今日縱觀世界佛教，不外兩大派：1）大乘教菩薩法。「菩薩」譯為「大道心眾生」，又名「覺有情」。是以鳩摩羅什、唐玄奘等法師所譯經教為依據，盛傳至中國各地、日本、朝鮮、星加坡、馬來亞、檳城、馬尼拉、印度、越南、高棉、印尼、泰國、緬甸、美國、巴西等處，遍播大乘種子，將開無量菩薩花朵，結無量諸佛果實。2）二乘教羅漢法 。「羅漢」有三義： 1.應供、2.殺賊、3.無生。是以《阿含》等經教為依據，現盛行於錫蘭、緬甸、泰國、印度、尼泊爾、巴基斯坦等處。
Even though the Venerable Master lived in Hong Kong, he always thought of the many places in Saha world, not to mention Uttarakuru, where people had not heard the Buddhadharma. He wished to spread the seeds of Dharma to every corner of the world.
In 1961, the Venerable Master, undaunted by the prospect of hardship, decided to lecture in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, where Buddhism was virtually unknown. Since very few Australians were familiar with Buddhism, there was no monastery, only a small scale Australia Buddhist Association. On the Buddha’s birthday, the Venerable Master was invited to speak. His speech was translated by a scholar, Mr. Ji-Ning Liu of the University of Sydney. The Venerable Master remained in Australia for a year. Although the conditions were not ripe for Buddhism to develop significantly then, the Master’s dignified deportment impressed and won the respect of the local Chinese and some Australians, thus planting a seed for the future flourishing of Buddhism there.
Today is May 11th, a ceremonial day during which Buddhists in Sydney, Australia will celebrate the Buddha’s birthday. To Lun [Venerable Master’s Dharma name] can be a part of this grand event and was invited sincerely by the Chairman and all of you Dharma-protecting laypeople to speak and create Dharma affinities with the many guests. This rustic monk feels very honored. This rustic monk is particularly grateful to Mr. Jin Ning Liu, a scholar at the University of Sydney, who sponsored the ceremony and agreed to translate the lecture into English despite his tight schedule.
Buddhism began in India and has spread all over the world. Shakyamuni Buddha, the founder, was born into a royal family. He was the son of King Suddhodana and was named Siddhartha. Upon passing through the four gates of his palace, Siddhartha witnessed birth, old age, sickness and death. He recognized the impermanence of life, with its worries and suffering, and became uneasy. Consequently, he renounced his kingdom, wife, glory, riches, and pleasures, and went to Himalayas to cultivate the Path by practicing austerities for six years. Each day he ate only one grain of wheat and one sesame seed. Later, one night while sitting under the Bodhi Tree, he saw a star and became fully awakened. He then exclaimed, “Strange indeed! Strange indeed! Strange indeed! All living beings have the wisdom and virtue of the Thus Come One, yet because of their idle thoughts and attachments, they fail to realize it.” He first spoke the
Flower Adornment Sutra to teach the Dharma of Bodhisattvas. Upon hearing it, all the great heroes of the Dharma Body [Bodhisattvas] became enlightened and attained benefit according to their faith, understanding, practice, and realization. However, those of the Two Vehicles were as if deaf and dumb. “They had eyes, but failed to see Vairochana Buddha; they had ears, but did not hear the Perfect Sudden Teaching.” The World Honored One spoke provisional teachings for the sake of disclosing the true teaching, and thus spoke the Agama Sutras for those of the Two Vehicles.
The Buddha expounded the Four Noble Truths of suffering, the cause of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the Path that leads to the cessation of suffering, as well as the chain of Twelvefold Conditioned Arising: ignorance, karmic formation, consciousness, name and form, the six involvements, contact, feeling, craving, grasping, existence, birth, old age and death. He taught Six Paramitas: (1)
giving, which includes the giving of wealth, Dharma, and fearlessness; (2)
moral precepts, including the Shramanera, Bhikshu, and Bodhisattva precepts; (3)
patience, including patience with arising, patience with dharmas, and patience with nonarising; (4)
vigor, both physical and mental; (5) samadhi, including the four dhyanas, eight levels of
samadhi and nine sequential samadhis; (6)
prajna wisdom, including literary prajna, contemplative
prajna, and the prajna of reality. He gradually advanced and spoke the Vaipulya Sutras, and then he turned from the small to the great and spoke the Prajna Teaching.
When speaking the Dharma Flower and Nirvana teachings, he expanded the provisional and revealed the ultimate true teaching in all its wonder and perfection. The Thus Come One’s intention in coming to the world was thus fully and completely revealed. The teaching for Bodhisattvas, protected by the Buddhas, is called the true and ultimate meaning, which is foremost and wonderful. It was transmitted from one individual to another, by pointing directly to the mind so that one sees one’s nature and becomes a Buddha. When the World Honored One held up a flower, Venerable Kashyapa smiled and understood the wondrous principle. The World Honored One certified his understanding, saying, “I have the Right Dharma Eye Treasury, the wondrous mind of nirvana, the reality beyond appearance. The Dharma-door of mind to mind transmission, which is outside of the teachings, has been entrusted to Kashyapa.” This mind-to-mind seal was transmitted from one patriarch to another, and thus the Chan School began. When the transmission reached the 28th Patriarch, Venerable Bodhidharma, he came to China, crossing the river on a reed. He took the Dharma to China and became the first patriarch there. He bestowed the robe and bowl to the second patriarch Sheng Guang, also named Hui Ke. When the Dharma was transmitted to the Sixth Patriarch, Dhyana Master Hui Neng; a five-petaled flower bloomed, symbolizing the transmission lineages of the Chan School in China.
There are two major schools of Buddhism worldwide. One of them is Mahayana Buddhism, which teaches the Dharma of Bodhisattvas. A Bodhisattva is ‘a being who has a great mind for enlightenment’ and ‘an enlightened sentient being’. Mahayana teachings, based on the Sutras translated by Dharma Masters Kumarajiva and Xuanzang, which have been widely disseminated in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Malaya, Penang, Manila, India, Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, United States, Brazil, etc. The seeds of Mahayana Buddhism were widely spread, causing limitless Bodhisattva flowers to bloom and bearing countless fruits of Buddhas. The second major school is the Two Vehicles [Ed. Note: also known as Theravada or Hinayana] which teaches the Dharma for Arhats. Arhat has three meanings: a) worthy of offerings, b) killer of thieves, and c) unborn. This school is based on the Agama teaching which prevails in Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, India, Nepal, Pakistan, etc.
However, these two schools came from the same substance. Buddhists in later generations discriminated between great and small, creating complications and mutually rejecting each other. Such superfluous pursuits and excessive discrimination is truly pathetic. People only think that the great contains the small, while the small can never contain the great. Several years ago when I spoke in Burma, I said, “Buddhists should consider the whole world and their hearts should encompass the Dharma Realm; we should promote an intrinsic and concrete Buddhism, uniting the teachings of great and small and bringing them back to their source. May every being reach the other shore, see their original nature and become a Buddha.” In the same way, may all of you here be happy, and in the future, may you all become Buddhas and teach all beings to realize enlightenment together!