be considered sages and worthies. We certainly shouldn't try to defend ourselves by saying, "In big endeavors, we shouldn't worry about details," or "Being muddled is a quality to be cherished."

中國古代的賢德女子堙A有個「鹿車歸里」的美談。漢朝的鮑宣十分好學,但是家境清貧,他的老師很讚賞他貧賤不移的氣節,不但把女兒桓少君嫁給他,還贈送了婢僕和豐盛的財物以為嫁妝。新婚第二天,新娘子一身錦衣繡服、珠光寶氣地打扮停當,卻發覺新郎板著臉不理她。

 

Concerning the virtuous daughters of ancient China, there's a beautiful story called "Returning Home in a Deer Cart." In the Han Dynasty, there was a diligent student named Bao Xuan who came from a poor family. His teacher admired him for maintaining his resolute integrity despite his poverty and low social class, and gave him his daughter Huan Shaojun to be his wife, as well as servants and a large fortune as a dowry. The day after the wedding, the new wife dressed up in embroidered finery and bedecked herself with glittering jewelry, but to her surprise her husband became sullen and gave her the cold shoulder. 

 

桓少君終究是有教養的淑女,不但不敢發脾氣,還虛心下氣地請教他,自己是否犯了過錯?鮑宣便說﹕「少君生在奢富的家庭,習慣了漂亮的裝扮,可是我們鮑家很窮苦,你這種打扮實在不得體!」桓少君就說﹕「家父因為先生您的道德,才教我來事奉您的起居;既然鮑家的規矩這樣,我當然會遵從。」鮑宣這才歡喜起來﹕「妳能這樣,才是我所希望的。」

 

Being a refined lady, Shaojun dared not get angry, but humbly asked her husband whether she had done something wrong. Bao Xuan said, "You come from a rich family and are used to wearing fancy clothes, but my family is poor and your attire is not appropriate." Shaojun said, "Because of your virtue, my father asked me to serve you; I will certainly honor your family's ways." Bao Xuan happily said, "I really hoped you would be able to do this."

於是桓少君馬上遣回所有的婢僕嫁妝,換上了短衣布裙,和鮑宣兩人,牽了鹿車,載著簡單的行李,回到鄉間的鮑家;拜見婆婆後,桓少君取了水桶,就去打水做飯。以後桓少君也真的能謹修婦女的美德,做個稱職的鮑家媳婦,鄉里的人都十分讚歎她。

 

Shaojun immediately sent back all the servants and dowry and changed into a short jacket and cotton skirt. Then she and Bao Xuan piled their simple possessions on a deer-drawn cart and went to the Baos' home in the countryside. After paying respects to her mother-in-law, Shaojun took the water pail and went to draw water to do the cooking. Later she proved to be a virtuous wife and worthy daughter-in-law to the Bao family. She earned the praise of all her fellow villagers.

現今的社會堙A處處可以看到很多衣著入時,卻俗豔難耐的人;他們不管自己的身份年齡合不合適,只知盲目追求時尚,這可說是「東施效顰」,醜不自知了!甚至有被物慾所迷的,過份講求衣著,花費往往超出家庭預算;且不論他個人的品味高低,這終究不是好現象。君不見,多少男子為入不敷出鋌而走險,終至家破人亡?多少女子為奢華無度淪落煙花,終至身敗名裂?世間如桓少君的,真是鳳毛麟角,少之又少了!我們能不以為殷鑑嗎?

 

In today's society, we see many fashionably dressed and yet terribly vulgar people, who blindly strive to be in style without considering whether their attire is appropriate for their age and position. They are like the ugly lady who tried to imitate the pout of a beautiful lady, and only ended up looking more ugly. Some people are so deluded by their materialistic desires that they outspend their budget and ruin their own lives and families. How many girls have spoiled their reputations and lives because of their extravagant taste in clothing? Women like Huan Shaojun are truly rare. We should certainly take her as our inspiration!

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