5．《法華三昧懺儀輔行集註》，法藏法師述，和裕出版，臺南，1996，序文 P．3 ～26，正文P．51～79。
6. THE REPENTANCE OF THE MIND
Earlier, we talked about the perverse acts of the body, however, a proverb says, "To catch a gang of criminals, one must capture their leader first." The body acts, creating delusion and karma. However, every action begins with the mind. Therefore, the Sutra of Universal Worthy's Contemplation says, "The mind is greedy for and attached to all characteristics of the Dharma, giving rise to thoughts of greed, aversion, delusion when causes and conditions and states develop. These evil thoughts can grow all weeds of karma, the ten evil deeds and the five rebellious acts. Similar to rambunctious monkeys or to glue that is meant to trap birds, greed and attachment are everywhere, pervading the six emotional organs of eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind. The karma that results from the six sense organs resembles branches, flowers and leaves, filling the three realms and birthplaces of the twenty-five categories of beings. They also breed ignorance, birth and death, and the twelve causes and conditions so that all beings experience evil retribution of the eight evils and eight difficulties.
The mind is identical to an iceberg in that the part revealed above the water is the karma of the body, while the rest hidden beneath the water is the organ of the mind. If we are not on our guard, we might think that the iceberg is just that one small part that is exposed, thus ignoring the large mountain of ice beneath the water. Then, we run the risk of crashing our boat into the iceberg and sinking. Therefore, the Bodhisattva Precepts considers every arising and movement of thought as a violation of the precepts. This is to find the origin of the offense. The origin of the cycle of birth and death is simply this one thought of ignorance. As a result, every chain of activity, consciousness, name and form, the six organs, contact, feeling, love, grasping, becoming, birth, old age and death interlock with depression and affliction. We therefore sink beneath the giant wheel of transmigration.
Once you understand how frightening the mind is, you will understand why you cultivate the recitation of the Buddha's name and investigate dhyana: it is to regulate the mind and bring it to one point so that it doesn't give rise to any false thoughts. That way, "With a clear mind, the moon reflects on water, with thoughts calmed, the sky is without a wisp of cloud."
Number Ten is to contemplate the nature of offenses as empty: To be mindful of Buddhas throughout the ten directions throughout the expansive sea of the world of the Flower Treasury. To contemplate that, "Offense karma is comparable to frost and dew; wisdom is like the sun, which dispels them." "Anyone who wishes to repent may sit upright and be mindful of the true mark" (Sutra of Universal Worthy's Contemplation) Yet the "Dharma Flower Samadhi Repentance Rites" uses dhyana contemplation to enter the true mark. Therefore, to practice the repentance based on phenomena is to practice the repentance based on noumena. Though this is no longer widespread, it complements the Dharma of Repentance and is a helpful dharma along the Way. Could the Avatamsaka Repentance be cultivated according to the Tiantai Repentance? Since the Avatamsaka Sutra's meaning and significance are wide and vast, lofty and wondrous, it is beneficial to aid it with dhyana contemplation, thus allowing for the integration and penetration of phenomena and noumena. The Repentance based on noumena is promoted because the way that repentances are cultivated nowadays, it is merely a repentance of sutra recitations. This serves as a warning for practitioners. The most widely spread repentance, the "Great Compassion Repentance," is not beyond the Avatamsaka Repentance's ten adherences and defiances of birth and death. To understand the Avatamsaka Repentance is helpful in understanding other repentances. The repentances of the mind are all the same.
V. VOWS AND TRANSFERENCES Repenting and reforming karmic obstructions comprise the initial half of a repentance practice; the latter half consists of vows and transferences, which are just as important as repentance and reform because one is turning away from evil and moving toward good. What is goodness? The difference between the Avatamsaka Repentance and other repentances lies in the text of Producing the Vow of the Avatamsaka:
May all beings make the same vows of conduct as that of Youth Good Wealth and practice the Bodhisattva Path according to Universal Worthy Bodhisattva's ten great vows of conduct: to worship and respect all Buddhas, to praise all Thus Come Ones, to vastly cultivate the making of offerings, to repent and reform of karmic obstructions, to take delight in merit and virtue, to always turn the Dharma wheel, to ask that the Buddhas remain in the world, to always follow the Buddha's teachings, to always accord with all living beings, and to make transferences universally.
Making the vows of a Mahayana Bodhisattva will ensure realization of the fruition of a Mahayana Bodhisattva in the future.
Besides making the same vows as that of Universal Worthy's vows of conduct, Korean National Master Jingyuan states in The Avatamsaka Repentance Ceremony of Universal Worthy's Vow of Conduct, "The merit of the Avatamsaka Repentance is also transferred to rebirth [in Amitabha Buddha's Land of Ultimate Bliss]." Perhaps someone will question why the merit isn't dedicated to rebirth in Vairochana Thus Come One's Flower Treasury World. It is as the Chapter of Universal Worthy's Conduct and Vows describes, "These kings of vows alone will stay with him. At all times they will guide him forward, and in a single instant he will be reborn in the Land of Ultimate Bliss."
The Avatamsaka Sutra finally leads us to the Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss. Therefore, the Avatamsaka Repentance is also based on the Chapter of Universal Worthy's Conduct and Vows. One particularly clear feature is that its transference is dedicated to rebirth in the Amitabha Buddha's Land of Ultimate Bliss.
The purpose of repentance is for a person to begin anew. The purpose of the Avatamsaka Repentance is to cause someone to reform and renew him/herself and cultivate the Bodhisattva Path. The person begins with remorse and a sense of shame. "May the offenses of the past be eradicated; may the evils of the future never occur again." The emphasis here is on upholding the precepts, understanding cause and effect, and preventing future evil. The mental attitude in holding the precepts is as explained in the Upasaka Precepts Sutra:
If one always considers a minor offense in the same light as that of a major offense, then one shall regret and be remorseful as one contemplates. One will be terrified, sad and not at all happy. Having repented and reformed most sincerely, one is delighted; thus, cautiously guarding and upholding precepts so that they never violate them again. The precepts are pure that way. Good men, once wise individuals have received the precepts, they shall commit no evil as they contemplate these three types of deeds: (1) deeds done for oneself, (2) deeds done for the world, and (3) deeds done for the Dharma.
This mentality begins with interest in others, the Bodhi resolve of the Great Vehicle. If one treats the minor precepts with the same caution and care as they would with the major precepts, then one will not violate them, thus they guard these pure precepts. Precepts are the cultivator's armor: to decisively eliminate bad habits is the only way to truly eliminate karmic obstructions. That way, one makes daily progress, on the Bodhisattva path.
1. For details, please consult Complementary Commentaries to the Dharma Flower Samadhi Repentance Ceremony. By Dharma Master Fazang. Heyu Publications: Tainan, Taiwan, 1996. "Differences in Repentances" (p.11).
2. Same as above. "Reference for Scheduling Time to Practice the Dharma Flower Samadhi" (p. 146).
3. Same as above. "The Reemergence of Repentance" (p. 3-4).
1. Upasaka Precepts Sutra. 24thvolume of the Tripitaka, Roll 6. Chinese Buddhist Cultural Center: Taiwan, Taipei, 1956. p. 1065.
2. The Great Means Expansive Buddha Flower Adornment Sutra. "Avatamsaka Repentance Ceremony" Vol. 1. Dharma Realm Buddhist Association: City of Ten Thousand Buddhas, 1999. P.77-112.
3.The Great Means Expansive Buddha Flower Adornment Sutra. "Universal Worthy's Vows of Conduct Chapter" Dharma Realm Buddhist Association: City of Ten Thousand Buddhas, 1999. p.4031-4032.
4.The Six Patriarch's Dharma Jewel Platform Sutra. Dharma Realm Buddhist Association: City of Ten Thousand Buddhas, 1999. p. 53-54.
5.Complementary Commentaries to the Dharma Flower Samadhi Repentance Ceremony. By Dharma Master Fazang. Heyu Publications: Tainan, Taiwan, 1996. Preface p.3-26, text proper p.51-79.
6.The Dharma of the Compassionate Samadhi Water Repentance.By National Master Wuda of Tang Dynasty. Hongfu Monastery: Bingcheng, 1992.
7.The Text Avatamsaka Vows. Miaotong Monastery: Gaoxiong, Taiwan. 1997. p. 10.
8.Dhyana Master Laiguo's Collection of Quotes. Heyu Publications:Tainan, Taiwan, 1999. p.222.
9.Contemporary Commentaries on the Parables Sutra. By Huijian Chen. Lingshang Lecture Hall: Taipei, Taiwan, 1991. p. 103-106.
10.Buddhism and Chinese Culture. Ed. Mantao Zhang. Great Vehicle Culture Publications: Taipei, Taiwan, 1978.
11.Ancient Chinese Culture and Buddhism. Zhongxing Wu p. 21-30.
12.The Four Classic Reader. Ed. Xieyou Qiu, Taipei, Taiwan, 1995. P. 66.
13. Three Hundred Topics in Chinese Cultural History. Ed. Shanghai Ancient Classic Publication. Jianhong: Taipei, Taiwan, 1995. p. 66.
14.What Is Taoism? Yuting Pan.