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《菩提田》

 

BODHI FIELD

陶淵明詩講錄(續)
Lectures on Tao Yuanming's Poems (continued)

葉嘉瑩教授講 By Professor Yeh Chia-ying
此丘尼恒音‧郇若慧 英譯 English translation by Bhikshuni Heng Yin and Josey Shun

從這個觀念上看,佛家與儒家的思想是有很大不同的。可是講到這首詩的最後,你就又會發現佛教跟儒家所講求的有一點是相同的,即無論有沒有今生來世的因果報應,你自己的內心之中都要有一種持守。那麼現在我們就來看一看陶淵明是怎樣從善惡的報應講到內心的持守的。他說,「積善云有報,夷叔在西山」;他一開篇就直截提出善惡報應的話題來,他說人們常常在說多行善事會得到好報。「云」是說的意思。誰說?是古人、古書上說的。

中國古來流傳著這樣兩句話,「積善之家必有餘慶;積不善之家必有餘殃。」「積」就是累積,言其極多的意思;是說如果是常常多行善事的人家,就一定會得到很多喜慶的報應,而多行不善或惡事的人家就會遭到災禍。

這是中國古人流傳已久的話;不僅古人這麼說,連中國古書上也都有這樣的記載。所以陶淵明一開始就以古人古書的這類說法為根據,提出「積善云有報」這種不容置疑的千古話題。可是下一句,陶淵明自己卻對「積善云有報」的說法提出了懷疑;既然是多行善事會有好的回報。那為什麼「夷叔在西山」?

「夷叔」是誰呢?這裡有一個歷史典故在裡面。「夷」是一個名叫伯夷的人,「叔」也是一個人的名字,叫叔齊。中國古代,在商朝快要滅亡的時候,有一個諸侯國,叫孤竹國,伯夷和叔齊就是孤竹國君的兩個兒子;長子是伯夷,三子是叔齊。當時孤竹國君很善歡他的小兒子叔齊,想要把國君的地位傳給叔齊,可是按照中國過去的封建社會的宗法觀念和常規,本來是應該讓長子伯夷來繼承國君的地位的。

這時伯夷就想了,父親既然是希望弟弟叔齊來繼位,我如果留在這裡,那父親會在禮法與感情之間感到為難。如果父親依照禮法立我為繼承人,那我就會因為有違父親的心願而深感內疚。於是他為了體諒父親的情感意願,更重要的是出於對父親的孝順,伯夷就離開他所在的國家逃走了。他以為這樣由於長子不在了,父親就可以名正言順地把君主之位傳給叔齊了。

可是他的弟弟叔齊也是非常仁義的人,他也想到本來按照正常禮法,長兄伯夷是應繼承父位的,而如今哥哥為了成全父親的意願讓我繼位而離家出走。那麼如果我接受了這樣的現實繼承了國君的位置,就是不義的,因此他也不願承受不義的內心自責,於是也逃走了。這樣伯夷、叔齊兩個人,一個因不肯作不孝的兒子,一個因不能作不義的弟弟而雙雙出逃了。

他們逃到哪裡去了?他們聽說西方的諸侯中有一個叫作姬昌的領袖,這個人的品德很好,他的國家裡政治清明,人民安樂,所以伯夷、叔齊就到了西伯姬昌的諸侯國來。這西伯就是後來的周文王姬昌。後來文王死了,武王姬發繼承了父王的地位。那時商朝的天子是紂王,在歷史上是一個暴虐無道的國君。武王姬發就想,紂這個國君既然是這樣的昏庸無道,我就可以為天下人民的利益出發來「伐」他;「伐」就是討伐、攻打。於是武王就發動了軍隊去討伐紂王。

這時候,伯夷、叔齊正在這裡,他們得知武王要去伐紂的消息,就一同來到武王馬前「叩馬而諫」,「叩」是跪。「叩馬而諫」是說他們一同跪在武王的馬前勸止武王說,你這樣,以一個臣子的地位去殺害你的國君,是以臣弒君,這是不合道理的做法,是不應該的。武王沒有接受他們兩個人的勸告,繼續攻打紂王,果然紂王失敗身亡了,武王就做了天子。

武王稱帝之後,伯夷、叔齊二人就說,武王以臣弒君是不忠、不義的,我們不能在這種不合忠義道德的天子手下作他的臣子,領受他給予我們的俸祿是一件可恥的事情,於是他們就「不食周粟」。「粟」就是糧食,這裡指做官所得的報酬或俸祿。兩個人就去到醒山隱居了,西山另外還有一個名子叫首陽山。這一段故事就是伯夷、叔齊不食周粟而到首陽山去隱居的故事,是記載在《史記‧伯夷列傳》裡面的。

待續

Viewed from this perspective, Buddhism and Confucianism are quite different. However, at the end of this poem, you will find that there is something similar between Buddhism and Confucianism, which is that whether retribution and causes and effect exist in this life or future lives, you should uphold a kind of virtue. Now, let's see how Tao Yuanming moved from the topic of retribution for good and evil deeds to that of maintaining intrin¬sic values. He said, "It is said that accumulated good brings a reward." He bluntly began this poem by raising the issue of retri¬bution for good or evil deeds. He said: "People always say that you will receive good retributions for your good deeds." Who said so? The people and books of ancient times. This ancient saying has been widely circulated: "A family that does many good deeds will have blessings to spare; a family that does many evil deeds will undergo plenty of misfortunes." If a family constantly does good deeds, it will enjoy abundant fortune; and one that does evil deeds often will suffer misfortunes.

This idea has been around for a long time in Chinese society. Not only was known among the people of old, it was recorded in ancient texts. Thus Tao Yuanming begins by bringing up a reputable, age-old saying based on ancient books and folk wisdom: "It is said that accumulated good brings a reward." In the next line, Tao questions this statement: If good deeds do reap rewards, how come "Yi and Shu starved at West Mountain?"

Who were Yi and Shu? This is an allusion to a story from Chi¬nese history. Yi refers to a man named Boyi. Shu refers to a man named Shuqi. Boyi and Shuqi were the first and third sons of the king of Guzhu (Lonely Bamboo), a feudal state in ancient China near the end of the Shang dynasty. The king of Guzhu favored his youngest son, Shuqi, and wanted him to inherit the throne. However, according to ancient Chinese feudal customs, he was expected to pass the royal throne to his first son, Boyi.

At that time, Boyi reflected, "Father wants my younger brother to inherit the throne, but he will be torn between propriety and his true wishes if I stay here. If Father follows the rules of propriety and makes me his heir, I will feel guilty for having gone against

his wishes." Thus, out of deep concern for his father's feelings and wishes, and more importantly, out of loyalty to his father, Boyi fled the kingdom. He figured that, without his first son around, his father could officially make Shuqi heir to the throne.

However, Boyi's younger brother Shuqi was also a decent and righteous man. He also reckoned, "My older brother Boyi should inherit the throne, but now, he has departed so that Father's wish to grant the throne to me may be fulfilled. If I accept this situation and inherit the throne, I will not have been a righteous man." Shuqi also fled, so that he would not have to blame himself for being unrighteous. Thus, both Boyi, who did not want to be an unfilial son, and Shuqi, who did not want to be an unethical brother, ran away from home.

Where did they go? They heard that among the feudal lords in the west, there was a leader named Ji Chang who had good character, governed honestly, and made his people happy. Boyi and Shuqi went to that feudal lord, Ji Chang, who later became King Wen of the Zhou Dynasty. King Wen's son, Ji Fa, inherited the throne and was later given the title King Wu. The reigning King Zhou of the Shang Dynasty was notorious in Chinese history for his wickedness. King Wu reasoned that since King Zhou was so licentious and corrupt, he would be justified in attacking King Zhou on behalf of the people. He thereupon dispatched his troops.

Boyi and Shuqi were there. Upon hearing the news about King Wu attacking King Zhou, they went together to kneel before King Wu's horse and remonstrate with him. They said, "For a minister to assassinate his king is unprincipled and should not be done." King Wu did not accept their remonstration and went ahead to attack King Zhou. As expected, King Zhou was defeated and killed, and King Wu became the emperor.

After King Wu came to power, Boyi and Shuqi proclaimed, "King Wu, as a minister who assassinated his king, is an disloyal and unrighteous man. We cannot work as ministers for an emperor lacking in loyalty, righteousness, and virtue. We are ashamed to accepted an emolument from him." They decided not to con­sume the food of Zhou. Here "food" represents the benefits or emolument of a minister. Thus they both went into seclusion on West Mountain, which is also named Shouyang Mountain. The story of Boyi and Shuqi refusing to eat the food of Zhou and retreating to Mount Shouyang is recorded in "The Biography of Boyi" in the Book of History.

To be continued

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