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宣化上人開示錄(三)
Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma Volume Three 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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參禪是開悟的方法

Chan Meditation Is the Method for Attaining Enlightenment


參話頭的功夫,需要經過長時間,才能有所成就。
To reach success with the method of investigating the meditation topic, we must work at it for a long time.

佛教傳到中國之後,演變成五宗,就是禪、教、律、淨、密。禪是禪定,教是教理,律是戒律,淨是淨土,密是持咒。現在是打禪七期間,只講禪的道理,其他四宗,暫且不談。

 

When Buddhism spread to China, it developed into the Five Schools: the Chan School, the Teachings School, the Vinaya School, the Pure Land School, and the Secret School. The Chan School investigates Chan samadhi (meditative concentration); the Teachings School studies the doctrines; the Vinaya School studies the moral precepts; the Pure Land School practices Buddha recitation; and the Secret School recites mantras. We are now holding a Chan session, so for the time being, we discuss only the principles of Chan meditation and not the other four schools.

禪那,譯為「思惟修」,就是常想這件事。什麼事?就是話頭。研究「念佛是誰?」這句話,這叫參禪。其實參話頭也是妄想,不過這是以妄制妄,以毒攻毒的辦法,用一個妄想來消滅多個妄想。參話頭的功夫,需要經過長時間才能有所成就,所謂「久參有禪」。

 

Chan translates as "thought-cultivation," because one is always contemplating the matter of meditation. What matter is that? It is simply the meditation topic one is investigating. We look into the question, "Who is reciting the Buddha's name?" This single sentence is the topic in our investigation of Chan. In fact, investigating this topic is another kind of idle thinking. This method is known as "fighting fire with fire." We set one idle thought in action to wipe out many idle thoughts. To reach success with this method, we must work at it for a long time. A saying goes, "After long-term cultivation, there will be Chan."

「參」好像用錐子來錐木頭一樣,不透不停止,不可半途而廢,否則就前功盡棄了。參禪,第一要忍耐,忍耐到最高峰,就能一念不生。一念不生,就能開悟,所謂「百尺竿頭,更進一步」,在百尺竿頭上,再向前邁進一步,這時十方世界現全身。可是這個法門,要念玆在玆才有效,不能放鬆,不能放逸。在《證道歌》上說:

頓覺了,如來禪,
六度萬行體中圓;
夢堜明有六趣,
覺後空空無大千。

 

"Investigation" is similar to drilling wood: you don't stop until the drill bit makes a hole all the way through the wood. If you stop halfway, then your earlier efforts will all have been in vain. The first priority in Chan meditation is patience. When you can be patient to the extreme point, then you can reach a state of "not even one thought arising." When not even one thought arises, you can get enlightened. As the saying goes, "Take one more step from the top of the hundred-foot pole." At that time, when you can take yet another step from the very top of a hundred-foot pole, "the worlds throughout the ten directions manifest in their entirety." To gain success, however, you must apply yourself constantly, in thought after thought, without any laziness or slacking off. A verse in the Song of Enlightenment says:

When you suddenly awaken to the Chan of the Tathagatas, Then the Six Paramitas and the Myriad Practices are complete within your substance.
In a dream, very clearly, you perceive all the Six Realms of Rebirth.
When you awaken, then you see all as empty and void, and not one bit of the universe exists at all.

   

頓,就是立刻覺悟一個理,所謂「理可頓悟,事須漸修。」在「事」上要一步一步修,在「理」上要立刻就明白。頓悟的時候,知道井在那堙A可以去取水。沒有頓悟的時候,常聽轆轤(汲水的工具)響,但不知井在何處?這個譬喻,是說明佛性從什麼地方來的?怎能證得佛性?證佛性別無二法,唯一的方法,就是參禪打坐。

 

"Suddenly" here means that you immediately understand a principle. As it's said, "We may awaken to the truth of a principle suddenly, but we must cultivate the specifics gradually." The specifics must be cultivated one step at a time, yet the principle may be awakened to all of a sudden. For instance, after enlightenment, we know there is a well nearby from which we can draw water. Before our enlightenment, we may have heard the sound of the wellpulley and rope for a long time, and yet not have known where the well was located. This analogy explains where the Buddha-nature comes from. How do we realize this Buddha-nature? There is no other method to realize it: it can only be realized through Chan meditation.

   

六度,是菩薩修行的法門。布施度慳貪,持戒度毀犯,忍辱度瞋恚,精進度懈怠,禪定度散亂,智慧度愚癡。這六度修行圓滿,才能開悟。

 

Bodhisattvas use the Six Paramitas as their method of cultivation. They are: (1) giving, which takes stinginess across; (2) moral precepts, which take across transgressions; (3) patience, which takes across hatred; (4) vigor, which takes across laxness; (5) Chan concentration, which takes across scatteredness, and (6) wisdom, which takes across stupidity. Only when these Six Paramitas have been cultivated to perfection can one become enlightened.

我們都在作夢,所謂:

人生一場夢,
人死夢一場;
夢堥首a貴,
夢醒在窮鄉。
朝朝是作夢,
不覺夢黃粱;
夢中若不覺,
枉作夢一場。

 

We are all now living in the midst of a dream. A verse goes,

In life it's all a dream;
In death, a dream as well.
Dreaming, we enjoy glory and wealth;
Awake, we're back in the gutters.
We dream every day,
Unaware that the dream takes no longer than a quick supper.
If we fail to wake up to our present dream,
Then we've dreamt through it all in vain.

   

在夢中明明有六趣(天、人、修羅、畜生、餓鬼、地獄),等覺悟之後,三千大千世界也化為烏有了。為什麼?因為沒有執著。沒有執著,把萬事萬物都返本還原,又怎能有我相、人相、眾生相、壽者相?統統都沒有了。有人聽到這四相沒有了,就不敢修行,誤認修到極點,人也沒有了,眾生也沒有了,壽者也沒有了,怎麼辦呢?那什麼工作也沒有了,成為失業的人。

 

In the dream, we see very clearly there are six paths of rebirth, (which are the heavens, the realms of humans, asuras, animals, and hungry ghosts, and the hells). Once we awaken, however, and get enlightened, then the entire trichiliocosm no longer exists. Why not? Because we are no longer attached to it. When we are no longer attached, then all the myriad creatures in existence completely return to their origin. How could any further trace of self exist? How could any traces of others, of living beings, or of a life span remain? None of these exist any longer. Some people, after they learn that the four traces can be made to disappear, won't dare cultivate any longer. They get upset at the idea of there being no more people, living beings, or life spans. They exclaim, "If there is no more work left to do, I will be out of a job!"

   

一定要有工作嗎?那就繼續顛倒吧!修行到了無四相的境界時,就能掃一切法,離一切相,證得諸法實相的道理,所謂:

一法不立,
萬法皆空。

 

Is it certain that you need to go to work? That idea only insures that you will continue to be upside-down forever. If you can cultivate to the state of being free of the four traces and you can actually "Sweep out all dharmas, and leave all traces behind," then you'll certify to the realization of a principle, which is the ultimate reality of all dharmas. It's called,

Don't set up even a single dharma;
Empty out all the myriad things.

   

不是說我明白這個道理,而是要真正證得這種一法不立,萬法皆空的境界,那時候,無有眾苦,但受諸樂。

 

This does not refer to glibly discussing this principle on an intellectual level. Rather, you must actually certify to and attain this state. At that time, for you, there will be no further suffering; there will be only happiness.

   

我們在世界上,不是執著名,就是執著利,或者執著財,或者執著色,所以看不破,放不下。想看破,想放下,又捨不得。為什麼捨不得?因為有精細鬼和伶俐蟲在作怪,所以把很多事情當面錯過,失之交臂,對面不識觀世音。觀世音菩薩就在我們的對面,我們還要到處去找,這就是受顛倒妄想所支配。

 

For those of us here in the world, if we aren't attached to fame, then we're attached to profit. If we aren't attached to wealth, then we're attached to sex. So we find ourselves unable to see through things, unable to put things down. We may want to do so, but in the end, we still can't let them go. Why can't we let them go? Because our smart bugs and our intellectual cleverness are acting up. Due to them, we miss many prime opportunities. We let them slip through our fingers, and, before our very eyes, we fail to recognize Guanshiyin Bodhisattva. Even though Guanshiyin Bodhisattva is right before our eyes, we still go running all over looking for him elsewhere; thus we are controlled by our upside-down, idle thinking.

   

參禪的「參」,就是觀。觀什麼?觀照般若。教你念玆在玆觀自在,不是觀他在。觀觀自己在不在?自己在,就能參禪打坐,用功修行。若是不在,在那兒打妄想,想入非非,那就身在禪堂,心跑到紐約去觀光,或是到義大利去旅行,到處去攀緣,所以就不自在了。

 

The word "investigation" in the phrase "investigating Chan" means "to contemplate." What is there to contemplate? We use contemplative Prajna. This means to contemplate our own presence in thought after thought. It does not mean to contemplate others' presence. We should contemplate whether or not we are fully here. If we are, then we have the ability to investigate Chan and meditate, and we can use our skill in cultivation. But if we are not here, and are indulging in idle thoughts instead, our mind scatters to the wind. Then even though our body may be present in the Chan hall, our mind has run off to New York for a bit of sight-seeing, or perhaps run off to Rome for a holiday. Our mind has gone out to climb the social ladder, so, as a result, we lack self-presence; we are "not here."

   

觀自在,就是菩薩;觀不自在,就是凡夫。觀自在,是天堂;觀不自在,是地獄。如果我們觀自在,心沒有跑出去,才能行深般若波羅蜜。參禪的時候,身體在禪堂,心繼續不斷地參,綿綿密密地參,這才算是行深般若,找到智慧了。得到大智慧,才能到達彼岸。

 

When we learn to contemplate with self-presence, we can become Bodhisattvas. When we contemplate without self-presence, we are only ordinary humans. When we contemplate with self-presence, we are in the heavens. If we contemplate without self-presence, then we are in the hells. But if we can contemplate with self-presence without our thoughts running away, then we can practice the profound Prajna Paramita. Being here, with our bodies present in the Chan hall, our minds continue the investigation without cease. We investigate without interruption. Only this counts as "practicing the profound Prajna Paramita" and finding wisdom. Only after we have attained great wisdom can we really reach the other shore.

   

參禪的祕訣,就是「朝也思,夕也思。」思什麼?思「念佛是誰?」今天也參,明天也參,天天在禪堂埵瘝`般若波羅蜜多時,不是在短期能嘗到禪的味道,要經過長時間才可以。有了行深般若波羅蜜多時的功夫,才能照見五蘊皆空。

 

The secret formula for investigating Chan is to stick to it day and night. Keep thinking it over. Think about, "Who is mindful of the Buddha?" We contemplate today and contemplate tomorrow, and every day we are in the Chan Hall, practicing the profound Prajna Paramita. We cannot expect to taste the actual flavor of Chan in a short period of time. Only after long practice can we know its real taste. When we have the skill of practicing the profound Prajna Paramita, then we can contemplate the Five Aggregates (Skandhas) as empty.

   

五蘊,又叫五陰。蘊是集聚的意思,陰是遮蓋的意思。我們為什麼得不到自在?得不到解脫?就因為被五蘊所覆的緣故。五蘊,就是色、受、想、行、識。

 

The Five Aggregates are also called the Five Shadows. Aggregates means "heaps" or "gatherings." "Shadows" means "blockages" or "coverings." Why have we failed to obtain self-mastery and liberation? Because we are covered over by the Five Aggregates, which are form, feelings, thoughts, activities, and consciousness.

   

(一)色蘊:有障礙為色,有形相為色。色蘊不空,見到色被色塵所迷惑,聞到聲被聲塵所迷惑,嗅到香被香塵所迷惑,嚐到味被味塵所迷惑,覺到觸被觸塵所迷惑。如果把色蘊空了,就是內無其心,外無其形,遠無其物的境界。 色,有種種的顏色,能令你眼花撩亂,認識不清楚,迷迷茫茫,好像瞎子一樣。在《道德經》上說:

五色令人目盲,
五音令人耳聾,
五味令人口爽。

 

1. The Aggregate of Form. "Obstructing objects" are forms; things with shape and features are forms. Before we have emptied out the form aggregate, we are likely to see forms and be confused by them, or hear sounds and be confused by them, or smell scents and be confused by them, or taste flavors and be confused by them, or feel sensations and be confused by them. If we can empty out the Aggregate of Form, then we can realize a state of there being "no mind inside, no body outside, and no things beyond."

Forms include the many colors, all of which can dim our eyes, so that we can't see clearly. They make us just like blind people. In the Classic of the Way and Its Virtue, it is said,

The five colors blind the eyes;
The five musical notes deafen the ears;
The five flavors dull the palate.

   

這些都是被色蘊所迷惑,若能破了色蘊,山河大地、房廊屋舍都空了,就沒有這些麻煩了。所以說,色蘊不空,便執著在色上;若著在色上,見惑就不能破。

 

All such states result from being confused by the Aggregate of Form. If we can break through the Aggregate of Form and see that the mountains, the rivers, the earth itself, and all the buildings on it are empty, then none of these troubles will exist. Thus we say that before the Aggregate of Form has been emptied out, one will still be attached to forms. As long as one is attached to forms, one has not broken through the Delusions of Views.

   

見惑,就是對境起貪愛。境界就是色,對著境界生起一種貪心和愛心,就執著了。見惑有八十八品,如果斷盡,就證初果羅漢。我們修道人,要先斷三界八十八品的見惑,然後再斷三界八十一品的思惑。

 

Delusions of Views refers to experiencing greed and love for the states we encounter. States here refer to pretty forms. When beautiful things appear before us, we may experience feelings of love and craving for them and become attached to them. There are eighty-eight categories of Delusions of Views, and if one severs them completely, one then realizes the first stage of Arhatship. Cultivators of the Way first sever these eighty-eight categories of Delusions of Views in the Triple Realm, and then continue to sever eighty-one categories of Delusions of Thoughts in the Triple Realm.

   

思惑,就是迷理起分別,也就是對一切理認識不清楚。如果斷盡三界八十一品思惑,就證四果阿羅漢。

 

Delusions of Thoughts refers to letting confusion over certain principles lead us to discriminating thinking. That is, we don't clearly understand certain principles. When one severs the eighty-one categories of Delusions of Thoughts within the Triple Realm, one then realizes the Fourth Stage of Arhatship.

   

(二)受蘊:就是領納的意思。境界來了,不加考慮,就接受了,有舒服的感覺。譬如吃一種好東西,覺得很自在,這就是受。穿一件好衣服,覺得很舒服,這就是受。住一間好屋子,覺得很漂亮,這就是受。坐一輛好汽車,覺得很舒服,這也就是受。乃至一切身所接受的,覺得不錯,這都是受。

 

2. The Aggregate of Feelings. This refers to the feelings that we experience. For instance, a certain situation may arise; we accept it without even thinking about it, and we feel it's a comfortable state. An example would be when we eat some delicious food and its flavor makes us feel quite pleasant. This is what we mean by feelings. Or if we wear a fine piece of clothing and it makes us feel quite attractive, this is also a typical feeling. Or if we live in a nice house that we feel looks quite handsome, this is a feeling. Or if we ride in a fancy automobile and we feel quite comfortable, this is also a feeling. In general, all experiences that the body accepts and enjoys are considered to be the Aggregate of Feelings at work.

   

(三)想蘊:就是思想的意思。因為五根領受了五塵的境界,就生出種種的妄想,種種的念頭,忽起忽落,起了作用,去想色,去想受。

 

3. The Aggregate of Thoughts. This refers to our thinking processes. When our five sense organs perceive the five sense objects, a variety of idle thoughts arise. Many ideas suddenly come to mind and then are suddenly gone: ideas of forms, ideas of feelings.

   

(四)行蘊:就是遷流的意思。隨來隨去,隨去隨來,沒有停止,川流不息。作善作惡的動機,由妄心所支配,而反應於身口的行為。

 

4. The Aggregate of Activities. This refers to a process of shifting and flowing. The Aggregate of Activities leads us to come and go, to go and come without end in a constant, ceaseless, flowing pattern. Our idle thoughts compel us to impulsively do good or do evil, and such thoughts then manifest in our actions and our words.

   

(五)識蘊:就是分別的意思。境界來了,就生起分別心。例如:見到美色,生歡喜心;聽到惡聲,生討厭心等等。

 

5. The Aggregate of Consciousness. This refers to the process of discrimination. As soon as a situation appears, we begin to discriminate in our thoughts about that situation. For example, when we see something beautiful, we have thoughts of fondness towards it; and when we hear ugly sounds, we have thoughts of dislike for those sounds. All such discriminations are part of this Aggregate.

   

若能把五蘊破了,才能度一切苦厄,也就是沒有一切的災難。我們為什麼有災難?就因為有我執、有法執,二執不空的緣故。

 

If someone can break through these Five Aggregates, he can then cross beyond all suffering and difficulty. Such a person will undergo no further disasters and troubles. Why do disasters and troubles beset us? Because we are still attached to a self and to dharmas; because these two attachments have not been emptied out.

   

《永嘉大師證道歌》上說:

五蘊浮雲空去來,
三毒水泡虛出沒。

 

The Song of Enlightenment by Great Master Yongjia says,

The Five Aggregates are mere floating clouds, aimlessly drifting back and forth.
And the Three Poisons are only bubbles of foam, rising and sinking on the tides.

   

五蘊本來沒有自性,猶如空中的浮雲,自然而有,自然而無。不明白這個道理,就被五蘊所覆,不得自在,不得解脫。我們修道,就是破五蘊,好像浮雲,來,隨它來;去,隨它去,不需要注意它,不需要執著它。貪瞋癡好像水中的泡沫一樣,本來沒有實體,它自己生,自己滅,不執著就沒有了。在《永嘉大師證道歌》又說:

證實相,無人法,
剎那滅卻阿鼻業;
若將妄語誑眾生,
自招拔舌塵沙劫。

 

The Five Aggregates, in fact, have no nature of their own, just like clouds floating in space. Very spontaneously they appear, and spontaneously they disappear. If we fail to understand this principle and let ourselves be covered over by the Aggregates, we will be neither free nor liberated. We should be skillful in cultivation, so that when the Five Aggregates arise, we can break through them. When they come, they come on their own, and when they go, they are free to leave on their own. We need not pay attention to them. Nor do we need to attach to them. Greed, anger, and stupidity are just like bubbles of foam on the water; they basically have no real substance. Born of themselves, they vanish of themselves; and if we don't attach to them, they cease to exist. The Song of Enlightenment by Great Master Yongjia also says,

Realize Ultimate Reality, and people and
     dharmas no longer exist.
In that instant we eradicate the karma of
     the Relentless Hells.
If I am deceiving living beings,
May I fall into the hells where tongues are
     ripped out, for endless eons.

   

實相就是無相,無所不相,也就是掃一切法,離一切相;可以說返本還原,證得自性清淨。到這種境界,也無人,也無法,人法雙亡;也沒有人執,也沒有法執,這就證得實相理體。在這剎那之間,能將無量劫以來,所造的無間地獄的罪業,統統消滅無餘。永嘉大師說:「如果我用誑語來欺騙眾生的話,我心甘情願到拔舌地獄,去受塵沙劫那樣多的苦。」

 

"Ultimate Reality" here means the state wherein "there are no traces, yet nothing lacks traces"; a state wherein we can "sweep out all dharmas and leave all traces behind." One is said to have "returned to the origin and realized the purity of his inherent nature." In such a state, there are no further people or things that can be known: both of these are gone for good. One no longer maintains attachments to people or to dharmas. Then one is said to have realized the principle and substance of Ultimate Reality.

Then in a split second one can wipe away completely all the karma that destines one for the Relentless Hells. Karma gathered from countless eons in the past can be wiped away completely, without a trace. Great Master Yongjia says, "If I am deceiving people with lies, then I am perfectly willing to fall into the hells where tongues are ripped out and suffer for an eternity of time."

   

我們在禪堂堙A要實實在在來修行,好像抽絲剝繭一樣,要有忍耐性,一點一點來抽絲,才不會亂了。不可自作聰明找捷徑,想用科學方法來開悟,那是妄想。如果科學能開悟,那些科學家不會在牛角尖媔蟻p,早就開悟了,不會有你的分的。不要異想天開,還是按部就班來參「念佛是誰?」吧!腰痠要忍耐,腿疼要忍耐,忍耐到時候了,自然會開悟。所謂:

不經一番寒徹骨,
怎得梅花撲鼻香?

 

As we sit in the Chan hall, we must actually go and cultivate. Our work is just like reeling silk off a cocoon. We must be patient and proceed gradually. Only then can we avoid tangling the thread. We may not try to get clever and invent shortcuts, nor use a scientific, improved method to get enlightened. That amounts to mere idle thinking. If science could bring us enlightenment, then the scientists would not forever be painting themselves into corners, but would long ago have become enlightened; and nobody else after that would ever get a chance at it! We needn't build castles in the air, but need only follow the tried-and-true procedures: cultivate hard and look into "Who is reciting the Buddha's name?" Be patient when your back aches and your legs hurt. When your patience has reached maturity, you will spontaneously become enlightened. A saying goes,

If they hadn't endured the bone-chilling cold,
How could the plum blossoms smell so sweet?

   

各位注意!不要聰明反被聰明誤。要曉得一分努力,便有一分功夫,修行要講真功夫,不是口頭禪,能說不能行,是無用處的。口頭禪不但對開悟沒有幫助,反而成為障礙,所以說:「不說話,才是禪。」

 

Please attend to this, everyone! Don't be so clever that your cleverness obstructs you. Don't be too smart for your own good. Know that each bit of work yields a bit of skill. Cultivation requires true skill, not mere lip service. To be able to talk about cultivation without really being able to do it is useless. Paying lip service not only does not advance your enlightenment, it becomes an obstruction instead. Thus a saying goes, "Only in silence is it actually Chan."

   

一念靈光能徹照天地,與十方三世一切諸佛無二無別。為什麼我們不能證得佛的三身、四智、五眼、六通?因為我們凡夫的妄想太多,所以把智慧遮住,沒有光明,成為無明。整天起惑、造業,所以受生死的苦報。

 

A beam of spiritual light flashes throughout heaven and earth, illuminating it totally. You become identical with all Buddhas of the ten directions and the three periods of time. Why have we failed to realize the Buddha's Three Bodies, Four Modes of Wisdom, Five Eyes, and Six Spiritual Powers? Because our worldly idle thinking is simply too dense. It obstructs our wisdom. Idle thinking takes our light away and turns it into ignorance. All day long we do nothing but indulge in delusion, create bad karma, and receive the retribution of unending rounds of birth and death.

   

三身,就是法身、報身、應(化)身。四智,就是成所作智、妙觀察智、平等性智、大圓鏡智。五眼,就是天眼、肉眼(非人眼)、法眼、慧眼、佛眼。六通,就是天眼通、天耳通、他心通、宿命通、神足通、漏盡通。若沒有一切的妄想,就能證得這些境界。這並不是玄妙的理論,而是自然現象,是從實踐功夫中得來的,一點也不為奇,這是平常事。

 

The Three Bodies are the Dharma-body, the Reward-body, and the Response-body. The Four Modes of Wisdom are the Wisdom That Accomplishes What Should Be Done, the Wisdom of Wondrous Contemplation, the Wisdom of Equal Nature, and the All-Encompassing, Mirror-like Wisdom. The Five Eyes are the Heavenly-eye, the Flesh-eye (which is not our human eyes), the Dharma-eye,the Wisdom-eye, and the Buddha-eye. The Six Spiritual Powers are the Power of the Heavenly-eye, the Power of the Heavenly-ear, the Power of Knowing Others' Thoughts, the Power of Knowing Past Lives, the Power of Spiritual Travel, and the Power of the Ending of Outflows. When someone puts an end to all idle thinking, he or she can realize states such as these. In fact, this is not an esoteric principle, but a very natural phenomenon that arises from actual spiritual skill. We need not consider these states strange or unusual, for they are quite natural.

   

我們從無始劫以來,就被無明所覆,遇不到善知識的指引,不知什麼是明心見性(明悟自心,徹見本性)?什麼是返本還原(恢復童子身)?我們參禪就是要明心見性,返本還原。我們若得到解脫,那就無罣無礙,遠離顛倒夢想,得到究竟涅槃了。

 

From beginningless time in the past until now we have been covered over by ignorance and have not heard the instructions of a Good and Wise Advisor. We don't know the meaning of "understanding the mind and seeing the nature." Nor do we know the meaning of "returning to the origin." The purpose of cultivating Chan meditation is to understand the mind and see the nature, to return to the origin and go back to the source. We can then obtain liberation and be free of impediments and obstructions. We can leave distorted dream-thinking far behind and attain Ultimate Nirvana.

   
     

一九八○年禪七 十二月開示

 

A talk given during a Chan session
in December, 1980

 

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

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