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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
The Flower Adornment Sutra with Commentary

【卷四 世主妙嚴品第一之四】

Roll Four, Chapter One: The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Part Four

宣化上人講Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua
國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute
修訂版 Revised version

愛樂主稼神,得能令法界一切眾生,捨懈怠憂惱等諸惡普清淨解脫門。離垢光明主稼神,得觀察一切眾生善根,隨應稅法,令眾會歡喜滿足解脫門。爾時柔軟勝味主稼神,承佛威力,目觀一切主稼神眾,而說頌言。

這一位主稼神,他的名字就是見者愛樂。見者就是一切眾生,見到這一位主稼神,生出一種愛慕、歡樂的心。所以這一位主稼神的名字,就叫見者愛樂。他得到佛的境界一種解脫門。什麼呢?是能令法界一切眾生——法界言其眾生之多。這麼多的眾生,法界一切眾生,能見著這一位主稼神,或者聽見佛法,他捨離懈怠。現在在金山寺,所有的眾生,可以說是捨離懈怠了。為什麼這樣說呢?在沒聞佛法以前,這些個人,都是和現在美國一些的青年是一樣的。吃,就有份;做工,就無份。吃東西呢,就無人相;做工作呢,就無我相。打架的時候,就沒有眾生相;吃肉的時候,就沒有壽者相。現在到了金山寺,有的人,是吃東西無我相了。吃東西,「啊!我吃不吃沒有關係。旁人吃飽了就好了。」做工呢?是無人相了,「啊!所有一切的工作,都要我自己來做,不要叫人家做。」和以前完全改了。打架的時候有眾生相了,說:「這個人我不應該和他打架,不應該來和他來fighting 。」也不吃肉了;不吃肉,這是壽者相。願一切眾生都是長命百歲的,他也不殺生了,都是很勤勞的。勤勞工苦作,不怕工作多,這都叫捨離懈怠了。為法忘軀,為研究佛法,連覺也不睡。

果瞻今天更發了精進心,要站著聽經,免得睡覺。是不是這個意思?他坐著我看他睡的,昨天晚間聽說睡覺三昧,他今天要出這個三昧了,這也叫捨離懈怠——捨離懈怠憂惱等諸惡憂,就是憂愁;惱就是煩惱、憂惱、憂悲苦惱。我們修道的人,不要有憂愁心,不要有煩惱心,不要常常有too much worry 。好像那杞人憂天似的。杞人,是杞國之人,杞國之人憂天。他說天不知哪一天就壞了;天要壞了,我怎麼辦呢?他憂愁這件事情,也不種田了,什麼工作也都不做了,一天到晚就憂愁。這叫杞人憂天——杞國的人憂愁天要壞了。你說這是不是多餘的?

這個憂,有的人呢,不應該憂的,他就憂了。憂什麼呢?憂愁我的父親不知道會不會死呢?我的母親會不會生病呢?這還是上達的憂愁;有的憂愁我這小孩子不知會不會長大呢?我家裡頭這個狗會不會瘦了呢?我養那個貓,牠會不會捉老鼠呢?這還都是用不著的憂愁。不要緊的事情,他認為很要緊的,他憂愁、煩惱。煩惱什麼呢?自己沒有事情照照鏡子,哎!眞討厭!我這個鼻子為什麼鼻孔從下長的呢?它要從上長,與人不同,你說這多好呢?就生出煩惱來了。好像昨天晚間,果航和果寧到那兒去聽lecture(演講)。這些個神不神,鬼不鬼,奇怪的東西,專門要吸收人這個精氣神,在那個地方,把人引得哈哈大笑。這一笑的時候,這個人的精神都散亂了。這一散亂,啊!這一些個神不神,鬼不鬼的東西就像吸大麻菸那麼樣,就吸他們的那個精氣。但是這些個人還不知道,以為這真是很好玩的。誰不知已經吃了虧了。憂悲苦惱等諸惡——惡,總而言之就是貪瞋癡——這諸惡也都捨離了。這捨離懈怠,也包括憂惱等諸惡都捨離了。普清淨,普遍得到清淨解脫門。這是這一位見者愛樂主稼神,他的境界。

「離垢光明主稼神」,這是這一位主稼神的名字,叫離垢光明。離垢,離開一切的塵垢,得到光明。什麼叫垢?垢就是一些個染污。永嘉大師證道歌上說得明白,說是「心是根,法是塵,兩種猶如鏡上痕,痕垢盡除光始現,心法雙忘性即眞。」你離垢要心法雙忘,也就是離開我法二執。我執、法執都離開。我執自己也等於垢;法執也是等於垢。你離開我法二執了,人也空,法也空了,自性的智慧光明也就現出來了,所以叫光明主稼神。他得到能觀察一切眾生的善根。觀察就是用智慧來觀察,也就是用智慧照了,照了一切眾生的善根。眾生的善根,有深有淺,有多有少,有大有小,你必須要用這個佛法來栽培灌溉,令它增長。什麼叫栽培灌溉?也就是說隨因說法,他所應該得的這個法,你就對他說這個法,恰到好處,正合其機。那麼能以觀機逗教,因人說法,因病與藥。令眾會歡喜,使令這個法會的大眾歡喜滿足,這種法筵。大眾正是得到他所應該得的那種法的量,所以說歡喜滿足,得到這種的解脫門。當爾之時,在這法會大眾,這個柔軟勝味主稼神,他又承佛威力,仰承到佛的大威神力。

「普觀一切主稼神眾」,普遍觀察一切的主稼神眾,而說頌言。又用這個頌言再來說一說。

如來無上功德海,普現明燈照世間,一切眾生咸救護,悉與安樂無遺者。世尊功德無有邊,眾生聞者不唐捐,悉便離苦常歡喜,此是時華之所入。

「如來無上功德海」,如來是三覺圓,萬德備。所以說是無上功德海,無上再沒有乎其上的了。也就是這個功德沒有比如來再高的,也沒有比如來再大的,所以謂之功德海——功德之海。這證明這功德是無量無邊的,無窮無盡的。「普現明燈照世間」,普現就是平等來教化一切眾生,猶如這個明燈,把一切黑暗照破了。佛沒出世以前,這個世間,好像沒有太陽,沒有燈光,沒有日月光,沒有月光,這一樣的,在這漫漫的黑夜裡邊過生活。佛出世,這世間有了太陽光了,有了月光了,有了燈光了,照耀一切世間,都得到光明,所以說是一切眾生咸救護。佛成佛就是為的度眾生;度眾生,就是佛的工作,所以說一切眾生咸救護。眾生沉淪在這個愛河裡邊,在這個苦海裡邊,佛駕著一個大寶慈航,來救度一切眾生。所以說咸救護,沒有一個眾生佛不救護的。就是再惡那個眾生,佛也一樣救護他。佛不會說是你這個眾生是太惡了,我不救你,沒有這個分別心,所以為著咸救護。「普與安樂無遺」,普遍給與一切眾生的安樂。無遺者就是沒有遺漏的一個眾生,不會忘了一個眾生,不會遺漏了一個眾生,所有的眾生,佛都救度,除非他不是眾生;就是不是眾生,在佛教裡頭講,有情無情,同圓種智,所以說無遺者,沒有遺漏的這個眾生。

「世尊功德無有邊」,這個世出世之尊,三界這個大導師,他的功德是無窮無盡,無量無邊的,功德是不可思議的。「眾生聞者不唐捐」,所有的眾生,包括你我都在內了。聞者就是聽見佛的名字,或者聞到佛的經典,聞到佛的名號;不唐捐,都不會空過,都不會沒有用的,都會有用的。有什麼用呢?

「悉使離苦常歡喜」,令一切眾生,把一切的苦都離去了,都沒有了,沒有苦了就得到快樂,所以說常歡喜。也就是無有眾苦,但受諸樂了。「此是時華之所入」,這種的境界,這種的解脫門,就是這個時華凈光主稼神,他所得到的這種解脫門。

                           
待續

Sutra:

The Crop-Ruling Spirit named Inspiring Love and Delight in Beholders obtained the liberation door of causing all living  beings in the Dharma Realm to depart from laxness, worry, affliction, and all other evils, and to pervasively become pure. The Crop-Ruling Spirit named Radiance of Leaving  Filth obtained the liberation door of contemplating all living being's good roots and speaking Dharma in response to their needs, causing the entire assembly to be happy and fulfilled.

At that time the Crop-Ruling Spirit named Gently and Superior Flavor received the Buddha's awesome might, contemplated the multitudes of Crop-Ruling Spirits, and spoke the following verses.

Commentary:

The next Crop-Ruling Spirit is named Inspiring Love and Delight in Beholders. When living beings see this Crop-Ruling Spirit, they give rise to adoration and joy, hence his name. He obtained the state of the Buddha, the liberation door of causing all living  beings in the Dharma Realm--that many living beings--upon seeing this Crop-Ruling Spirit or hearing the Buddhadharma, to depart from laxness. All the living beings present at Gold Mountain Monastery right now could be said to have departed from laxness. Why is this? Before they heard the Buddhadharma, these people were like ordinary young Americans—feeling that they had a share at every meal but didn't have to share in the work. When it came to eating, they had no mark of others. When it came to work, they had no mark of self. When they got into a fight, they had no mark of living beings. When they ate meat, they had no mark of beings with a life span.

Now that they have come to Gold Mountain Monastery, some people have no mark of self when it comes to eating. They think, "It doesn't matter if I eat or not, as long as other people can eat their fill." When working, they have no mark of others. "I can do all the work myself. I don't need others to do it." They are completely different from the way they used to be. When they get into a fight, they have the mark of living beings, so they think, "I should not fight with this person." They don't eat meat anymore, because they have the mark of beings with a life span. They say, "May all beings enjoy a long life," and they refrain from killing. They are very diligent and hardworking, and not afraid that there is too much work to do. These are all ways in which they have departed from  laxness. They have forgotten their physical comfort for the sake of the Dharma. They even go without sleep so they can study more Buddhadharma.

Guo Zhan was especially vigorous today, standing up during the Sutra lecture to avoid nodding off. [To Guo Zhan] Was that why you stood up? I saw him starting to doze off when he was sitting there. Yesterday he heard me talk about the sleeping samadhi, and today he wanted to get out of that samadhi. That's also a case of departing from laxness.

One also departs worry, sorrow, pain, and affliction, and all  other evils. Cultivators should not become depressed or sad. Nor should they become afflicted. They should not have too many worries all the time, like the man from the state of Qi who worried that the sky would fall down. He kept thinking, "I wonder which day the sky will be ruined. When the sky falls, what am I going to do?" He was so worried about this all day long to that he stopped planting his fields and didn't do any work whatsoever. Now, wouldn't you say this was going a little too far?

Sometimes people fret about things unnecessarily. For example, they may think, "I wonder if my father is about to die. I wonder if my mother will get sick." These are worries about one's elders. Others may wonder, "Will my child grow up? Will my pet dog get skinny? Will my cat know how to catch mice?" These anxieties are uncalled for. They make a big deal out of trivial issues and get worried about them.

As for affliction, some people who have nothing better to do look in the mirror and think, "How irritating! Why do my nostrils point downward? It would be nice if they pointed upwards, so I could look different from everyone else." They get afflicted about that. For example, last night when Guo Hang and Guo Ning went to the lecture, some weird creatures—neither ghosts nor spirits that wanted to absorb people's vital energies, got them to start laughing hysterically, so that their attention was distracted. Once their attention scattered, these creatures that were neither ghosts nor spirits sucked up their vital energies as if they were smoking marijuana, but they didn't even realize it. They thought it was a lot of fun, but they were actually taking a loss.

"All other evils" refers in general to greed, anger, and delusion. Having forsaken laxness, worry, affliction, greed, anger, and delusion, living beings are caused to pervasively become pure. This is the state of Crop-Ruling Spirit Spirit named Inspiring Love and Delight in Beholders.

Commentary:

The Thus Come One is an unsurpassed ocean of merit and virtue.

The Thus Come One has perfected the three kinds of enlightenment and is replete with the ten thousand virtues. Thus he is said to be an unsurpassed ocean of merit and virtue. There is no merit and virtue higher or greater than that of the Thus Come One. Thus his merit and virtue is an ocean of merit and virtue, because it is measureless and boundless, infinite and inexhaustible.

He appears everywhere, teaching and transforming all living be­ings impartially, like a bright lamp shining upon the world and de­stroying all darkness. Before the Buddha came into the world, the world was as if devoid of the light of sun, moon, and lamps, going through a long, dark night. When the Buddha was born, it was as if sunlight, moonlight, and lamplight illuminated the entire world. The Buddha realized Buddhahood for the sake of saving living beings. His work is to save living  beings. So the text says: Rescuing and protect­ing all living beings whatsoever. Living beings are drowning in the river of love and the sea of suffering. The Buddha steers a great jeweled ship of compassion to save them all. He doesn't miss a single one. Even the most evil of beings gets rescued. The Buddha doesn't say, "You're too evil. I won't save you." He doesn't discriminate among living beings.

He bestows peace and joy upon everyone without exception. He universally makes all beings peaceful and happy without leaving out or forgetting any. Every single living being gets saved by the Buddha. As we say in Buddhism, "Sentient and insentient beings all perfect the Wisdom of All Modes."

The World Honored One's merit and virtue has no bounds. The One honored both in and beyond the World, the Great Guiding Master of the Triple Realm, has limitless, boundless, infinite, and inex­haustible merit and virtue. His merit and virtue is inconceivable.

All living beings including you, me and him who hear of him, who hear the Buddha's name or the Sutras spoken by the Buddha, will certainly gain benefit.. Their hearing will not be in vain. What use will it be? They will leave all suffering and enjoy constant happiness. All beings will be relieved of suffering and will always be happy. They will have no suffering, but will enjoy every kind of happiness.

This is what continual Blooms has understood. This is the state, the liberation door, that the Crop-Ruling Spirit named Continual Blooms' Pure Light has attained.

To be continued
   

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