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《上人法雨》

 

VENERABLE MASTER'S DHARMA RAIN

為什么要出家?(續)
Why Do We Want to Leave the Home-life? (continued)

宣化上人開示 A talk given by the Venerable Master Hua
比丘尼恆大 英譯 English translation by Bhikshuni Heng Da

那麼還有一種是可以修行的。是什麼呢?是眞為生死發菩提心,這樣子的可以修行。所以出家,這有種種的出家,不是說:「哦!你出家怎麼還那麼大的脾氣?那麼大的煩惱?」出家與出家之間不同的,有種種的情形,雖然都是出家。

我們人,你不要以為很容易就出家的;這個出家是不容易的。「莫道出家容易得,皆因屢世種菩提。」你不要以為出家是很容易的,隨隨便便誰都可以出家。有的在受比丘戒的時候——在寶華山受比丘戒要過一個地方,在一個山洞裡邊,有的就過不去那個山洞,發魔障,或者就死在那裡。還有很多很多受戒的;受沙彌戒可以,等受比丘戒的時候就發神經病了,就不能受了,很多很多的。這個為什么呢?就因為沒有德行。

出家,按照佛法裡說必須要得到父母的許可。在美國這個國家過了十八歲以後,自己有自由了,願意做什麼,就做什麼。以前在印度、中國的佛教,為随順國家的風俗,必須要向父親母親說明白了,而向父親母親告辭,說:「我出家去了。」這叫辭親。出家就是把這個身心性命都奉獻給三寶了,永遠不再做世俗人的事了,這叫辭親出家。辭,是辭別父母去出家,去親近三寶,到佛法僧道場裡出家了。

所以這出家,有出這個世俗家——世俗就是一般世間的家庭,每一個家庭都有它的麻煩,在眷屬裡邊常常互相爭吵,沒有什么眞正的快樂,所以要出這個世俗的家,也就是這個火宅家。三界無安猶如火宅;也叫出三界家,是出欲界、色界、無色界的家;也叫出煩惱家,因為我們在家的人都有煩煩惱惱,沒有眞正的快樂,所以就想要出家,出家之後必須要斷煩惱發菩提心。

沒有種善根的人,就教他種善根;沒念過佛的人,你叫他念念佛;沒有持過咒的人,教他誦咒,這都是種善根:這是下種。

那麼下了種子了,已經種了善根了,就要成熟。好像種田,春天種上,秋天就收穀,成熟了,有穀收;成熟了你要是不收回來,就留在穀的穗上,那也沒有用,一定收回來才得到解脫,這叫解脫了。這個意思就是你沒有種善根的人,要怎麼種善根;已經種善根的人才能出家作和尚。這作和尚是成熟了,那麼作和尚又要成佛,也要得到證果,證果就是得到解脫了。

人都是「死得起,修不起」。你要叫他出家修道,說:「你修行修行囉!」他說:「唉!不行。我兒子有多少個;我還有爸爸要等著我養;我又有媽媽等著我孝順。」這是往好裡說;往不好的說:「我有小孩子,他還沒長大呢!本來修道是不錯的,可惜我還有兩個小孩子,等他們長大了我才能修行,現在不行。」哦!說完這話沒有五分鐘這無常鬼來說:「張先生:跟著我去見閻王爺去囉!」想要不去,自己也做不得主,就乖乖地跟著跑了,也不違抗了,就說:「好啦,好啦。」就去了,到那地方。這是叫他修行他沒有時間;叫他死的時候,他也就有時間了。

又有「苦得起,修不起」。你看他受苦,他也沒有什么問題。說:「啊!我這個命,生來就應該受苦的;受苦是我的本份。今天沒有飯吃,明天或者就有了。等一等囉,不要緊的,受點苦這人生都是這樣子的。不單我受苦,人人都受苦。」啊!他看得很清楚的,想得很週到的;這邏輯學、哲學,他很明白的。你叫他修行,他說:「那不行。修行?太苦了!我受不了。嗯!我眞沒有辦法修行。」啊!你看這個奇怪不奇怪?這叫苦得起,修不起。

我們的這願力就像眼睛似的,有眼睛才能走路,所以必須要藉著這個眼睛籍著這個願力,才能修行。為什么我們這兒,每年到釋迦牟尼佛成佛的那一天,我們大家都要發願;這是要發願你才能修行。

你要發願,譬如:發願生生世要出家。那麼要出家的工作是幹什麼呢?就要弘揚佛法。我這願力是出家,然後就要弘揚佛法,把佛法弘揚到每一個國家去;甚至於每一粒微塵裡面去,教每一粒微塵裡面的那些眾生,也都明白佛法。那一粒微塵裡邊,就有無量眾生在裡邊,所以要發這個願。

諸佛菩薩過去都是發大願力,藉著這個願力就要來修行了——依願起行,升起這個「行」。又有的人發願:「我願生生世世弘揚佛法,講經說法。」那也是願哪,但是你要發願先出家才對;你要不出家,弘揚佛法,雖然在家也可以弘揚佛法,不過總是差一點。所以你不要以為出家這是一個容易的事情。「莫道出家容易得」,不要以為你出家容易,說:「啊!我這很容易就受了沙彌戒了。」你知道你以前受過多少的困難,受過多少的魔難啊?「皆因屢世種菩提」,你在往昔生生世世都發菩提心,種了菩提種子,尤其在西方這兒才能出家的。

                            
待續

There is one kind of person, however, who can cultivate. Who? People who aspire to seek Bodhi in order to resolve the great problem of birth and death. In general there are many reasons for leaving home, so one cannot say, "Oh, how can that person leave the home-life? He has such a big temper and so many afflictions." People who leave the home-life do so for many different reasons.

We should not think that it is easy to leave the home-life. It isn't. There is a saying, "Don't say that leaving the home-life is an easy thing to do. It comes about because one has planted the seeds of Bodhi in life after life." Don't think leaving home is easy and be casual about it.

When people go to Baohua Mountain to be ordained, some of them reach a certain cave and cannot go any further. A demonic obstacle may arise, and they can even die on the spot. Others have no trouble taking the Shramanera (novice) precepts, but when they get ready to take the Bhikshu precepts, they become insane and cannot be ordained. There are many people with this problem, which stems from having insufficient virtue.

When you leave home, the Buddhadharma stipulates that you must receive your parents' permission. It's not like in America where you are free to do whatever you want once you turn eighteen. Formerly, in the Buddhism of India and China, in order to comply with the customs of the country, it was necessary to inform your parents: "I'm going to leave the home-life." This is called taking leave of them. To leave home is to respectfully offer up your body, mind, and life to the Triple Jewel and to no longer engage in worldly affairs. This is what is meant by "taking leave of one's family and going forth from the householder's life." You enter a place of the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha, and you leave the home-life.

In going forth from the householder's life, you leave the ordinary household that has been your worldly home. Every household has its own troubles; there is constant quarreling among relatives and no real happiness. Thus you want to leave the mundane home, which is also called the burning house. It is said, "The Three Realms are like a burning house; there is no peace to be found in them." Therefore, you are also leaving the home of the Three Realms--the Desire Realm, the Form Realm, and the Formless Realm. You also leave the home of afflictions. Laypeople all have afflictions and no true happiness; that's why they wish to leave home. Once you leave home, it is essential that you cut off afflictions and resolve your mind on Bodhi. That is what is meant by leaving home.

Those of you who have left the home-life have probably planted good roots within eighty thousand great eons. That's why I let you leave home. Don't think this is something you can be casual about. It is said, "Don't say that leaving the home-life is easy to do. It comes about all because one has planted the seeds of Bodhi in life after life." We should tell people who have not planted good roots to plant them now. For instance, we should teach people who have never recited the Buddha's name to recite the Buddha's name, and those who have never recited mantras to recite them. These are all ways for people to plant good roots, which is like sowing seeds.

After the seeds are sown, they will sprout and grow and then ripen. This is like planting grain. The seeds are sown in the spring, and the grain is harvested in the fall when it is ripe. Then we can cook the grain and eat it. If we don't harvest the grain when it is ripe, it will be of no use. We have to harvest it, and in cultivation this is called being liberated. That is to say, people who have not planted good roots should be taught to plant them. People who have already planted good roots should be taught to leave the home-life and become monks. Becoming monks corresponds to the ripening of their good roots. After becoming monks, they still need to realize sagehood. With the realization of sagehood, they are liberated.

"One can die, but cannot cultivate." If you tell someone to leave the home-life and cultivate the Way, he may say, "Oh, I can't. I have to take care of my father and be filial to my mother." Someone else may say, "I have young children. It would be nice to cultivate the Way, but I have to wait for my two kids to grow up. I cannot cultivate now." Less than five minutes after he says that, he may get sick and receive a call from the ghost of impermanence, who says, "Mr. Chang, come with me to see King Yama." He has to follow obediently even if he does not want to go. He cannot object, so he says, "Okay, okay, I'll go, I'll go." And so he goes. When you tell him to cultivate, he says he does not have time. But when it's time to die, he has to make time.

"One can endure the bitterness of life, but cannot cultivate." When you see someone in suffering, you will find that he has no problem with it. He will say, "This is my fate. I was born to suffer. To suffer is my duty. If I don't have anything to eat today, perhaps I will have some tomorrow. I can wait. It's okay to endure a little suffering. That's the way life is. Not just myself, everyone else suffers too."

He is very sensible, logical, and philosophical about it. However, if you ask him to cultivate, he finds it impossible. He will say, "Cultivate? No way. It's too bitter. I can't take it. I really can't cultivate." Would you say this is strange or not? This is to be able to endure the bitterness of life, but to be unable to cultivate.

The power of vows is like our eyes. We need to use our eyes when we walk. Therefore, we must use our eyes--our vows--to help us cultivate. Why do we all make vows every year on the anniversary of Shakyamuni Buddha's realization of Buddhahood? It is because making vows will en­able us to cultivate. You may make such a vow: "I vow to leave the home-life in life after life. And what will I do after leaving the home-life? I will propagate the Buddhadharma. I vow to leave the home-life and propagate the Buddhadharma, spreading it to every country and every mote of dust. I shall cause the limitless living beings within every dust mote to understand the Buddhadharma." We should make vows because all Buddhas and Bodhisattvas of the past made great vows and then cultivated in accordance with their vows. Their practice was based on the power of their vows.

Someone else may make this vow: "I vow to propagate the Buddha­dharma, speak the Dharma and lecture on the Sutras in life after life." This is also a vow. However, you should first make the vow to leave the home-life. If you don't want to leave the home-life, you may also propagate the Buddhadharma as a lay person, but it will not be as good. Don't ever think that leaving the home-life is an easy thing to do. Don't think it is easy just because you have easily left the home-life and taken Shramanera precepts. Do you have any idea how much trouble, frustration, and difficulty you went through in past lives? It is all because one has planted the seeds of Bodhi before in life after life. In the past, you made the resolve for Bodhi and planted the seeds of Bodhi in life after life so that now you are able to leave the home-life in a Western country.

To be continued

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