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《人物誌》

 

BIOGRAPHIES

【 水鏡回天錄白話解 】

Reflections in Water and Mirrors

憶周恩來總理
Turning Back the Tide of Destiny An Evaluation of Premier Zhou Enlai

上人講於金山寺 一九八六年三月二日 By the Venerable Master on March 2, 1986, at Gold Mountain Monastery
編輯部 英譯 English translation by Editorial Staff

周總理名恩來,浙江紹興人,留學法國。基於愛國熱忱,參加革命活動,一心復興中華民族。歸國後,奔走跋涉,百折不撓,萬難弗避。大陸政變後,被選為總理。日理萬端,夜決多策,為國宣勞,不愛身命。雖抱有孔明之愚忠,惜無子房之智隱。雖然如此,不失為中國之精英,喚醒民族之奇土。臨終骨灰,遍灑中原,望中華民族,人人學習周總理,使中國產生更多愛國之棟樑,無私之將相。

贊曰:

大公無私 至正無偏
一心為國 寢食難安
中華翹楚 民族聖賢
寄語同胞 各自勉旃

又說偈曰:

至大至剛養浩然
亙古未有俊英賢
滿腔熱血創革命
一顆丹心救倒懸
十億子孫喪考妣
 萬國元首祭靈前
 巨星隕落三百里
天地同哭民俱瞻

註解:
我們這一門課評論世界各國名人政要,凡世上有名的人,皆予以短評。中國近代名人如蔣介石、孫中山、袁世凱皆已講過。我們不談政治,所以他們活著的時候不加評論,死後再蓋棺論定,對這些人作簡短之評論。為什麼呢?因為他們對與不對,我們要讓後人知道,不能瞞蓋,隱惡揚善。

周恩來也有短處,年輕時也做過荒唐事;世上十全十美的人甚少,無瑕疵的人不多。他年輕時的事情不談,當他當總理時,卻眞是盡心為國,誠心想把中國治好。那時國家正在困苦艱難之時,他能治理中國二十多年使無大戰亂;雖有「大躍進」、「文化大革命」之類,但還不算大問題。當時若沒有周總理治理中國,問題更不知會壞到什麼地步,因此他值得我們國內外的中國人效法。不要以為,我專門講政治人物,又是國民黨,又是共產黨的,是否也想作皇帝,搞政治?不是的。這是叫大家明白哪一個政治領袖,是什麼樣的人,因此我也不怕誰批評我,我還是要給大家講一講我要說的話。  

周恩來出生於中國東北,年輕時留學法國。生來愛國,因為有這種懷抱,所以從事革命活動,在法國參加共產黨。他只有一個心願,即中華民族不要委靡不振,像東亞病夫似的;他要把中國振興起來,故回國後,奔走呼號,到處提倡中國民族要自強起來。「百折不撓」:雖然當時經過許多逆境,他也不灰心。「萬難弗避」:再困苦艱難,甚至有生命危險他也不躲避,抱著大禹王之精神去幹。  

國民黨退出大陸,共產黨接管後,周恩來被選為總理。那時中國一窮二白,正在困苦艱難之時。「日理萬機」:他每天處理一切政務,非常艱鉅。「夜決多策」:晚間仍要解決許多計劃策略。「為國宣勞」:他為國家勞苦,甚至飯不吃,覺不睡;一般人在晚間休息,他晚上還工作。「不愛身命」:他不愛惜自己的生命,只知要愛惜國家。

待續

The premier was born in Manchuria and pursued his studies in France. On account of a fervent devotion to his country, he took part in revolutionary activities, wholeheartedly determined to re­vive the spirit of the Chinese people. After returning from France, he wanted to promote the revolution, so he traveled over land and water, undaunted by the countless trials. He did not retreat from the myriad ordeals that he encountered. After the takeover in Main­land China, he was appointed Premier. By day he attended to the myriad affairs of the administration; by night he made many deci­sions of government policy. He served his country with indefati­gable vigor, laying down his very life. Although he displayed com­plete devotion similar to that of the statesman Kung Ming, it was a shame that he lacked the wisdom to retire from public life, as did the strategist Zhang Zifang. Nonetheless, he was no doubt one of the extraordinary figures of China, a unique hero who awakened the masses.

On his deathbed, he asked to have his ashes scattered across the plains of China. It is hoped that every person of Chinese ethnicity will emulate the spirit of Premier Zhou. That way, China will pro­duce more "beams and pillars"—patriotic heroes of tremendous ability, as well as military and political leaders who are impartial and unselfish.

Commentary:

In this class, we will evaluate some famous political dignitaries of the world who are deceased. We will not discuss current political affairs, which is why we don't appraise those who are still living. However, we would like to make a brief evaluation of the conduct and characteristics of those dignitaries who have passed away, so that later generations will be able to know whether what they did was right or wrong. Therefore, we will not cover up any of their wrongdoings and will only reveal their good points.

Zhou Enlai had faults too. In his youth, he did absurd and unruly things. Yet, there are very few people in this world who are perfect. Very, very few people are totally without even the smallest faults. So, we won't discuss the time of his youth, but will dwell on his career as the Premier of China. For the entirety of his career as Premier of China, Zhou Enlai  was a true and sincere person, and worked very hard in order to make  China a better nation. At that time, China was experiencing extreme  hardship. But under Premier Zhou's management, China was free of  major wars for over twenty years. Although there were movements such  as the "Great Leap Forward," the "Cultural Revolution," and so forth,  those were not grave disasters. In fact, if Premier Zhou had not been  there to manage China, there's really no telling how bad a state China  would have been in. For this reason, he is a worthy model for all of us, whether we live in China or abroad.

You must be wondering why I am engaged in discussing political  parties. Am I interested in being an emperor or involving myself in  politics? No, it is not that. I do this to inform you that these people were like and what they did. I am not afraid that other people will criticize  me. I will still say what I have to say.

The Premier Zhou was born in Manchuria, and from the time he  was very young, he loved his country. And he pursued his studies in France. On account of a fervent devotion to his country, he took  part in revolutionary activities, wholeheartedly determined to revive the spirit of the Chinese people. Inspired by the dream of  revolution, he engaged in revolutionary activities and joined the Communist Party while studying in France. He single-mindedly and wholeheartedly committed himself to the cause of raising China from her deplorable state of despondency. He didn't want China to continue to be the "sick man of Eastern Asia."

That was why after returning from France, he wanted to promote the revolution, so he traveled over land and water, undaunted by  the countless trials. He did not retreat from the myriad ordeals that  he encountered. He went everywhere, raising the consciousness of the people, exhorting them to stand up and be strong. He remained undaunted  and did not retreat in the face of difficulties and frustrations. No matter  how difficult the situation, even when he was in danger of losing his  life, he didn't turn back, but kept working at his task with great spirit.

After the takeover in Mainland China, he was appointed Premier. After the Nationalist Party retreated from Mainland China, the Communist Party took over. Zhou Enlai was elected as the Premier. China  was poverty-stricken and the national morale was extremely low. By  day he attended to the myriad affairs of the administration; by night  he made many decisions on government policy. At this extremely  difficult time, he worked arduously to run the affairs of the country. He  took on that heavy responsibility. He served his country with indefatigable vigor, laying down his very life. He labored so hard for his country that he would often skip meals and work on through the night  while other people slept. He didn't care about his own life, but only  loved and cherished his country.

To be continued

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