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陶淵明詩講錄(續)
Lectures on Tao Yuanming s Poems (continued)

葉嘉瑩教授講 By Professor Yeh Chia-ying
比丘尼恆音‧郇若慧 英譯 English translation by Bhikshuni Heng Yin and Josey Shun

我們一開始介紹他寫〈飲酒〉詩的動機時就說了,是因為有人要請他出去做官,他沒有答應,而現在當他放棄了官場的利祿,決定在家種田,捱餓受凍,連他家人妻子也不諒解時,他思想上產生了疑惑和困擾。我究竟要不要出去做官呢?我所選擇的這條道路對不對呢?現在他說他想通了,榮華富貴都是不能夠長久的,我不能為了貪圖眼前暫時的榮華而違背我天然的本性,所以他才說出了「達人解其會,逝將不復疑」的話。我從此以後將不會再有懷疑了,所以最後就「忽與一觴酒,日夕歡相持。」既然是偶然間有人給了我這麼好的酒,「忽與」,是偶然給與的意思。既然我對天道與人道的大規律、大道理都想通了,有了「達人解其會」的深切體驗,那麼我就要高高興興地端起酒杯來喝個痛快。「歡相持」。的「持」是拿、端的意思。

從以上的講解中我們可以看出,陶淵明的飲酒不是像我剛才說的那些醉鬼喝到人事不知的地步的飲酒。他內心有很多思想,有很多感情,但是沒有人體會,沒有人瞭解,因此他就只好用酒來排遣他的寂寞,而且喝過酒之後就將他的思想感情寫下來。好,這第一首詩我們就講到這裡。

第六講

前面我們說過,陶淵明的〈飲酒〉詩裡思考過許多人生問題,第一首詩他是要說明,一般人總是要追求榮華富貴,而不喜歡衰敗貧窮的,可是陶淵明認為通達的「達人」有一個「大觀」的看法,他們知道榮華富貴與衰敗貧窮本來是不可以完全分開的,也不是必然有一個固定的所在的。衰敗之中可以產生榮華;富貴之中也同時卻能蘊含著貧窮。如果一個人有了這樣通達的看法,他就不會每天常常為了自己的榮華或衰敗而煩惱了,這就是他第一首詩所寫的內容。現在我們再看他的第二首詩:

積善云有報 夷叔在西山
善惡苟不應 何事空立言
九十行帶索 餓寒況當年
不賴固窮節 百世當誰傳

我在念這首詩時,有些字的聲音和講話時不完全一樣。因為這裡邊有平仄的聲調要求,而且詩歌是使人感動的一種文字,所以它給讀者的感受是很重要的。除了意思之外,每一首詩的聲音也能直接帶給讀者一種感覺。所以「夷叔在西山」裡的「叔」,我念成「樹」音,因為這裡應該是個入聲字。我們北方人不會說入聲字,但是我盡量把它讀成仄聲的聲音。還有後邊的「不賴固窮節」中的「節」,北方人俗話讀作「jie(節)音」,如「中秋節。、「八月節」等。可是這個字本身就是入聲字,所以我剛才把它念作「介」音。還有「百世當誰傳」的「百」,我也讀成「博」音。除了念讀中的平仄聲調之外,還有一個應該注意的問題,中國的文字有時一個字有幾種不同的讀音,每一種讀法所代表的意義也是不同的。如「善惡苟不應」的「應」,在這裡應讀「印」音,而不是「因」音。讀 「因」音的時候做「應該」、「應當」講;讀「印」音時則是「呼應」、「報應」的意思。這是關於詩歌的讀音問題,我在正式講詩之前是附帶說一下。現在我們就看這首詩。

第一首詩陶淵明所講的是「衰榮無定」的哲理;這首詩說的則是「天道無常」與「善惡報應」的問題,就是討論你如果做了善事或惡事之後,有沒有一個報應的問題。在佛教看來,為善與為惡都是會遭到報應的,因為佛教認為人死之後是有輪迴的,人是有前生與來世的。善有善報,惡有惡報;你今生看不到報應,但是你來生是可能得到報應的,這是佛教的說法。可是由於中國過去一直是儒家思想佔統治地位,而儒家是不相信前生與來世的說法的。如果沒有來生的觀念,你只就今生一世而言,就會發現善惡的報應之說是不一定靈驗的。

待續

In the beginning, we discussed Tao's motivation for writing the collection of poems "On Drinking." After Tao had turned down an offer for a government position, giving up the benefits and salary of that position, he returned home to take up farming and suffered from such starvation and cold that even his wife and family could not forgive him. At that point, he began to doubt himself: "Should I have accepted that government position? Have I made the right choice?" Then he thought, "Fame and riches do not last long; I cannot go against my conscience for the sake of temporary fame and wealth." That's why he said: Wise men understand these conditions, harboring no doubts whatsoever. He would have no more doubts. Thus he concludes: Unexpectedly presented with a vessel of wine, /I enjoyed it day and night. Someone happened to give me this wonderful wine. 'Unexpectedly' means by chance. Since I have understood the overarching principle governing the matters of the universe and the world and I have experienced how a wise man understands these conditions, I am now able to raise the wine glass cheerfully and enjoy it heartily.

From what we have studied, we can see that Tao Yuanming's drinking was totally different from that of a drunkard who drinks till he passes out. Tao was filled with thoughts and feelings, but no one understood or sympathized with him. His only recourse was to relieve his loneliness by drinking in solitude and writing his thoughts and feelings down afterwards. This concludes the explanation of the first poem.

Lecture Six

We have said that Tao Yuanming considered many issues of life in his collection of poems entitled "On Drinking." In the first poem, he tried to explain that most people pursue fame and wealth, and dislike ruin and poverty. However, Tao Yuanming believed that a wise man would hold a broader view, understanding that fame, wealth, ruin and poverty are inseparable and unfixed. Ruin has within itself the potential for glory, and wealth contains the seed of poverty. Someone endowed with such a perspective will not worry about whether he is enjoying glory or suffering ruin. That is the theme of the first poem. Now let's take a look at his second poem:

It is said that accumulated good brings a reward.
Yi and Shu starved at West Mountain.
If good and evil are of no consequence,
How did our ancient maxims come to be?
At ninety, Rong used a rope as his belt
And lived in hunger and cold as if he were still young.
Were it not for those individuals who chose poverty so as to preserve their integrity,
What in history would be worth passing down to future generations?

When I read this poem, I pronounced some words differently because the tones represent different meanings. Since the lyrical poem is meant to touch people, it is very important that the words can convey feelings. Besides the literal meanings, the sounds and the tone of a poem can evoke certain feelings in readers.

Thus, I read Shu in the fourth tone in Yi and Shu starved at West Mountain. It ought to be read in the fourth tone. Also the character jie meaning 'integrity' in the second-to-last line should be pronounced in the fourth tone, although most people pronounce it in the second tone. Also, I pronounced the character bai as bo in the last line. Besides the tones, we also have to be mindful of the fact that Chinese characters often have various pronunciations, each pronunciation representing a different meaning. For example, the char­acter yin meaning 'consequence' in the third line should be pronounced in the fourth tone, not the first. Yin pronounced in the first tone means 'should' or 'obliged,' whereas in the fourth tone it means 'retribution' or 'response.' I just wanted to briefly mention the issue of tones and pronunciation before discussing the poem itself. Now, let us look at this poem. Whereas Tao Yuanming's first poem discusses the uncertainty of ruin and prosperity, his second poem focuses on the impermanence of divine fate and on retribu­tions for good and evil. It brings up the question of whether or not consequences exist when one does good or evil.

According to Buddhism, there are natural consequences for bothgood and evil deeds. Buddhism teaches that there is reincarnation afterpassing away, and that there are previous lives and future lives. Gooddeeds incur pleasant retribution and evil deeds reap unpleasantretribution. Even if you don't receive the retributions in this life, youare bound to receive them in future lives. That is the Buddhist stance.However, Confucianism has always been the mainstream tradition.Confucianism does not believe in previous and future lives. If only thepresent lifetime is considered, the idea of retribution for good and evilmay not be verifiable.

To be continued

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