萬佛城金剛菩提海 Vajra Bodhi Sea
萬佛城金剛菩提海 Vajra Bodhi Sea

金剛菩提海:首頁主目錄本期目錄

Vajra Bodhi Sea: HomeMain IndexIssue Index

《人物誌》

 

BIOGRAPHIES

【 水鏡回天錄白話解 】

REFLECTIONS IN WATER AND MIRRORS REVERSING THE TIDE OF DESTINY

忠孝仁義
Loyalty, Filial Respect, Humaneness, and Integrity

*宣公上人講於金山寺一九八六年一月三十一日 Essay, verses, and commentary by Venerable Master Hua at Gold Mountain Monastery, January 1, 1986
*比丘尼恆音 英譯 English translation by Bhikshuni Heng Yin

韓昌黎雲:「博愛之謂仁,行而宜之之謂義。」由此觀之,仁者愛人,義者利人。孔子雲:「君子務本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其為仁之本歟。」又雲:「盡己之謂忠。」忠於職守。故知吾人品德基礎,先從孝順父母著手。

孝者,事親克孝、克誠、克敬、克順,時刻恪謹,不容有絲毫虛偽存在,或面從心違等行為。事雙親和悅,菽水承歡,以慰雙親於耄耋之年。人倫盡,天心順,遠離災禍,諸事吉祥,太平盛世,不求而至。

忠者,當效忠於國,每人生於本國,秉賦天職,要忠於民,忠於領導,克勤職守,為公忘私,為國謀幸福,為世界謀幸福,為眾生謀幸福,則不負此生矣。

仁者,愛讀一切眾生。佛教提倡不殺生,此是真人之志。人人皆能如此不殺生,則世界戰爭永息;刀槍入庫,馬放南山,路不拾遺,夜不閉戶,何愁不實現耶?

義者,利人,大公無私,至正不偏,坦坦蕩蕩,超然自得,內無憂患,外無鬥爭,則世界永遠安寧。

註解:
「忠」是忠於國家,對國家要拿出誠心來。「盡己之謂忠」:盡自己的責任,絲毫沒有虛偽即為忠。「孝」、「仁」、「義」亦是這樣。你做得絲毫不虛偽,就圓滿忠、孝、仁、義這四個字了。「孝」即是孝順父母;孝就是神通。孝順能感應天地,什麼事情都能改變,所以真孝的人就會有大感應;忠、孝、仁、義,都是做人的根本。

韓昌黎即韓愈,為讀書人,一天到晚在書本上用功夫;先成了書呆子,之後又變成書蟲子,最後又變成書魔。因書念得多了便想入非非,連佛都不信,變成書魔了,是很可憐的。皇帝要迎接佛骨,他寫了一篇「諫迎佛骨表」,教皇帝不要去迎佛骨,說是一堆臭骨頭,去迎它幹什麼,簡直是迷信。

他有個姪子名韓湘,即八仙中之韓湘子,煉丹修行成仙;不是抽鴉片煙成仙,也不是煉鴉片煙的丹成仙,而是到山上修行成仙的。韓湘成仙後想到自己的叔叔原是很不錯的;原是書呆子,後成書蟲,最後竟成書魔,應該去救一救他,去度他。於是顯種種神通,從火裡生蓮花,又從冰裡拿出東西來。總之人不能信的事情,他都做出來給他叔叔看。但韓愈總是不相信,說:「這都是障眼法,都是假的,我不信。」所以韓湘子就對韓愈說了兩句話:「雲橫秦嶺家何在?雪擁藍關馬不前。」在秦嶺有雲彩橫著,不知家在何處?藍關的雪下得大,將藍關壅塞連馬都走不前了。

韓昌黎不懂得是什麼意思,也就算了。等他將「諫迎佛骨表」呈上,皇帝看了大怒,將他由京城貶到潮州,立刻起程。經過藍關之地,雲彩重重,霧氣沼沼,雪下得大,馬也邁不動步,這時韓湘也來見叔父。韓愈一看這情形,心裡明白了,有感,即寫出一首詩:「一封朝奏九重天,夕貶潮陽路八千。」我一早呈了一本章給皇帝,到晚間即被貶到八千裏路外的潮陽。

「本為聖朝除弊政,敢將衰朽惜殘年?」我本欲為聖天子朝廷解除弊病及迷信。我雖老了,也不敢因此而愛惜生命?我還是個忠臣的。「雲橫秦嶺家何在?雪擁藍關馬不前。」你以前對我說的這兩句話,原來是指的現在這個情景。「知汝遠來應有意,好收吾骨瘴江邊。」我知道你老遠跑來是有事情要辦——我這把老骨頭要死了,你來收起來埋葬。韓湘子聽他這麼說,便一擺手說:「不管,不管;我不管你!」韓愈聽了心想:「這下完了!死了也沒人收這老骨頭。」只有繼續向前碰去,於是便到潮州去做刺吏。這是韓愈——韓昌黎。

「博愛之謂仁」:能廣博地去愛護一切人,就是仁。「行而宜之之謂義」:做任何事都恰到好處,不過亦無不及,即是宜之,就是一個治事之宜。「由此觀之,仁者愛人」:由這兩句話看,仁就是愛護一切人。「義者利人」:義,就是治事之宜;就是利益旁人,不利益自己。

孔子曰:「君子務本,本立而道生。」孔子也說過:「君子的當務之急,就是他的根本;根本立得住了,道也就生出來了。「孝弟也者,其為仁之本歟?」:什麼是根本呢?即是孝與悌。孝為孝順父母;悌為悌敬兄長,即是對兄弟要友愛,這就是仁的根本吧!又云:「盡己之謂忠」:你做什麼事情都能盡上自己的責任,沒有躲懶偷安就是忠。「忠於職守」:很盡自己的責任。「故知吾人品德基礎,先由孝順父母著手」:由前面這幾句話就知道人的品行、道德的基礎先由「孝」字用功夫。「事親能克孝」:侍奉父母能時刻以真誠、恭敬心、順從心。「時刻恪謹,不容有絲毫虛偽存在」:時時刻刻都能恭敬謹慎,不容許有像一根頭髮或一條絲線那麼多的虛偽存在。「或面從心違的行為」:面上答應,心裡不高興的行為。「事親和悅」:侍奉父母一定要很歡喜和悅。「菽水承歡」:即是煮點豆子或普通的菜給父母,令他們歡歡喜喜。「以慰雙親耄耋之年」:安慰父母於老年之時。「人倫盡,則天心順;遠離災禍,諸事吉祥。太平盛世,不求自來。」

「忠者,當效忠於國,每人生於本國,秉賦天職,要忠於民」:你的天職就是忠。「要忠於民,忠於領導,克勤職守」:要好好地盡責任。「為公忘私」:做公事要把自己私事忘了它。「為國謀幸福,為世界謀幸福,為眾生謀幸福,則不負此生矣。」那這一生就沒有白活了。

「仁者,愛護一切眾生。佛教提倡不殺生,此是真人之志。人人皆能不殺生,則世界戰爭永息,刀槍入庫,馬放南山」:戰馬也放到山上去。「路不拾遺,夜不閉戶,何愁不會實現耶?」:路上誰有丟的東西也沒有人撿去;晚上睡覺也不需要關著門,能夠將仁人愛物發揮圓滿便能如此。

「義者,利人,大公無私,至正不偏,坦坦蕩蕩,超然自得,內無憂患,外無鬥爭,則世界永遠安寧。」這時很超然的,一點也不用心機。裡頭平安了,外面也平安了。永遠得到安樂,永遠得到和平。

待續

Text:
Han Changli said, "Universal love is known as humaneness; appropriate action is integrity." From this perspective, humane ones love others and those of integrity help others. Confucius said, "A superior person attends to the roots. When the roots are established, the Way comes forth. Are not filial respect and fraternity the roots of a person?"  He also said, "To give one's all is called loyalty." One should do one's best to fulfill one's duty. Thus, to establish the foundation of our virtue, we should begin with filial respect to our parents.

One who is filial tries his best to be filial, sincere, respectful, and obedient to his parents at all times, without hypocrisy or betrayal. One should attend upon one's parents with pleasure, serving them even simple fare with joy so as to comfort them in their old age. When people have fulfilled their moral obligations, heaven will confer approval and avert disasters. Everything will be auspicious, and peace and prosperity will arrive spontaneously.

One who is loyal serves the country with devotion. Being born in this country, one inherits a natural obligation to be loyal to the people and loyal to the leaders, to fulfill one's duties, and to forget personal concerns in favor of public ones. One must work for the welfare of the country, the world, and living beings. Then one's life will not be wasted.

One who is humane cherishes every living being. Buddhism teaches us not to take life; this is a true person's resolve. If everyone refrained from killing, the wars in the world would cease; weapons would be put away; horses would be set free to graze. Things dropped on the road would not be lost; windows and doors need not be closed. What worry is there that this could not become a reality?

One who has integrity benefits others. He is public-spirited and unselfish, completely upright and impartial. He is frank, spontaneous, and self-confident. He has no worries inside, and no conflicts outside. Thus, for him, the world is eternally at peace.

Commentary:
Loyalty refers to sincere allegiance to one's country. "To give one's all is called loyalty." To fulfill one's responsibilities to the utmost, without the least bit of falseness, is loyalty. Filial respect, humaneness, and integrity are the same way. When you are without the slightest trace of pretense, you have perfected the qualities of loyalty, filiality, humaneness, and integrity. Filial respect is directed towards one's parents. Filiality is a spiritual power, for it can move heaven and earth and change everything. Truly filial people evoke tremendous responses. Loyalty, filial respect, humaneness, and integrity are four fundamental human virtues.

Han Changli was also known as Han Yu. He was a scholar who buried himself in his books day and night, first becoming a book idiot, then a bookworm, and finally a book ghost! He read so much that he started daydreaming, stopped believing in the Buddha, and turned into a book ghost. He was pretty pitiful. When the emperor was planning to welcome some relics of the Buddha, Han Yu wrote the "Petition Against Welcoming the Buddha's Relics." He advised the emperor not to do it–what was the point of welcoming a pile of stinky bones?  In his view, it was nothing but superstition.

Han Yu had a nephew, Han Xiang, also known as the Han Xiangzi of the Eight Immortals who had "smelted the cinnabar" and gained immortality. He did not become an immortal by smoking opium; he went into the mountains to cultivate. After achieving immortality, Han Xiang thought of his uncle, who had been a book idiot, then a bookworm, and then a book ghost. Thinking to convert his uncle, Han Xiang displayed various spiritual powers. For example, he made a lotus grow in a fire, and he took objects out of a piece of ice. He performed incredible feats in front of his uncle. However, Han Yu refused to believe, saying, "These are just sleights of hand, just tricks. I don't believe them." Han Xiangzi spoke two sentences to his uncle, "Clouds surround Mount Qin; where is home? Snow blocks Blue Pass; the horse cannot advance." Mount Qin is surrounded by clouds, so that one cannot find one's home. The snowfall is so heavy at Blue Pass that even horses cannot go through.

Han Yu had no idea what his nephew meant, so he paid no attention. When Han Yu submitted his petition against welcoming the Buddha's relics, it enraged the emperor, who banished him from the capital to Chaozhou. Han Yu immediately set out, and when he passed by Mount Qin and the Blue Pass, the clouds and fog were dense and the snow was falling heavily. At that point, Han Xiang appeared before his uncle. Han Yu suddenly had a flash of realization and wrote this poem: "In the morning I submitted a petition to His Majesty; in the evening I was banished to Chaoyang eight thousand miles away." In the morning I submitted my petition to the emperor; by dusk I was exiled to Chaoyang, 8,000 li away. "I originally intended to rid the imperial court of corruption. How could I cherish my life in old age?" My original wish was to rid the imperial court of the Son of Heaven of corruption and superstition. Though I am old, how could I cherish my life? I am still a loyal official. "Clouds surround Mount Qin; where is home? Snow blocks Blue Pass; the horse cannot advance." You spoke these lines to me before. Now I realize they are describing the present situation. "I know you came such a long way for a reason–you came to collect my bones to bury by the river." I know you came to do something. I'm about to die, and you've come to take my old bones for burial. Han Xiangzi, hearing such talk, waved his hands and said, "That's not my business; I won't pay any attention to you." Han Yu thought, "I'm in trouble. After I die, no one will collect my bones." So his only recourse was to continue on to Chaozhou where he served as magistrate. Han Yu once said, "Universal love is known as humaneness." Those who 

are able to love people in an all-encompassing way are humane. Appropriate action is integrity. Appropriate action means doing things just right, neither going too far nor coming up short. From this perspective, humane ones love others and those of integrity help others. Humane people love all people, and righteous people benefit others, not themselves.

Confucius said, "A superior person attends to the roots. When the roots are established, the Way comes forth. A superior person's first priority is to attend to what is fundamental. When what is fundamental is established, the Way can come forth. Are not filial respect and fraternity the roots of a person? What is fundamental?  It is filiality to one's parents, and fraternal respect for one's siblings. These are the roots of humaneness." He also said, "To give one's all is called loyalty." To fulfill one's responsibilities without being lazy is loyalty. One should do one's best to fulfill one's duty. One should do every task in a conscientious and responsible manner. Thus, to establish the foundation of our virtue, we should begin with filial respect to our parents. These words tell us that to develop character and virtue, we should work on being filial to our parents.

One who is filial tries his best to be filial, sincere, respectful, and obedient to his parents, being prudent and reverent at all times, without hypocrisy or betrayal. One should pretend to agree while hiding one's displeasure. One should attend upon one's parents with joy and pleasure, serving them even simple fare, cooking some beans or common vegetables for them with joy so as to please and comfort them in their old age. When people have fulfilled their moral obligations, heaven will confer approval and avert disasters. Everything will be auspicious, and peace and prosperity will arrive spontaneously.

One who is loyal serves the country with devotion. Being born in this country, one inherits a natural obligation to be loyal to the people and loyal to the leaders, to fulfill one's duties, and to forget personal concerns in favor of public ones. One must work for the welfare of the country, the world, and living beings. Then one's life will not be wasted.

One who is humane cherishes every living being. Buddhism teaches us not to take life; this is a true person's resolve. If everyone refrained from killing, the wars in the world would cease; weapons would be put away; horses would be set free to graze. Things dropped on the road would not be lost; windows and doors need not be closed. What worry is there that this could not become a reality? If the qualities of humaneness and cherishing of life are developed fully, this will really happen.

One who has integrity benefits others. He is public-spirited and unselfish, completely upright and impartial. He is frank, spontaneous, and self-confident. He has no worries inside, and no conflicts outside. Thus, for him, the world is eternally at peace. One is very spontaneous at that point, without the slightest bit of deliberation. When one is peaceful inside, the outside will also be peaceful. The world will enjoy eternal peace and harmony.

To be continued

▲Top

法界佛教總會Dharma Realm Buddhist Association │ © Vajra Bodhi Sea