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宣化上人開示錄(三)
Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma Volume Three 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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菩提達摩祖師來中國

The Patriarch Bodhidharma's Advent in China


一華開五葉,結果自然成。
One flower blossoms with five petals, and the fruit will come ripe all by itself.

梁武帝普通元年(西元五二○年)九月,菩提達摩祖師(中國禪宗初祖)從印度乘船來到中國,抵達廣州豋岸,來到金陵(南京),和梁武帝問答。因不契機,離開金陵,北往洛陽。路過神光法師講經處,順便進來,發現神光法師辯才無礙,有天華亂墜、地湧金蓮的境界,知道是載法之器。此時,神光法師見一位印度和尚來聽經,不禁生起我慢之心。講完經之後,就在達摩祖師面前打個招呼。

 

In a.d. 520 in China, during the ninth month of the initial year of the Putong reign-period of the Emperor Wu of the Liang Dynasty, the first Patriarch of the Chan School, Venerable Bodhidharma, arrived in Canton by boat from India. He traveled to Jinling, which is modern Nanjing, and had an interview with Emperor Wu. But the two of them had a misunderstanding, and he left Jinling, heading north to Luoyang. En route, he passed by Dharma Master Shen-guang's (Holy Light) Sutra-lecture gathering. Since time allowed, the Patriarch stopped in to listen. He heard the Dharma Master's eloquence and appreciated that he could make celestial flowers fall from the sky and inspire the earth to send forth golden-hued lotuses. He recognized in Master Shenguang the capacity to be a vessel of the Dharma. Master Shenguang saw the Indian Patriarch Bodhidharma walk into his assembly, and he could not restrain a feeling of superiority and pride. When his lecture was finished, he caught the eye of the Patriarch.

達摩祖師提出問題:「請問法師,你在這堸竣偵礡H」

 

Patriarch Bodhidharma asked him, "Excuse me, Dharma Master, what exactly are you doing here?"

神光說:「正在講經。」

 

Master Shenguang replied, "I'm explaining Sutras."

   

達摩又問:「你講的是什麼經?」

 

"What Sutra are you explaining?" asked Patriarch Bodhidharma.

   

神光不耐煩地說:「你從什麼地方來?」

 

Master Shenguang impatiently retorted, "Where are you from?"

達摩說:「從印度來。」

 

"I'm from India," answered the Patriarch Bodhidharma.

   

神光又問:「難道印度不講經嗎?」

 

"Do you mean to tell me they don't explain Sutras in India?"

   

達摩說:「當然要講經。不過,講的是『無字真經』。」

 

"Of course they do, but the Sutras they explain are the wordless, true Sutras," replied the Patriarch.

   

神光又問:「什麼是無字真經?」

 

"And what is a wordless, true Sutra?"

   

達摩說:「無字真經,就是一張白紙。你所講的經,黑的是字,白的是紙,你講它做什麼?」

 

The Patriarch replied, "It's simply a piece of blank paper. In the Sutra you're explaining, what's black are the words and what's white is the paper. What in the world are you explaining that for?"

   

神光一聽,心堣ㄟ矽部A就說:「我講經,教人了生死。」

 

This question angered Master Shenguang, and he replied, "My Sutra lectures teach people to put an end to birth and death!"

   

達摩說:「你憑什麼教人了生死?你自己的生死還沒有了呢!」

 

Patriarch Bodhidharma asked, "How are you qualified to teach people that? You haven't put an end to your own birth and death yet!"

   

神光一想,這個黑和尚一定是魔王化身,來毀謗三寶,我要試一試他的法力如何?於是用念珠(鐵製,作為降魔武器)朝達摩祖師臉上打去。此時,達摩沒有防備,不幸被擊中,門牙被打掉兩顆。菩提達摩一想,聖人(達摩祖師是證果聖人)的牙齒如果落在地上,那奡N會大旱三年。為慈悲眾生起見,於是他將兩顆門牙吞到肚中,所以留下「打落門牙和血吞」的成語。達摩一言不發,轉身走出道場,踩一蘆草,渡過長江,來到河南嵩山少林寺,面壁九年思禪機。

 

Master Shenguang reflected, "This dark-skinned monk must certainly be a demon-king who's transformed to come slander the Triple Jewel. I had better put his Dharma-power to the test!" At that, he pulled out his iron recitation beads, which served as a suitable weapon for quelling demons, and swung them hard against the Patriarch Bodhidharma's face. The Patriarch was caught unprepared, and the sudden attack knocked out two of his front teeth. Bodhidharma was a sage who had realized the fruition of the spiritual path, and he reflected, "Whenever a sage's teeth fall to the ground, that place will have a drought for three years." Therefore, out of compassion, he swallowed the two teeth instead of spitting them out. This event was commemorated in the proverb, "One just swallows his loose teeth, blood and all." Bodhidharma said nothing, but simply turned on his heel and left the monastery. He stepped on a reed to ford the Yangtze River and went to Shaolin Monastery on Sung Mountain in Henan Province. There he sat facing a wall for nine years, contemplating the subtleties of Chan principles.

   

神光洋洋得意,以為自己是勝利者,不知達摩修忍辱波羅蜜行門。菩提達摩剛走,無常鬼就來了,對神光法師說:「你是神光嗎?」

 

Meanwhile, Master Shenguang felt in rare high spirits, since he considered himself the victor. He had no idea that Patriarch Bodhidharma was cultivating the perfection of "patience under insult." As soon as Patriarch Bodhidharma departed, the Ghost of Impermanence arrived, and said to Master Shenguang, "Are you Shenguang?"

   

神光說:「我是神光,有什麼事情?」

 

Master Shenguang replied, "That's me. What's up?"

   

無常鬼說:「我奉閻羅王的命令,請你去喝茶,談談你講了多少經?念了多少經?還有多少經沒有講、沒有念?」

 

The ghost answered, "I'm under orders from King Yama to invite you to a tea party. King Yama wants to discuss with you how many Sutras you have lectured on, how many you have recited, and how many Sutras you haven't yet explained and recited."

   

神光一聽,嚇得魂飛九霄雲外,知道壽命將終,乃懇求地問:「誰能了生死,不受閻王所管?」

 

At that, Master Shenguang was scared out of his wits; he knew he was at death's door. He pleaded with the ghost, "Who can put an end to birth and death, and escape King Yama's jurisdiction?"

   

無常鬼說:「就是剛才那個滿臉大鬍子,被你打掉兩顆牙齒的黑和尚。」

 

The Ghost of Impermanence answered, "That bushy-bearded, dark-skinned monk whose two front teeth you just knocked out a moment ago." The answer sparked a feeling of deep regret in Master Shenguang, because he had lost his temper in ignorance and thereby driven away an enlightened sage.

   

神光一聽,後悔自己不應該發無明火,將證果聖人打跑了。於是乎向無常鬼要求:「能不能讓我去找那個和尚,學學了生死之法?」

 

He made a further request of the Ghost of Impermanence, "Would it be possible for me to go find that monk and learn how to put an end to birth and death?"

   

無常鬼同情地說:「可以!不過速去速回,我好交差,否則我擔待不起。」

 

The Ghost of Impermanence answered sympathetically, "Very well, but do hurry a bit and get the business done and return so that I can turn in my duty-sheet. Otherwise I won't be able to cover for you."

   

神光日夜趕路,急追達摩,追到嵩山,遠見達摩祖師面壁而坐。他欣喜若狂,急忙來到達摩祖師面前,恭恭敬敬地頂禮,懺悔地說:「請和尚慈悲,寬恕弟子魯莽,不知和尚是證果聖人,多所冒犯,請和尚賜我了生死之法。」

 

Master Shenguang lost no time in pursuing Patriarch Bodhidharma, travelling by day and by night. He finally reached Sung Mountain and, looking from a distance, saw the Patriarch sitting in meditation facing a wall. Overwhelmed with joy, he rushed up to Patriarch Bodhidharma and bowed with deep reverence. He repented humbly, "Venerable One, please be compassionate and forgive your brash disciple. I didn't know you were a sage who has realized the fruition of the Path. Your disciple made a mistake. Won't you please confer on me the method for resolving the matter of birth and death?"

   

達摩回頭一看,沒有說話,繼續打坐。神光跪在達摩面前不起來,一跪就是九年。

 

Patriarch Bodhidharma turned his head around to look at him, then resumed his meditation without saying a single word. Master Shenguang knelt before Patriarch Bodhidharma and did not rise. Thus he knelt for nine years.

   

我們參禪打坐,坐不到兩小時,腰也痠了,腿也疼了,就受不了。或者打吃飯的妄想,或者打喝蜜水的妄想。總而言之,心猿意馬,控制不住,時時刻刻想往外跑。神光法師為法忘軀的求法精神,一跪就是九年,我們現在誰能跪九個小時,恐怕辦不到!

 

Now as we meditate here, investigating Chan, our backs get sore and our legs start to hurt, and we feel we can't take it after only two hours have passed. We may indulge in idle thoughts of food, or something sweet to drink. To sum it up, we can't control the monkey-like thoughts or the "wild stallion of the mind." We'd like nothing better than to jump up and run out the door. Dharma Master Shenguang's sincere request for Dharma led him to forget himself in that search and inspired him to kneel for nine years. I doubt that any of you could kneel for even nine hours, much less nine years.

   

有一天,天降大雪,神光仍然跪在達摩面前,雪厚約有兩尺之深。此時,達摩抬頭一見,深受神光這種求法的精神所感動,便問:「你跪在這堸竣偵礡H」

 

One day after heavy snow fell two feet deep, Master Shenguang was kneeling as usual in front of Patriarch Bodhidharma. The Patriarch looked up at him, and, impressed by his sincerity in seeking the Dharma, asked him, "What are you doing kneeling here?"

   

神光說:「懇求和尚慈悲,傳授躲閻王之法。」

 

Master Shenguang replied, "I sincerely hope the Venerable One will be compassionate and transmit to me the method for getting free from King Yama."

   

達摩說:「求法不是容易事,等天降紅雪時,再傳法給你。」

 

Patriarch Bodhidharma said, "It's no simple matter to seek the Dharma. Wait until the snow falls red, and then I'll transmit it to you."

   

神光一想:「釋迦牟尼佛在往昔作菩薩時,為求半句偈,寧捨身命。」這念一起,他福至心靈,見石壁上掛了一把戒刀,乃取下來,砍斷自己的左臂,血湧如泉,於是將雪染成紅雪。他捧紅雪來到達摩面前,請求傳法。

 

Master Shenguang reflected, "Shakyamuni Buddha, while culti-vating the Bodhisattva path in the past, gave up his life in exchange for only half a verse of Dharma." As soon as this thought occurred to him, another idea dawned, and seeing a precept knife hanging on the cliff wall, he seized it and slashed off his left arm. Blood gushed out like a fountain, staining the snow on the ground bright red. He scooped up a handful and took it to show Patriarch Bodhidharma and requested him to transmit the Dharma.

   

達摩說:「你為法斷臂,求法真誠。」於是將不立文字,教外別傳,直指人心,見性成佛之法傳授於神光,並改其名為慧可。

 

Patriarch Bodhidharma said, "Since you can cut off your own arm for the sake of the Dharma, your sincerity must be genuine." There-upon, he transmitted to Master Shenguang the method of "seeing the nature and becoming a Buddha," the method that points directly to the mind, the special transmission apart from the teachings, the Dharma that words cannot contain. He then changed Master Shen-guang's name to Huike (Wise and Able).

   

慧可又問:「我心未寧,乞師與安。」

 

Master Huike said, "My mind is not at peace. Can the Master please quiet it for me?"

   

達摩祖師說:「將心來,與汝安。」

 

Patriarch Bodhidharma answered, "Fetch your mind, and I'll quiet it for you."

   

慧可沉默良久,然後才說:「覓心了不可得。」

 

Master Huike thought this over for a long time and then said, "I've looked, but my mind cannot be gotten at anywhere."

   

達摩祖師說:「我與汝安心竟。」

 

Patriarch Bodhidharma replied, "I've already quieted it for you!"

   

慧可豁然大悟,成為禪宗第二祖。後將衣缽心法傳授於三祖僧璨大師,三祖又傳四祖道信大師,四祖再傳於五祖弘忍大師,五祖傳於六祖惠能大師,此時禪宗分為兩派。北宗以神秀為代表,主張「拂塵看淨,成為漸悟」,他的偈頌:

身是菩提樹,
心如明鏡臺;
時時勤拂拭,
勿使惹塵埃。

 

Master Huike suddenly experienced a great awakening and became the Second Patriarch of the Chan School. Later, he transmitted the robe and bowl and the Mind Dharma to the Third Patriarch, Great Master Sengcan (Sangha Gem), who then passed it on to the Fourth Patriarch, Great Master Daoxin (Faith in the Path), who further passed it on to the Fifth Patriarch, the Great Master Hungren (Vast Patience). Then it was transmitted to the Sixth Patriarch, the Great Master Huineng (Kind and Capable). At that point, the Chan School divided into two regional groups. It was represented in the North by Venerable Shenxiu (Divine Talent). He advocated "sweeping away the dust and observing the remaining purity," and this was called "the gradual enlightenment method." He wrote the verse:

The body is a Bodhi-tree,
The mind a mirror-stand bright.
Time and again wipe it clean;
Let no dust alight.

   

南宗以惠能為代表,主張「立即開悟,成為頓悟」,他的偈頌:

菩提本無樹,
明鏡亦非臺;
本來無一物,
何處惹塵埃?

 

The Southern School's representative was Great Master Huineng, who advocated immediate awakening, and this was called "the sudden enlightenment method." His verse says:

Originally there is no Bodhi-tree,
Nor any mirror-stand bright.
Originally there is nothing at all.
Where could the dust alight?

   

南宗後來分為五宗,就是溈仰宗、臨濟宗、曹洞宗、雲門宗、法眼宗。

根據達摩的偈頌說:

吾本來玆土,
傳法救迷情;
一華開五葉,
結果自然成。

 

The Southern School later divided into five sects: the Weiyang, the Linji, the Caodong, the Yunmen, and the Fayen.

The Venerable Bodhidharma wrote a verse about this that goes,

My purpose in coming to this land,
Was to transmit the Dharma and rescue
      confused beings.
One flower blossoms with five petals,
And the fruit will come ripe all by itself.

   

果然到了六祖時,分為五宗。這種法在中國一代一代傳承下來,現在又把這法傳到美國來,但是不需要跪求,只要誠心修行,就可以得到這種法要。

 

And as it turned out, when the Sixth Patriarch's era came, the School did divide into five sects. The Dharma was transmitted in China from generation to generation, and now it has come to America. No one has to kneel to request it, however. All you need to do is to cultivate sincerely, and the essential teachings of this Dharma can be yours.

   
     

一九八○年禪七 十二月開示

 

A talk given in December, 1980,
during a Chan session

 

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

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