答曰： 無也！ 不應見而見，夢中見人頭有角，或夢見身飛虛空，人實無角，身亦不飛，是故無實。
As for [the simile] "like a dream," it is just as in a dream
wherein there is nothing whatsoever which is real and yet we
believe that there is something which is real. Upon
awakening we realize that there was nothing at all and then,
ironically, laugh at ourselves. So too it is with people. In
the slumber of the fetters, although reality is nonexistent,
still, they become attached. When they gain the Way they
then become aware that there is nothing which is real and
then laugh at themselves. It is because of this that it says
"like a dream."
Then again, as for dreams, it is on account of the power
of sleep that even though there are no dharmas, one
nonetheless perceives them. People are just like this. It is
on account of the power of the sleep of ignorance that, [in
the midst of] all manner of [phenomena which] do not exist,
we nonetheless perceive them to exist: the so-called "self",
"that which belongs to the self," "manhood," "womanhood,"
and so forth.
Moreover, just as in a dream, wherein although there is
nothing to be joyful about and yet one is joyful, there is
nothing to be hateful about and yet one is hateful, and
there is nothing to be frightened about and yet one is
frightened, so too it is with the beings who inhabit the
three realms. On account of the slumber of ignorance, even
though they ought not to be hateful, still they are hateful,
even though they ought not to be joyful, still they are
joyful, and even though they ought not to be frightened,
still they are frightened.
Additionally, there are five kinds of dreams: Where one's
physical health is out of balance, if heat energy is
excessive then one tends more often to dream of seeing fire
or seeing yellow or seeing red. If cold energy is excessive
then one tends more often to see water or to see whiteness.
If wind energy is excessive then one tends more often to see
flying [phenomena] or to see blackness. Also, on account of
more often thinking about and remembering that which one has
heard or seen, one then sees [those very same matters] in
dreams. Or perhaps a deva bestows a dream wishing to cause
one to become aware of a forthcoming event.
In all of these five kinds of dreams, there is nothing
which is real and yet we erroneously view [such phenomena].
People are just the same as this. On account of the causes
and conditions deriving from the power of "the [false] view
of individuality", the beings of the five paths of rebirth
may perceive the existence of four types of "self": "The
form aggregate is my self"; "form is the location of my
self"; "form is contained within my self"; or "my self is
contained within form." Just as this is the case with form,
so too it may be with feelings, perceptions, karmic
formations, or consciousness, so that [when these] four
[subsidiary views are correlated with each of these] five
[aggregates], twenty [possible subsidiary views may result].
But when one gains the Way and experiences the awakening of
actual wisdom, one becomes aware that there is nothing [in
that dream] which is actual.
Question: One should not say that dreams are devoid of
reality. Why [not]? When the thought [arising from]
consciousness encounters [the appropriate] causes and
conditions it then gives rise to consciousness in the midst
of a dream. There are all manner of conditions. In the
absence of these conditions, how would consciousness be
Reply: As for that which is nonexistent, although one
should not see it, one nonetheless sees it. In a dream one
may see a person who has horns on his head. Or perhaps, in a
dream, one may see the body flying through space. But in
actuality, people have no horns, nor does the body fly.
Therefore [these dream experiences] are devoid of reality.
Question: It is a fact that there are such things as
human heads and it is also a matter of fact that elsewhere
there are horns. It is on account of a mental deception that
one sees a person with horns on his head. It is a fact that
space exists and it is also a fact that there is such a
thing as flying. It is on account of a mental deception that
one sees the body flying. It is not [therefore] the case
that [these dream experiences] are devoid of reality.
Reply: Although there actually do exist human heads and
although there actually do exist horns, nonetheless,
[seeing] men's heads which have grown horns is a case of
Question: The world is immense and the
causes and conditions [originating in] previous lifetimes
are of all manner of different types. It may be that there
are other countries wherein there are people whose heads
have grown horns. Perhaps there are those who have but one
hand and one foot, or those who are only one foot tall, or
those who have nine heads. Why then should we consider it so
strange for a person to have horns?
Reply: Although it could be that there are
people in another country who have horns, still, when a
person native to this country whom one personally recognizes
appears in a dream with horns on his head, that [appearance]
cannot be [explained through resort to such a hypothesis].
Furthermore, when one sees in a dream a boundary to space,
an end to one of the directions, or a final point in time,
how could such a circumstance be possessed of any reality?
Wherein is there a place devoid of space, devoid of
direction or devoid of time? It is on account of these
[points that we explain that phenomena seen] in dreams are
nonexistent and yet we still perceive them as existent. You
previously asked how it could be that, in the absence of
[actual] conditions, consciousness nonetheless arises.
Although there are no conditions corresponding to the five
sense objects, still, because of a process of transformation
wrought by the power of one's own contemplation and
remembrance, the condition of a dharma [as an object of
mind] may nonetheless arise. [For instance]: if a person
[merely] speaks of the existence of [someone with] two
heads, one may, with that statement as a cause, generate a
[corresponding] thought. The fact that, even though things
in dreams are nonexistent, we nonetheless see them as
existent is just the same as this. So too it is with all
dharmas. Although all dharmas are nonexistent, still we are
able to see them, are able to hear them, and are able to be
aware of them. This is as described in a verse:
Like dreams, like magical conjurations,
Like [towns in which] gandharvas [dwell],
Just so with every single dharma:
They all are just the same as these.
It is for these reasons [discussed above] that it says
that the Bodhisattvas are aware of all dharmas as being like
~ To be continued