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宣化上人開示錄(二)
Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma Volume Two 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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十法界不離一念心

The Ten Dharma Realms Are Not Beyond a Single Thought


這十法界從什麼地方生出來的? 就從我們人現前一念心生出來的。
Where do the Ten Dharma Realms come from? They originate from the single thought presently in your mind.

若人欲了知,三世一切佛;
應觀法界性,一切唯心造。

 

If you wish to understand
All Buddhas of the three periods of time,
You should contemplate the nature of the Dharma Realm:
Everything is made from the mind alone.

「若人欲了知」:假設一切的人若想要知道、要明白「三世一切佛」:三世一切佛都是人成的。

 

If you wish to understand, if anyone wants to know all Buddhas of the three periods of time, the Buddhas of the three periods of time were all originally people who became Buddhas.

「應觀法界性」:應該看看這個法界性。這法界的眾生,各有個性。你有你的性,我有我的性;你的脾氣就比我大一點,我的脾氣就比你深一點。你說是不是不一樣的?豬有豬性,馬有馬性;男人就有男人性,女人就有女人性,各有其性。歡喜吃甜的,這是有個甜性;歡喜吃酸的,就有一個酸性;歡喜吃辣的,就有一個辣性;歡喜吃苦的,就有一個苦性,這個修行也是苦性。樹有樹的性,花有花的性,草有草的性。各有其性,所以說「法界性」。你們現在明白了沒有?以前你們都以為是法界性,現在是法界之中的「眾生性」。

 

You should contemplate the nature of the Dharma Realm. Take a look at the nature of the Dharma Realm. Each living being in the Dharma Realm has its own nature. You have your nature, and I have my nature. For example, your temper is a bit bigger than mine, and my temper is a little deeper than yours. Would you say that they're the same? Pigs have pig-natures, horses have horse-natures, men have a masculine nature, and women have a feminine nature. Each kind has its own nature. Those who like to eat sweet things have sweet natures. Those who like sour things have sour natures. Those who are fond of hot flavors have hot natures. And those who prefer to eat bitter things have bitter natures. Cultivation is also bitter in nature. Trees have the nature of trees, flowers have the nature of flowers, and grasses have the nature of grasses. Each kind has its own nature, so we call it the nature of the Dharma Realm. Do you understand now? In the past, you thought that this referred to the nature of the Dharma Realm, but now I've explained it as the "nature of the living beings" in the Dharma Realm.

「一切唯心造」:《華嚴經》上說:「萬法唯心造」,佛就是由你心造成的。你心要是修佛法,就成佛道;你心歡喜菩薩,就行菩薩道,成菩薩。乃至於你心願意墮地獄,你就往地獄那兒跑,將來就墮地獄。所以說「十法界不離一念心」。

 

The Avatamsaka Sutra says, "The myriad dharmas are made from the mind alone." The Buddha is created by your mind. If your mind cultivates the Buddhadharma, then you will accomplish the Buddha Way. If your mind is delighted by Bodhisattvas, then you will practice the Bodhisattva Path and become a Bodhisattva. And if your mind wishes to fall into the hells, then you'll head in the direction of the hells, and eventually fall into them. That's why it's said, "The Ten Dharma Realms are not beyond a single thought."

(一)佛法界

不大不小,非去非來;
微塵世界,交映蓮臺。

 

(1) The Dharma Realm of Buddhas

Neither great nor small,
Neither come nor gone,
In worlds as many as motes of dust,
They shine upon each others' lotus thrones.

「不大不小」:當我第一次聽到梵文「佛陀」(Buddha),就聽成一個「不大」。「不大」是什麼?是佛。就是沒有貢高心、沒有我慢心、沒有一個我。「不小」,也不小;若不大,可是會小,那也不是佛了,所以又不小,不大不小。

 

Neither great nor small: When I first heard the Sanskrit word "Buddha," it sounded like bu da (Chinese for "not big.") What is not big? The Buddha. That means he has no arrogance, no pride, and no ego. He is not small either. If he weren't big, but he was small, then he wouldn't be the Buddha either. The Buddha is neither big nor small.

「非去非來」:佛的法身是盡虛空遍法界的,無在無不在的,你若說他去,去到什麼地方?你若說他來,又來到什麼地方?根本他的法身是周遍的,不是單單就在我們這一個世界,而是所有微塵微塵那麼多的世界,無量無量無邊無邊那麼多的世界,都是佛的法身,所以說「微塵世界」。

 

Neither come nor gone: The Buddha's Dharma-body reaches to the ends of space and pervades throughout the Dharma Realm. It is nowhere present and yet nowhere absent.

If you say it goes, to where does it go? If you say it comes, to where does it come? The Buddha's Dharma-body is universally pervasive; it is not only in this world, but in worlds as many as tiny specks of dust. Limitlessly and boundlessly many worlds are all the Buddha's Dharma-body; that's why it is said to be in worlds as many as motes of dust.

「交映蓮臺」:交映,就是這個法界這佛的光照著那個法界的佛。那個法界那佛的光又照著這個法界。佛在蓮臺上坐著,互相放光動地,不但六根門頭放光動地,每一個毛孔上都是放光動地。每一個毛孔又現出來微塵世界無量無邊那麼多的諸佛,就在那一個毛孔上現出來。每一個佛都是這樣子放光,無量無邊的。光與光不衝突,光與光都是和的,所以我們佛教是和光的。我們人與人也不要相衝突,這個交映就是你的光照著我,我的光又照著你,光光相照,孔孔相通,和大梵天王那個網羅幢一樣的,帝網重重,無盡無盡,這是第一個佛法界是這樣子的。

 

They shine upon each others' lotus thrones. The light emitted by the Buddhas in this Dharma Realm shines on the Buddhas in other Dharma Realms; and the light of the Buddhas in those other Dharma Realm also shines on this Dharma Realm. The Buddhas are seated on lotus thrones, shining their lights upon one another and causing the earth to shake. Not only do their six sense organs emit light and shake the earth, their every hairpore emits light and shakes the earth. Furthermore, in each hairpore appear limitlessly and boundlessly many Buddhas in worlds as many as motes of dust. They all manifest in a single hairpore. And every one of the Buddhas emits infinite and boundless light. These lights do not obstruct one another. The lights mutually unite, and so we Buddhist disciples should also unite our light. There shouldn't be clashes between people. This "shining" means your light shines on me, and my light shines on you. The lights shine on one another, similar to the way the holes are mutually connected in the circular net canopy of the Lord of the Great Brahma Heaven. The multiple layers of his imperial net are infinite and inexhaustible. The first Dharma Realm, the Dharma Realm of the Buddhas, is also that way.

(二)菩薩法界

有情覺悟,跳出塵埃;
六度萬行,時刻培栽。

 

(2) The Dharma Realm of Bodhisattvas

Sentient beings when enlightened
Leap out of the dust.
Their six perfections and ten thousand practices
At all times are nurtured.

「有情覺悟」:菩薩是梵語,翻譯過來叫「覺有情」,覺悟一切有情,令一切有情都覺悟了,這是一個講法。第二,菩薩是有情中的一個覺悟者。這兩個講法我們都有份,有份成菩薩。因為我們都是一個有情的眾生,我們也可以在眾生媄銊竣@個覺悟者。我們又可以用這個覺悟的道理,去覺悟一切眾生。同樣地,佛就譬如大人,我們就譬如小孩,天天要吃奶,天天要聽法。聽法是特別能增長人的善根,特別能開人智慧的。所以你若能有機會聽法,那比你賺多少錢都有價值。有這個時間來研究佛法,你說多好!

 

Sentient beings when enlightened: Bodhisattva is a Sanskrit word which translates as "enlightened sentient being" or "enlightener of sentient beings." A Bodhisattva is one who teaches all sentient beings to become enlightened. That's one explanation. Another explanation is that a Bodhisattva is an enlightened one among sentient beings. We have a share in both explanations; we can also become Bodhisattvas. Since we are living beings endowed with sentience, we can also become enlightened ones among living beings. Then we can use the enlightened principles to enlighten all other living beings. Similarly, a Buddha can be compared to a grownup, while we are like small children. Every day we must drink milk, and every day we must listen to the Dharma. Listening to the Dharma is especially helpful in making our good roots grow and bringing out our wisdom. Therefore, if you have the opportunity to listen to the Dharma, it will be worth more than any amount of money you could make. How fine it is if you can have the time to investigate the Buddhadharma!

我希望我們這兒的人,不要那麼多的旅行,為什麼呢?因為旅行太危險了。你看看,每一個放假的日子,死的人就不只一個,一定是多過一個。那麼多過一個,或者去旅行就有份了。這個國家(美國)人人都願意玩、願意去旅行。我們佛教徒就要改善這個風氣。放假的日子,有這個時間來研究佛法、誦經、念咒、拜佛,那更好。

 

I hope the people here will not travel too much. The reason I say this is because travelling is very dangerous. Have you noticed that there's always more than one death during every vacation or holiday? So if you take a trip, you risk being among the casualties. Americans really enjoy having fun and taking vacations. We Buddhists should turn this trend around. It would be better to spend our vacations investigating the Buddhadharma, reciting sutras and mantras, and bowing to the Buddhas.

菩薩,是有情中的一個覺悟者,覺悟中的一個明白者,明白中的一個修行者,修行中的一個實行者。「跳出塵埃」:你若不明白,就跳不出這個塵埃,因為這個塵太厚了,所以你跳不出去。你若覺悟了,這個塵埃就薄了,就跳出去了。跳出塵埃以後,怎麼辦呢?是不是就睡覺、吃飯呢?不錯,還要睡覺、吃飯、穿衣服,可是不是單單就做這個工作,不是為這三個問題而生存,為著要行這個「六度萬行」:六度就是布施、持戒、忍辱、精進、禪定、智慧。有人說:「我知道,這布施就是教人布施給我。」不是的!我們要布施給人,所以我們不要這個錢。錢,是最邋遢的一個東西,你要是和它接近得太多,那就是塵埃;你能不要錢,那是最清淨了,就跳出塵埃了。

 

Among sentient beings, a Bodhisattva is an enlightened one. Among enlightened ones, he is one who understands. Among those who understand, he is one who cultivates. And among those who cultivate, he is one of true practice. If you don't understand, then you won't be able to leap out of the dust, because the dust is too thick. When you become enlightened, the dust has thinned out and you can leap out of it. What do you do after leaping out of the dust? Do you just sleep and eat? Well, you still have to sleep, eat, and dress, but those aren't the only things you do. You don't live for those three matters. Rather, you live in order to cultivate the six perfections and ten thousand practices. The six perfections are giving, holding precepts, patience, vigor, samadhi, and wisdom. Someone says, "I know what giving means. It means other people give me things." Wrong! You should give to others. You shouldn't want money. Money is the filthiest thing, and if you stay in close proximity to it for too long, you will be defiled by it. If you don't want money, then you are very pure and can leap out of the dust.

「時刻培栽」:不是說今天我修行,明天就不修了;今年我修行,明年就不修了;這個月我修行,那個月就休息啦!今生我修行,來生就不修行啦!或者這一刻我修行,那一刻又睡覺去了。不是的!時時刻刻、生生世世,我們都要修行這六度萬行。如果你能這樣子,那就是菩提薩埵了。

 

At all times are nurtured: It shouldn't be that you cultivate today, but don't cultivate tomorrow, or that you cultivate this year, but next year you don't cultivate anymore. Or maybe you cultivate this month, but take a rest next month! Perhaps you cultivate in this life, but fail to cultivate in the next life. Or you cultivate in this moment, but by the next moment, you've fallen asleep. That's not the way! In every moment and at all times, in life after life, we must cultivate the six perfections and ten thousand conducts. If you can do this, then you are a Bodhisattva.

你以為菩薩那麼容易就做啊?沒有那麼容易的!不單菩薩不容易做,這個緣覺、聲聞,也都不容易做的。做什麼容易呢?做鬼、墮地獄、做畜生最容易。「難」就是「不容易」的一個別名。所以菩薩就要行人家難行能行的苦行,難忍能忍的這種忍辱。不是不容易,就不幹了;要往前進,精進就是菩薩,就是這樣,沒有旁的巧妙的。你能做人家所不能做的事情,那就是菩薩。

 

Did you think it was easy to be a Bodhisattva? It's not that easy! Not only is it not easy to be a Bodhisattva, it's not easy to be One Enlightened to Conditions or a Hearer, either. What is it easy to be? It's easiest to become a ghost, to fall into the hells, or to become an animal. "Difficult" is another way to say "not easy." A Bodhisattva must undertake bitter practices which other people find difficult to undertake, and endure what others find hard to endure. He doesn't give up on doing those things which are not easy to do. One must always advance; one who is vigorous is a Bodhisattva. That's all there is to it. There's no other esoteric or wonderful method. If you can do the things that other people cannot do, then you are a Bodhisattva.

(三)緣覺法界

緣覺聖賢,孤峰獨眠;
春花秋謝,十二連環。

 

(3) The Dharma Realm of Those Enlightened to Conditions

The holy sages enlightened to conditions
Doze high on mountain peaks alone.
Springtime's flowers wither in the fall
In a cycle of twelve interconnecting links.

「緣覺聖賢」:這緣覺的聖人,在有佛出世的時候叫緣覺;沒有佛出世的時候,就叫獨覺,他自己就會開悟的,他歡喜「孤峰獨眠」。「春花秋謝」:他看這種「春觀百花開,秋睹黃葉落」,就覺悟到這一切的事事物物,都有自然的一種生滅。「十二連環」:緣覺的聖人他就觀這十二因緣。十二因緣就是:

 

The holy sages enlightened to conditions: Those who become enlightened when a Buddha is in the world are called Those Enlightened to Conditions. Those who become enlightened when there is no Buddha in the world are called Solitarily Enlightened Ones, because they get enlightened by themselves. They like to doze high on mountain peaks alone. Springtime's flowers wither in the fall: They observe "the blooming of hundreds of flowers in the springtime, and the falling of yellow leaves in the autumn," and awaken to how the myriad things naturally come into being and then cease to be, in a cycle of twelve interconnecting links. They contemplate the twelve links of conditioned co-production:

(一)無明。他觀察這個無明從什麼地方來的?怎麼會有無明呢?
(二)行。有了無明,就有行為,就有所表現了;有所表現,就有了識。
(三)識。識就是分別。行就是個有為法;有了有為法,然後就有分別心;有分別心,就有了麻煩了。
(四)名色。這個名色就是麻煩。一有了名,這是有名的麻煩;一有了色,就有色的麻煩。名色就是麻煩,麻煩就是名色。這個事情若講起來更麻煩,不講還沒有麻煩,一講就講出麻煩來了。我沒有這麼說的時候,你根本就不知道,你沒有這麼多麻煩。我這一講,你不懂,有個不懂的麻煩了。有不懂的麻煩,就想要懂;想要懂,這就有了六入了。
(五)六入。這個六入就是想要懂,想要明白,於是乎就生出眼根、耳根、鼻根、舌根、身根、意根,就生出了這六入。這六入為什麼要生出?就是想要明白。孰不知,愈明白就愈糊塗,愈糊塗愈不明白,這就是六入。
(六)觸。這觸就是個碰。不明白,就要各處去碰,東碰、西碰、南碰、北碰、上碰、下踫,就好像那個烏蠅(蒼蠅)似的,各處去碰壁。為什麼要碰壁?就因為要明白。
(七)受。碰了之後,就有了受。沒有碰壁,就覺得很舒服;一碰壁,就覺得很不舒服。沒有人說我不好,我覺得很快樂;有人說我不好,我就覺得很不歡喜。這就是受。
(八)愛。有了領受,就生出一種愛著。我們人為什麼有一種不平安的感覺?就因為有這種愛。有了愛,就有了惡,也就是有了討厭。對於順的境界,就生出一種愛著;對於不順的境界,就生出一種厭惡。為什麼有個高興?為什麼有個不高興?就因為有一個愛,有一個惡。那個惡就是個不願意、厭惡,所以這麻煩就一天比一天多起來了。
(九)取。對於你所要愛的東西,就生出來一個取。什麼叫取呢?就是得著,想要得到。因為你愛,所以你就想要得到。
(十)有。你得到了,就滿自己的這種欲望。那麼為什麼要滿足自己的欲望?就因為想要有它,所以就有個「有」了。
(十一)生。因為有這個「有」,你想要得到屬於你自己的。這一屬於你自己的,就有了來生了。
(十二)老死。有了來生,就又有老死了。
所以這十二因緣,是緣覺聖人所修的。

 

1. Ignorance: They contemplate to see where ignorance comes from, and why it exists.
2. Activity: With ignorance, there is activity, and then there is manifestation. With manifestation, there is consciousness.
3. Consciousness: Consciousness refers to discrimination. Activity refers to conditioned dharmas. When conditioned dharmas arise, thoughts of discrimination arise. With thoughts of discrimination, the trouble comes.
4. Name and form: Name and form are the trouble. Name brings the trouble of name, and form brings the trouble of form. Name and form are the trouble, and the trouble is name and form. To talk about this matter is even more troublesome. Before I mentioned it, there was no trouble. But the mere mention of it brings trouble. Before I talked about this, you weren't even aware of it, so you didn't have that many troubles. Once I speak of it, since you don't understand, you have the trouble of not understanding. Because you have this trouble of not understanding, you wish to understand. With the wish to understand, the six sense organs come into being.
5. Six sense organs: The six sense organs come about because you wish to understand things; that's why the the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind arise. Why do the six sense organs come into being? Because of the desire to understand. But who would have known that the more you try to understand, the more muddled you get. The more muddled you become, the less you understand. That's the six sense organs.
6. Contact: Contact refers to touching or encountering. When we don't understand, we go seeking encounters everywhere: east, west, north, south, above and below, just like a fly that keeps bumping into the wall. Why do we seek encounters? Because of our desire to understand.
7. Feeling: After we touch something, there is feeling. Before we run into difficulties, we feel very comfortable. Once we encounter difficulties, we feel very uncomfortable. When no one criticizes me, we feel very happy. But if anyone says something bad about us, we get upset. That's feeling.
8. Love: When we have feelings, love and attachment arise. Why do people feel insecure? It's because of love. Once there is love, there is also hatred, or detestation. We like and cling to favorable situations, but detest adverse states. Why do we feel happy? Why do we feel unhappy? It's because we have feelings of love and hate. Hate refers to dislike and loathing. Because of these, our troubles increase day by day.
9. Grasping: When we see something we like, we want to grasp it. What is grasping? It is the action motivated by the wish to obtain something. Because you are fond of something, you wish to obtain it.
10. Becoming: Once you obtain it, you have satisfied your desire. Why do you want to fulfill your desire? It's because you want to possess things. With that wish for possession, "becoming" occurs.
11. Birth: Because of becoming, you want to possess things. Once you want to possess things, there is birth into the next life.
12. Old age and death: With another birth, there is also old age and death again.
These twelve links of conditioned co-production are cultivated by Those Enlightened to Conditions.

(四)聲聞法界

聲聞眾僧,不論女男;
四諦觀行,隱實示權。

 

(4) The Dharma Realm of Hearers

The Shravaka Sangha,
Both men and women,
Contemplate and practice the four holy truths,
Concealing the real and displaying the provisional.

「聲聞眾僧」:這聲聞法界有初果的聲聞,有二果的聲聞,有三果的聲聞,有四果的聲聞。這堶惜S分出:初果向(還沒有正式證得初果)、初果、二果向、二果、三果向、三果、四果向、四果。這個「向」,就是迴小向大。

 

The Dharma Realm of Hearers consists of Hearers of the First Fruition, Hearers of the Second Fruition, Hearers of the Third Fruition, and Hearers of the Fourth Fruition. These can further be divided into the threshold to the first fruition (those who haven't actually realized the first fruition), the first fruition, the threshold to the second fruition, the second fruitition, the threshold to the third fruition, the third fruition, the threshold to the fourth fruition, and the fourth fruition. Those in the thresholds are turning away from the small and tending toward the great.

在這個聲聞的人,又叫阿羅漢,或叫羅漢,他能以飛行變化,有神通。證果的人,不是隨隨便便就說:「我證了果了,我是阿羅漢了。」不可以的。因為證果的聖人,他走路鞋不沾地。你看他像在地上走路,但是他是在虛空媕Y,那個鞋不沾地,也不沾泥土,甚至於在濘泥堥哄A他的鞋都很乾淨的。好像法順和尚他在那個很稀的泥上面走過去,鞋上也不沾泥。這是證果聖人的一種表現。

 

Hearers are also called Arhats. They can fly through the air and manifest transformations, and they are endowed with spiritual powers. People who have realized a certain fruition in their cultivation will not casually say, "I have certified to the fruition; I have attained Arhatship." They cannot do that. When those who have certified to the fruition of sagehood walk, their feet don't touch the ground. They seem to be walking on the ground, but actually they are walking in air, and their shoes don't touch the ground. Even when it's very muddy, their shoes stay very clean. For example, even when the Venerable Fashun walked across very soft mud, his shoes didn't get muddied at all. That's a sign of one who has certified to sagehood.

初果要斷見惑,二果要斷思惑,三果要斷塵沙惑,四果也是斷了塵沙惑,無明呢?他破了一點,但是沒有完全破,沒有完全把無明都破盡了。這無明破盡了,就是成佛了。所以在等覺菩薩,還有一分的生相無明沒有破,所以就不能成佛。那麼這四果聖人,他所修的是什麼法呢?他修的這種法就是四諦法––苦、集、滅、道。

 

Those of the first fruition have to sever the delusions of views. Those of the second fruition have to sever the delusions of thoughts. Those of the third fruition have to sever the delusions as many as dust and sand. As for ignorance, they have destroyed a bit of it, but they haven't pierced through it completely. They haven't exhaus-tively destroyed ignorance. Once they do, they will attain Buddha-hood. Even Bodhisattvas at the state of equal enlightenment still have a small amount of production-mark ignorance which keeps them from becoming Buddhas. What do the sages of the fourth fruition cultivate? They cultivate the Four Noble Truths of suffering, accumulation, cessation, and the Way.

釋迦牟尼佛最初到鹿野苑度五比丘,這五個比丘本來都是佛的親戚,他們跟著佛去修道,可是有的就受不了苦。釋迦牟尼佛在雪山的時候,一天只吃一麻一麥,餓得骨瘦如柴。所以就餓跑了三個受不了苦的,只剩兩個。以後,釋迦牟尼佛在臘八那一天,天女送牛奶去,釋迦牟尼佛把牛奶喝了,這兩個也跑了,說:「修行要行苦行,你現在喝牛奶,這是不能修行,不能受苦了。」所以也就跑了。這五個人一跑就跑到鹿野苑去了。

 

In the beginning, Shakyamuni Buddha first went to convert the five Bhikshus in the Deer Park. These five Bhikshus were the Buddha's relatives. They had been cultivating the Way with the Buddha, but some of them couldn't endure the bitterness. When Shakyamuni Buddha was in the Himalayas, he ate one sesame seed and one grain of wheat each day, and he became as thin as a matchstick. Three of his relatives left because they were starving and couldn't endure the suffering, and only two remained. Later, on the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month, a heavenly maiden made an offering of milk to the Buddha. When the Buddha drank the milk, his two remaining companions also left, saying, "Cultivation consists of ascetic practice. But now you have drunk milk. That shows that you can't cultivate. You can't take the suffering." Then they left. Those five people all went to the Deer Park.

釋迦牟尼佛成佛之後,先說了《華嚴經》,沒有人聽,以後就隱實示權,就說《阿含經》,可是要對誰說呢?佛一觀察:「啊!我以前那五個同參,應該先去度他們去」。 

 

After Shakyamuni Buddha was enlightened, he first spoke the Avatamsaka Sutra, but no people were able to hear it. Later, the Buddha bestowed the provisional for the sake of the real, and expounded the Agama Sutras. To whom did he speak? The Buddha contemplated: "Oh! I should first go and teach the five people who used to be my companions in cultivation."

因為在往昔釋迦牟尼佛發了這個願:「我若成佛了,我要先度毀謗我的人,殺我的人,對我最不好的這個人,我要先去度他去。」誰對佛最不好呢?就是《金剛經》媄鋮滬蚨q利王。釋迦牟尼佛在因地做忍辱仙人的時候,在那兒修行,這個歌利王就把老修行的身體給割了。為什麼要割他的身體呢?

 

In the past, Shakyamuni Buddha had made a vow, "If I become a Buddha, I will first save the people who have slandered me, killed me, and treated me the most badly." Who treated the Buddha the most badly? The Vajra Sutra mentions the King of Kalinga. When Shakyamuni Buddha was cultivating as the Patient Immortal in his former lives, the King of Kalinga dismembered that old cultivator's body. Why did he do that?

因為釋迦牟尼佛往昔在山上修道,身上的塵土修得很厚,也不下山,在那兒用苦功,修苦行。有一天,歌利王帶著一些宮娥、婇女、妃繽,到深山打獵,這些女人很好玩的,就不跟他去打獵,於是到一個山上去。歌利王各處去打獵回來了,就找他這些女人。一看這些女人都圍在那個地方,和一個很奇怪的人在講話,這個也摸摸手,那個也摸摸腳的,很不規矩的樣子。啊!他就生出一種妒忌心了。聽聽他講什麼?是講修行、講修道!這歌利王就發脾氣來了:「你啊,不要在這兒騙女人了!你修的什麼道啊?」老修行說:「我修的是忍辱。」「什麼叫忍辱啊?」「就是誰罵我,誰打我,我也不生瞋恨心。」「你能忍辱?真的?假的?」「當然是真的。」「好,那我就試驗、試驗。」歌利王把身上的寶劍拔出來,就把忍辱仙人的手給剁下來了,說:「我現在把你的手剁下來了,你瞋恨不瞋恨?」這個老修行說:「我不瞋恨。」

 

Because Shakyamuni Buddha stayed up in the mountains cultivating the Way, his body became covered with a thick layer of dust. Yet he never came out of the mountains; he remained there working hard and cultivating ascetic practices. One day the King of Kalinga took his concubines along as he went hunting in the mountains. The concubines were were fond of playing, and instead of following the King as he hunted, they went to play in the mountains. After the King returned from hunting, he went looking for his concubines. He discovered them all standing together, talking with a very strange-looking person. They were touching his hands and feet, and it looked very improper. He was suddenly overwhelmed by a feeling of jealousy. The King listened to what the man was saying. He was talking about cultivating the Way. The King of Kalinga was enraged, "Don't you be cheating my women! Just what kind of Way are you cultivating?" The old cultivator said, "I'm cultivating patience." "What do you mean by patience?" "Patience means that no matter who curses me or beats me, I don't get angry." "You say you can be patient? Is that for real or not?" "Of course it's for real." "All right, then let me test you out." The King of Kalinga drew his jeweled sword and hacked off the cultivator's hand. Then he asked, "I've cut your hand off. Are you angry?" The old cultivator said, "No, I'm not angry."

「哦!好,你不瞋恨,真有點本事,你盡打大妄語,心婼Q恨,你口媮縣ˊQ恨,你來騙我!我是一個最聰明的人,你能騙得了我?好,你既然說你能忍辱,不生瞋恨,你另外那隻手,我也給你剁下來。」所以把那隻手也剁下來,又問:「你瞋恨不瞋恨?」老修行說:「還是不瞋恨」。於是乎,歌利王又拿著寶劍,把兩隻腳也給剁下了,又問:「你瞋恨不瞋恨?」老修行說:「我還是不瞋恨,有什麼證明呢?我要是瞋恨你,我的手腳就不能恢復如故;我要是沒有瞋恨心,我的手腳就能恢復如故,像我原來的樣子,這就證明我沒有瞋恨。」釋迦牟尼佛在因地說過這話之後,手腳果然又恢復如故。

 

"Fine! You're not angry? Then you've really got some skill. But actually, you're just lying. You're angry inside, but you say you're not. Are you trying to deceive me! I'm a very intelligent person. Do you really think you can fool me? All right, since you say you can be patient, and not get angry, I'll cut off your other hand, too." The King cut the cultivator's other hand off, and then asked, "Are you angry now?" The old cultivator said, "I'm still not angry." Then the King of Kalinga raised his jeweled sword and sliced off the cultivator's two feet. Having cut off his four limbs, he asked, "Aren't you angry?" The old cultivator said, "I'm still not angry. How can I prove it? If I'm angry at you, then my limbs will not grow back. If I am not angry, then my hands and feet will grow back, and I will be just as I was before. That will be proof that I have no anger." After the old cultivator (Shakyamuni Buddha in the stage of cultivation) spoke these words, his hands and feet actually did grow back as before.

這天龍八部、護法善神,一看歌利王這麼惡,把老修行四肢給斷了。於是就大顯神威,下雹子打歌利王。歌利王也知道厲害了,看老修行有這麼大的神通變化,於是跪到老修行面前求懺悔。老修行就發願說:「我若不成佛,就沒有什麼可說的了。我若有一天成佛,我就先度你成佛。你若不開悟不成佛,我也不成佛。」因為這樣子,所以佛成佛了,就到鹿野苑,先度這個憍陳如。這老修行,就是釋迦牟尼佛,憍陳如就是歌利王。

 

When the gods, dragons, and the rest of the eight divisions of Dharma-protecting good spirits saw how the King of Kalinga had viciously cut off the old cultivator's limbs, they manifested their spiritual might and sent down hailstones to pelt the King. Seeing how devastating the consequences were and witnessing the old cultivator's spiritual transformations, the King knelt before the cultivator and begged to repent. The old cultivator then made a vow, "If I don't become a Buddha, then there's nothing to be said. But if one day I do attain Buddhahood, then I will first come and teach you to become a Buddha. If you don't get enlightened and become a Buddha, then I won't become a Buddha either. Therefore, after the Buddha attained Buddhahood, he went to the Deer Park to save Ajnatakaundinya first. The old cultivator was a former incarnation of Shakyamuni Buddha, and the King of Kalinga was a former incarnation of Ajnatakaundinya. Because the Buddha made that vow in his past life, he wanted to save the person who had treated him the worst.

那麼我們聽見這一段公案,誰對我們愈不好,我們要發願,成佛的時候要度他。不要說:「你對我這麼不好,等我成佛的時候,一定教你先下地獄。」不要發這種願。

 

Having heard this story, if we are treated badly by someone, we should make a vow to save him after we attain Buddhahood. Don't think, "You've been so mean to me. When I become a Buddha, I'm going to make you fall into the hells." Don't make that kind of vow.

那麼佛到了鹿野苑,為五比丘三轉四諦法輪。

 

When the Buddha arrived at the Deer Park, he turned the Dharma Wheel of the Four Holy Truths three times for the five Bhikshus.

初轉四諦法:

此是苦,逼迫性。
此是集,招感性。
此是滅,可證性。
此是道,可修性。

 

The first turning:

This is suffering, it's nature is oppression;
This is accumulation, it's nature is enticement;
This is cessation, it's nature is that it can be realized.
This is the Way, it's nature is that it can be cultivated;

二轉四諦法:

此是苦,汝應知。
此是集,汝應斷。
此是滅,汝應證。
此是道,汝應修。

 

The second turning:

This is suffering, you should know it;
This is accumulation, you should cut it off;
This is cessation, you should realize it;
This is the Way, you should cultivate it.

三轉四諦法:

此是苦,我已知,不復更知。
此是集,我已斷,不復更斷。
此是滅,我已滅,不復更滅。
此是道,我已修,不復更修。

 

The third turning:

This is suffering, I already know it and need not know it again;
This is accumulation, I have already cut it off and need not cut it off again;
This is cessation, I have already realized it, and need not realize it any more;
This is the Way, I have already cultivated it and need not cultivate it any more.

佛說完了這三轉四諦法輪,就說:「憍陳如,你現在在這兒被客塵來麻煩,你不得到解脫。」憍陳如一聽這「客塵」兩個字,他就開悟了。什麼叫做「客」呢?客,就不是主人。什麼叫做「塵」呢?塵,就是不乾淨的東西。我自性就是主人,自性是清淨的。所以他當時就開悟,叫「解本際」,就是明白本來的道理了。

 

After speaking the Four Holy Truths, the Buddha said, "Ajnatakaundinya, you are troubled by the guest-dust and have not obtained liberation." When Ajnatakaundinya heard the words "guest-dust" he became enlightened. What is meant by "guest"? The guest is not the host. What is meant by "dust"? The dust is something impure. The self-nature is the host, and it is pure. So Ajnatakaundinya became enlightened, and his name means "one who understands the original limit," because he understood the basic principle.

聲聞眾僧,「不論女男」:女人也可以證果,男人也可以證果,證果就是聲聞,就是阿羅漢。好像鳩摩羅什法師的母親,就是證三果的聖人。

 

The Shravaka Sangha, both men and women: Women can realize the fruition, and so can men. Once they realize the fruition, they are called Hearers, or Arhats. Dharma Master Kumarajiva's mother, for instance, realized the third fruition of sagehood.

「四諦觀行」:觀行,就是觀察來修行。觀察修行什麼呢?四諦法:苦、集、滅、道。知苦、斷集、慕滅、修道,要修這四諦的法門。

 

Contemplate and practice the four holy truths: Hearers contemplate and cultivate the four holy truths of suffering, accumulation, cessation, and the Way. They know suffering, cut off accumulation, yearn for cessation, and cultivate the Way, thus cultivating the Dharma-door of the Four Holy Truths.

「隱實示權」:本來這些個聲聞,有的是大權教的菩薩,來示現權教的聲聞,所以這叫「隱實」,把實在的功德都隱起來了。「示權」,示,就是指示;權,就是權巧方便。你不要認為他是聲聞,是小乘,你就輕看他,不要這樣子。他不是完全都是大菩薩,但其中一定有大乘菩薩,他又現一個小乘的身,來接引這個小乘,迴小向大,所以叫「隱實示權」。

 

Concealing the real and displaying the provisional: Some of the Hearers were actually great Bodhisattvas of the provisional teaching. They manifested as Hearers who practiced the provisional teaching; thus, they are said to be "concealing the real." They hid away their true merit and virtue. "Displaying the provisional" means instructing by means of clever and skillful expedients. Therefore, you shouldn't take them to be Hearers, followers of the Small Vehicle; don't look down on them. Not all of them are great Bodhisattvas, but some of them certainly are. Those Bodhisattvas of the Great Vehicle manifest as followers of the Small Vehicle in order to gather in those of the Small Vehicle, and then guide them to turn from the small toward the great. This is called "concealing the real and displaying the provisional."

(五)天法界

六欲梵天,五戒十善;
種有漏因,輪迴難斷。

 

(5) The Dharma Realm of Gods

The six desire and Brahma gods,
With five precepts and ten good acts,
Plant seeds that have outflows,
So the turning wheel is hard to stop.

「六欲梵天」:六欲天,就叫欲界天。有欲界天、色界天、無色界天,這叫三界。我們現在都在這個六欲天的四王天堨]括著。我們直接所看見的這個天,就叫四王天,有四大天王管著。這個天是在須彌山的半山腰上。

 

The six desire and Brahma gods: The six Desire Heavens are the heavens of the Desire Realm. The Desire Realm, the Form Realm, and the Formless Realm are called the Three Realms. Right now, we are under the Heaven of the Four Kings, which is one of the six Desire Heavens. The heaven which we can see directly is the Heaven of the Four Kings, ruled by the Four Great Heavenly Kings. This Heaven is located halfway up Mount Sumeru.

古來中國的人,不知道有佛,就只知道有上帝。所以商湯王的時候,他祭天就用黑牛來祭天,他說:「曰。予小子履。敢用玄牡。敢昭告於皇皇后帝。……朕躬有罪。無以萬方。萬方有罪。罪在朕躬。」他說「曰,予小子履」:湯王他的名字叫履,他說小子,就是很客氣說我是一個很沒有用的小子,一個小孩的樣子。「敢用玄牡」:就是我敢用黑色的牛,「敢昭告於皇皇后地」:我很至誠懇切地,告訴大的上帝。說什麼呢?說「朕躬有罪,無以萬方」:朕我一個人若是有罪,不要加到一般老百姓身上去。萬方,就是萬方的老百姓。「萬方有罪,罪在朕躬」:說一般老百姓如果有罪,不怪他們,因為我沒有教化好他們,所以他們的罪都應該給我。

 

The people of ancient China recognized the supreme lord, but did not know about the Buddha. In the Shang Dynasty, Emperor Tang used a black bull as an offering to the supreme lord and said, "I, Lu, but a small child, presume to use this black bull in venturing to make known to the Supreme Ruling Lord that if I have offenses, they are not the people's, and if the people have offenses, the offenses rest with me." Emperor Tang's name was Lu, and he referred to himself as a small child out of respect for the supreme lord. He earnestly told the Lord that if he made errors, the citizens should not be blamed, and that if the common folk of his country committed offenses, the responsibility should rest with the Emperor for not having taught them correctly.

所以古來的聖人,他是這樣自己責罰自己,不像現在的人,明明自己有罪,還說:「喔!不關我事,那是他的。」「那是他的不對嘛!怎能怪我呢?」「你這個上帝,真是不公平,為什麼他那麼有錢?我這麼窮?為什麼他那麼樣出貴?我這麼樣賤?」總是怨天尤人,什麼事情不說自己的不對,就找人家的不是。古來的聖人,是認自己錯的。

 

The ancient sages and worthies would always blame and punish themselves, unlike people nowadays who, clearly knowing they are at fault, say, "Oh, I didn't have anything to do with it. It's all his doing." "It's his fault, so why are you blaming me?" "God, you're really unfair! Why is that person so rich, while I'm penniless? Why is he so honored, while I'm lowly?" They damn heaven and curse at people, never admitting that they are wrong, and only looking for the faults of others. The ancient sages always acknowledged their own mistakes.

第二天「帝釋天」。這個天在中間,東邊有八天,西邊有八天,南邊有八天,北邊有八天,四八三十二天,這是第二個欲天。

 

The second heaven is the heaven of Lord Shakra. There are eight heavens to its east, eight heavens to its west, eight heavens to its south, and eight heavens to its north, making thirty-two heavens surrounding it. That's the second heaven in the Desire Realm.

第三天「夜摩天」。這個天上的天人非常快樂,一天到晚都唱歌。唱什麼歌呢?就是我快樂得很呀!晝夜六時他都是快樂的,所以「夜摩」翻譯過來叫「時分」,每一個時分他都是快樂的。

 

The third heaven is the Suyama Heaven. The beings in this heaven are extremely happy, and they sing songs from morning to night. What do they sing? They sing, "How happy I am!" They are happy in the six periods of the day and night. Suyama means "time period," because every time period is joyful.

第四天「兜率天」。「兜率」翻譯成中文叫「喜足」。時時都歡喜,時時都滿足,這就是知足常樂。因為知足,所以常常快樂;就是一天到晚都無憂無愁的,沒有煩惱。又叫「知足天」,因為他們能知足常樂,且無憂愁無煩惱。

 

The fourth is the Tushita Heaven. Tushita means "blissfully content." The gods are constantly happy and satisfied. Since they know to be content, they are always happy. From morning to night, they have no cares or worries, and no afflictions. This heaven is also called the Heaven of Contentment, because the gods are constantly content and happy, with no worries or afflictions.

第五天「化樂天」。這天的天人,他會變化他的快樂。思衣衣來,思食食至,變化自在,故非常快樂。

 

The fifth is the Heaven of Bliss by Transformation. The gods can obtain happiness by transformation. When they think about clothing, clothing appears. When they think about food, food appears. Freely performing transformations, they are extremely blissful.

第六天「他化自在天」。他化,就是他自己本來沒有快樂,他能把其他天上的快樂,拿來做為他自己的快樂。為什麼他要把旁的、天上的快樂拿到他自己來?就因為他不講道理;好像人間的土匪,搶人的錢做為他自己的錢,把人家的東西搶來,做為他自己的東西,不顧他人之死活。這埵陶\多天魔及其眷屬。

 

The sixth is the Heaven of Transformation of Others' Bliss. Originally these gods had no happiness of their own, so they take the bliss of other heavens and transform it into their own. Why do they do this? It's because they're unprincipled. They're just like bandits in the human realm who seize the wealth and possessions of other people for themselves, not caring whether others live or die. Many celestial demons and their retinues can be found in this heaven.

六欲梵天,前面講的是六欲天。梵天,就是大梵天、梵眾天、梵輔天。他們是修「五戒十善」,所以得這天上的福報,但這都是種有漏的善根,所以說「種有漏因,輪迴難斷」:種有漏的因,輪迴還是難斷,修出世因才可以超脫輪迴。

 

"The six desire and Brahma gods": The six Desire Heavens have already been discussed. The Brahma heavens refer to the Great Brahma Heaven, the Heaven of the Multitudes of Brahma, and the Heaven of the Ministers of Brahma. They cultivated the five precepts and ten good acts, thus earning the blessings of being born in the heavens. But these are good roots which have outflows. They plant seeds that have outflows, / So the turning wheel is hard to stop. Since they plant these seeds that have outflows, it is difficult for them to end birth and death. One must cultivate the causes for transcending the world if one wants to escape the turning wheel of samsara.

(六)阿修羅法界

修羅性暴,有福無權;
好勇鬥狠,浮沈業牽。

 

(6) The Dharma Realm of Asuras

Asuras have a violent nature;
Laden with blessings, lacking power,
Absolutely determined to fight,
They bob along in karma's tow.

「阿修羅」是梵語,翻譯過來叫無端正;無端正就是醜陋。男的阿修羅,相貌非常醜陋,愛向外鬥爭;女的阿修羅,相貌非常美麗,愛用心來鬥爭,也就是所謂的妒忌、障礙、無明、煩惱。

 

Asura is a Sanskrit word which means "unattractive" or "ugly." Male asuras are extremely ugly and love to fight with others. Female asuras are extremely beautiful, but they love to wage mental wars using jealousy, obstructiveness, ignorance and afflictions.

這一類的眾生,自成一個法界,但是無論在哪一道媄銦A好鬥爭的、脾氣非常大的,願意指揮其他人,不願意受其他人指揮;願意管其他人,不願意受其他人管,這都是修羅的表現。 人間修羅有善惡之分,善的阿修羅就是國家的軍隊、兵、將軍;惡的阿修羅,就是土匪、小偷、偷人東西的、強搶人東西的、好打人的、好殺人的,這都叫阿修羅。

 

Although the asuras are an individual Dharma Realm by themselves, no matter which destiny it is, if there are aggressive fighters with huge tempers who like to order others around but don't like be ordered around, who like to supervise others but don't like to be supervised, these are also manifestations of asuras.

人間修羅有善惡之分,善的阿修羅就是國家的軍隊、兵、將軍;惡的阿修羅,就是土匪、小偷、偷人東西的、強搶人東西的、好打人的、好殺人的,這都叫阿修羅。

 

Among people, asuras can be good or bad. The good asuras include military officials and soldiers, and the bad asuras are bandits, thieves, and so forth. In general, those who like to steal other people's things, seize others' belongings, beat people, or kill people, are all called asuras.

天上的阿修羅,他和天兵、天將去作戰。一天到晚,總想要搶帝釋天的寶座,想要把帝釋天打倒了,他去做帝釋天。可是他戰來戰去,總要失敗的。為什麼呢?因為他可以在天上享受這個天福,但是他不能有權利。所以他雖然和天兵、天將作戰,始終是失敗的。

 

In the heavens, the asuras wage war with the heavenly troops. From morning to night, they hope to overthrow Lord Shakra and seize the jeweled throne. But they are defeated every time, because although they possess the blessings of gods, they lack the power of gods. Therefore, they may wage war with the heavenly troops, but they are always defeated.

畜生堛漯修羅,牠就願意欺負其他的同類,欺負其他的畜生,好像豺狼、老虎、獅子,都想吃其他的畜生,就因為牠是一種修羅性。還有蛇、鷹,都是阿修羅。

 

The asuras in the animal realm tend to take advantage of the other animals. Wolves, tigers, and lions, for example, wish to eat other animals, because they have asura natures. Snakes and eagles are also asuras.

鬼媕Y也有阿修羅,他就欺負其他的鬼。這鬼媕Y也有善鬼、也有惡鬼。這惡鬼啊,在鬼媕Y,他也不講道理。本來鬼就是不講道理的,他在這個不講道理的媄銦A更不講道理。

 

Asuras in the ghost realm bully other ghosts. There are good ghosts and evil ghosts. The evil ghosts refuse to listen to reason. Basically, ghosts generally cannot be reasoned with, but the evil ghosts are the most unreasonable among the unreasonable.

「修羅性暴」:他的性是非常暴躁的,「有福無權」:他有天福,而沒有天權。想要爭權奪利,但是也爭不到,「好勇鬥狠」:他就是好鬥爭。現在你看這個世界,都是修羅世界,都講鬥爭、鬥爭;鬥爭這個,鬥爭那個,你把我鬥倒了,我把你鬥臭了。「浮沈業牽」:由他業力牽引著,到那業道媕Y去。所以人修行,切記不要和人鬥爭,不要好勇鬥狠,不要性暴,那麼就和修羅脫離關係了。

 

Asuras have a violent nature: they are extremely violent in nature. Laden with blessings, lacking power: they have heavenly blessings, but no power in the heavens. They struggle for power and gain, but fail to get them. Absolutely determined to fight: they just love to fight. Take a look at this world: it's a world of asuras. All that people talk about is fighting, fighting, fighting. People are fighting for this and fighting for that. You knock me over, and I push you down. They bob along in karma's tow: they are dragged by the force of their karma into the karmic destinies. Therefore, cultivators must avoid fighting at all costs. Don't be so belligerent and eager to fight. Don't have an explosive temper, and then you won't be associated with asuras.

總而言之,阿修羅就是不講道理,無論對任何人,他常常要發脾氣。若詳細分析起來,在這九法界媕Y的眾生,有五個法界媕Y都有阿修羅。畜生法界媄銦A飛禽有飛禽的阿修羅,走獸有走獸的阿修羅;好像那鱷魚,那就是水堛漯修羅。馬也有阿修羅,有這個馬在媄銦A這馬群就很多麻煩,這叫「害群之馬」。牛也多數是阿修羅,這個牛性,就是阿修羅的性。狗更是阿修羅,人若愛養狗,常與狗接近,也可能變成修羅性格,所以小心一點,不要跑到阿修羅媕Y去。

 

In general, asuras refuse to listen to reason. They constantly lose their temper at everyone. If we take a closer look at the asuras, we find that five of the nine Dharma Realms contain asuras. In the Dharma Realm of animals, there are asuras among the birds and asuras among the beasts. For example, crocodiles are asuras in the aquatic world. There are also horse asuras. In a herd of horses, there may be one horse which causes a lot of trouble. That's known as "a horse which harms the herd." Most bulls are also asuras. The bovine nature is an asura nature. Dogs are even more prone to be asuras. People who raise dogs and spend a lot of time with dogs may also develop asura natures, so be careful! Don't run off to join the asuras.

(七)人法界

人道和合,功罪相間;
德升孽降,豈有他焉!

 

(7) The Dharma Realm of People

The way of people is harmony,
With merit and offenses interspersed.
On virtuous deeds you rise, offenses make you fall;
It has nothing to do with anyone else at all.

人道也有善,也有惡。人的性情很溫和的,和誰都能合得來,所以說「人道和合」。「功罪相間」:人也不是完全善,也不是完全惡。完全善就升到天上去了,完全惡又去做畜生、做餓鬼、墮地獄了。所以又有一點功,又有一點罪;或者功多過少,或者功少過多。功多罪少的,就生在富貴的家庭;功少罪多的,就生在貧困的家庭。在這媄鉹d差萬別,隨著各人所造善惡業的多少而有分別。不是純陰,也不是純陽。純陰者就會變鬼去,純陽者就升天了,不會做人了。「德升孽降」:你做善功德,就向上升一升;你若造罪孽過,就向下降一降。「豈有他焉」:其他人不會教你墮地獄,不會教你去做餓鬼,不會教你去變畜生,都是你自己造的,所謂「自作自受」,自己做自己就去受去,這是人道。

 

There are good people and bad people. Human beings are harmonious by nature and can get along with anyone, so the verse says, The way of people is harmony. / With merit and offenses interspersed. People are neither completely good nor completely bad. If they were completely good, they would ascend to the heavens. If they were completely bad, they would become animals or hungry ghosts, or fall into the hells. They have a bit of merit, but they also have a bit of offenses. Either their merit exceeds their offenses, or their offenses exceed their merit. When a person's merit is greater than his offenses, he will be born in a rich and distinguished family, but with little merit and many offenses he will be born into a poor family. Between these two extremes are myriad differences and distinctions, based on the amount of good and bad karma each individual has created. People are neither totally yin nor totally yang. Those who are totally yin may become ghosts, while those who are predominantly yang will ascend to the heavens, instead of remaining as people. On virtuous deeds you rise, offenses make you fall. If you perform deeds of merit and virtue, you will ascend. If you commit heavy sins, you will descend. It has nothing to do with anyone else at all. Other people cannot make you fall into the hells, become a hungry ghost, or turn into an animal. That happens only because of the offenses you yourself committed. As it's said, "You commit the offenses yourself, and you also undergo the retribution yourself." That's the human realm.

(八)畜生法界

畜生好貪,多而無厭;
將黑作白,是非莫辨。

 

(8) The Dharma Realm of Animals

Eager animals feed on greed,
Never sated by a lot.
Because they make what's black white,
They don't distinguish wrong from right.

前邊所講的七個法界,都是好一點的法界,可以試一試,到那兒去做一做戲去。唯獨現在這三個法界,這不可以嘗試的,你試試看就恐怕跑不出來了,否則「一失人身,萬劫不復」,所以這是很危險的。

 

The seven Dharma Realms discussed above are relatively good ones, and you can try them out. You can enter them as if taking part in a play. But you shouldn't try out the three Dharma Realms which will be discussed now. If you try them out, you might not be able to get out again. It is said, "Once you lose your human body, you may not regain it for ten thousand eons," so this is very dangerous.

現在這個畜生道,不是一類的畜生,畜生也有百千萬億種類不同。你看就單那飛的畜生,就有百千萬億種不同類的樣子。那麼走的畜生呢?也不少。小的老鼠是很小的畜生,大的大笨象是大的畜生,鹿、熊、馬、牛,都是大的畜生,這在陸地上的畜生,也有百千萬億種。在水堛滲b生也有百千萬億種,有水狗、水牛、水馬。就是研究物理、化學、生物學、動物學的這些個人,無論你是個博士,是個專家,都沒有法子完全一定知道畜生的種類。

 

Now, the realm of animals does not merely consist of only one kind of animal. There are billions of different species of animals. If you consider just the flying animals, there are already hundreds of thousands of myriads of varieties. Animals that walk and crawl are also quite numerous. They may be as small as mice, or as large as elephants. Deer, bears, horses, and cows are also large animals. These are all land animals, of which there are also hundreds of thousands of myriads of species. Aquatic creatures, such as seals, water buffaloes, and sea horses, are also infinite in variety. Even physicists, chemists, biologists, zoologists, or other specialists or Ph.D.s cannot completely understand all the different kinds of animal species in the world.

這些個畜生,都是從什麼地方變的?只是一個「貪」字。「畜生好貪」:就是無論什麼,都是多多益善,少少不行。因為牠「多而無厭」,所以黑的,牠也不知道是黑的。牠說:「哦,這是白的。」所以「將黑作白」:不好的,牠也認為好的,這就表示牠沒有理性了,所以無論什麼都貪多,甚至於狗屎那麼邋遢的東西,牠愈吃愈覺得愈香愈甘美。「是非莫辨」:也不知道對,也不知道是不對,是非都不辨了,不清楚了,這就是沒有理性了。有這一個「貪」字,就糊塗了,無明把牠蓋住了,什麼也不知道了。

 

Where do animals come from? They come from greed. Eager animals feed on greed. No matter what it is, they want a whole lot of it, the more the better; a little won't do. Because they are never sated by a lot, they can't tell that something is black. They'll say that it's white. Because they make what's black white, they take what is not good to be good. This shows that they have no power of reasoning. So they're greedy for great quantities of everything. They're even greedy for something as filthy as dog excrement. The more they eat, the more aromatic and savory they find it. They don't distinguish wrong from right. They don't know what's right and what's wrong. They can't distinguish between right and wrong, because they're not clear about it. They don't have the ability to reason. Because of their greed, they become confused. They are covered by ignorance and know nothing at all.

所以我們人呢,你貪多就有危險。貪多,就容易變畜生。我告訴你,出家人若是不依照佛的戒律去修行,墮落更快一點,所以古來有那麼一句話:「地獄門前僧道多」,都在地獄門前等著。那個貪心的老道、貪心的和尚,他覺得那個地方很好玩,所以他要去,去到那兒就知道不是很好玩的地方。

 

If we are very greedy, we are in danger of turning into animals. Let me tell you, if left-home people fail to cultivate according to the precepts established by the Buddha, they will fall even faster. The ancients had a saying, "Many of those standing at the gates of the hells are Buddhist monks and Taoist priests." They are all waiting at the gates of the hells. Those greedy Taoist cultivators and greedy monks thought that the hells would be a fun place to go, but after they get there, they find out that it's not fun at all.

(九)餓鬼法界

鬼類喜瞋,昧果迷因;
無明顛倒,日積月深。

 

(9) The Dharma Realm of Hungry Ghosts

The ghostly crew delights in hate,
Deluded by effects, confused about cause.
Their ignorance and upside-downness
Grow greater each day, deeper each month.

一般人都知道鬼,有的人相信有鬼,有的人就說 沒有鬼,甚至於有些佛教徒也不相信有鬼。什麼叫鬼?鬼就是一種陰氣,一股陰氣,它有影而無形,有形而無影。你或者看見它一個黑影,你細研究,它又沒有了,或者看見它好像是個人似的,可是轉眼間也沒有了。這種道理是很不容易把它弄清楚的。

 

Most people have heard of ghosts. Some people believe in ghosts, but others say that ghosts don't exist. There are even some Buddhists who don't believe in ghosts. Just exactly what are ghosts? Ghosts are masses of yin energy which have shadow and no form, or form and no shadow. Sometimes you may see a dark shadow, but when you look closer it disappears. Perhaps you see what appears to be a person, but it vanishes in the twinkling of an eye. It's not easy to understand the principles behind such phenomena.

鬼有多少種呢?鬼的種類也像琲e沙數那麼多。你若想明白鬼的種類有多少,你就要修道;修道等你開了五眼六通了,那麼有多少種鬼你都會知道了。

 

How many varieties of ghosts are there? There are as many kinds of ghosts as the sands in the Ganges' River. If you want to know how many kinds of ghosts there are, you have to cultivate the Way. When you cultivate to the point that you open the five eyes and attain the six spiritual powers, then you'll know how many kinds of ghosts there are.

有的人說:「沒有鬼。」我就告訴他,若沒有鬼,也就沒有佛,也沒有人了,也沒有一切的畜生了。因為畜生、人、阿修羅也是從鬼變的,乃至於天道、阿羅漢、緣覺、菩薩、佛,都是從鬼道上來的。為什麼呢?因為這十法界不離一念心。這一念心,就造成十法界。你做鬼事,就墮落到鬼道去;做人事,就到人道去;做阿修羅的事,就跑到阿修羅媕Y去;你做阿羅漢的事,就跑到阿羅漢媄銗h;你做緣覺,就跑到緣覺媄銗h;你若做菩薩的事,就跑到菩薩的眷屬媄銗h;你若做佛事呢,就成佛;你若做地獄的事,就墮地獄。所以這都是由你現前一念心造成的。

 

As to the people who say that there are no ghosts, I tell them that if there are no ghosts, then there are also no Buddhas, no people, and no animals. This is because animals, people, and asuras are also transformations of ghosts. The gods, Arhats, Those Enlightened By Conditions, Bodhisattvas, and Buddhas all come from the destiny of ghosts. Why is this? It's because the Ten Dharma Realms are not apart from a single thought. This one thought creates the Ten Dharma Realms. By acting like a ghost, you fall into the realm of ghosts; by behaving like a person you can become a person. If you do the deeds of Arhats, then you join the ranks of Arhats. If you do the work of Bodhisattvas, then you become part of the retinue of Bodhisattvas. If you perform the deeds of Buddhas, then you'll become a Buddha. If you do hellish things, then you'll fall into the hells. So this is all created from the present thought of your mind.

「鬼類喜瞋」:凡是鬼的種類,就歡喜發火,生瞋恨心。對他好,他也生瞋恨心;對他不好,他也生瞋恨心。他最歡喜是什麼呢?就是給其他人麻煩。你對他好,他也給你麻煩;你對他不好,他也給你麻煩,所以就說:「燒香引出鬼來了」,本來你燒香是恭敬他,可是他卻給你麻煩,讓你生病了。所以孔子講:「敬鬼神而遠之」,這鬼神你恭敬是要恭敬他,可是你不要和他接近,要離他遠一點。

 

The ghostly crew delights in hate: Ghosts like to vent their tempers and get angry. If they are treated well, they get mad. If they are treated badly, they also get mad. What do they like to do best? They like to give people trouble. If you are good to them, they give you trouble. If you aren't good to them, they also give you trouble. There's a saying, "Lighting a stick of incense calls forth the ghosts." They come to bother you and make you get sick. So Confucius said, "One should respect the ghosts and spirits, but stay far away from them." You should certainly respect the ghosts and spirits, but don't get near them. It's better to keep them at a distance.

「昧果迷因」:果,他也不明白;因,他也不懂,所以他就不知道好壞。本來種好因結好果,種善因結善果,種不善因就結惡果。種瓜就得瓜,種豆就得豆,他不懂這個因果道理。所以他種了茄子就想要吃辣椒,種了辣椒就想吃黃瓜,就這麼亂七八糟地胡搞,這叫昧果迷因。他「無明顛倒」這種行為,「日積月深」:一天一天就積得很多,愈造愈深,愈深他愈造,所以墮鬼道。

 

Deluded by effects, confused about cause. Since they aren't clear about the effects, and they don't understand the causes, they can't tell the difference between good and bad. Basically, if you plant good causes, you will receive good effects. If you plant bad causes, you will receive bad effects. If you plant melons you will get melons; if you plant beans you will get beans. Since they don't understand cause and effect, they plant eggplant in the hope of harvesting hot peppers, or plant hot peppers and anticipate eating cucumbers. They do things in total confusion; that's what is meant by being deluded by effects and confused about cause. Their ignorance and upside-downness / Grow greater each day, deeper each month. The karma they create day after day keeps adding up. The more karma they create, the deeper their offenses become, and the deeper their offenses are, the more karma they want to create, so they end up falling into the ghost realm.

(十)地獄法界

地獄憂苦,無門自鑽;
起惑造業,受報循環。

 

(10) The Dharma Realm of the Hells

The hells' anxiety and suffering
Is devoid of doors, yet one bores right in.
Giving rise to delusion, deeds are done.
The retribution is borne in due accord.

地獄是最不快樂的一個地方,你們誰願意到那個地方去旅行,我可以保證你即刻就會到。怎麼樣呢?你「愁一愁,地獄遊一遊;笑一笑,就老返少;哭一哭,地獄有個小黑屋。」你若是憂愁,這就種地獄的因。你若是笑,就種天堂的因。「自古神仙無別法,只生歡喜不生愁。」所以說,你能常常地笑,就老了也像年輕人一樣。哭,這也是一個麻煩的事情。總而言之,「地獄憂苦」:地獄沒有快樂的,是憂苦的。「無門自鑽」:本來地獄沒有門,地獄這個門是自己開的,你就硬往媃p,鑽不進去也要鑽。「起惑造業」:為什麼到地獄去啊?就因為無明,因為不明白了,所以就造出一些個惡業來了。你造了什麼業,就受什麼果報,絲毫都不會錯的,這是循環無端的,所以說「受報循環」。

 

The hells are the most miserable place. If any of you would like to take a tour there, there's a way which I guarantee will get you there instantly. What way? It is said,

Depressed and melancholy, you roam through the hells;
Happy and smiling, you enjoy eternal youth;
Weeping and woe make a small dark room in the hells.

If you becomes depressed, you are planting a seed for the hells. In contrast, if you smile, you plant a seed for the heavens. "From ancient times, the divine immortals have had no other practice than merely being happy and not being sad." So if you can always smile, then even when you're old, you'll still be youthful. If you cry, you give yourself a lot of vexation. To sum it up, The hells' anxiety and suffering are such that there is no happiness in the hells. They are melancholy and miserable. Is devoid of doors, yet one bores right in: The hells basically have no doors. You make the doors yourself, and burrow your way in by force, determined to get in at all costs. Giving rise to delusion, deeds are done. / The retribution is borne in due accord: Why do people end up in the hells? Because of ignorance and lack of understanding, they create evil karma. No matter what kind of karma you create, you have to undergo the corresponding retribution. The operation of cause and effect is never the slightest bit off. This cycle has no end to it.

十界一心,不離當念;
能覺此念,立登彼岸。

 

Conclusion:

All of these ten realms-a single thought-
Are not apart from your present thought.
If you can understand that thought,
You immediately reach the other shore.

菩薩、佛、聲聞、緣覺,這是四聖法界;天、人、阿修羅、地獄、餓鬼、畜生,這是六凡法界。合起來,叫十法界。這十法界從什麼地方生出來的?就從我們人現前一念心生出來的,所以說「十界一心,不離當念」:這十法界沒有離開你這現前一念,「能覺此念」:你現前的一念,你若明白了,「立登彼岸」:立刻就到彼岸了,就「摩訶般若波羅蜜」了。這個彼岸是什麼呢?就是覺悟、不迷惑了,就把無明破了。破無明,那個法身就現出來了。

 

The Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Hearers, and Those Enlightened by Conditions are the Four Dharma Realms of Sages. The gods, people, asuras, hells, hungry ghosts and animals make up the Six Dharma Realms of Ordinary Beings. Together, they make the Ten Dharma Realms. Where do the Ten Dharma Realms come from? They originate from the single thought presently in your mind. All of these ten realms--a single thought / Are not apart from your present thought. The Ten Dharma Realms are not beyond your present thought. If you can understand that thought: If you understand this present thought, then you immediately reach the other shore. You attain Mahaprajnaparamita. Reaching the other shore means you become enlightened and are no longer deluded. You smash through ignorance. When ignorance is shattered, the Dharma-body appears.

 

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

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