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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
The Flower Adornment Sutra with Commentary

【卷四 世主妙嚴品第一之四】

Roll Four, Chapter One: The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Part Four

*宣化上人講 Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua
*國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute
*修訂版 Revised version

妙嚴環髻主稼神,得普發眾生淨信華解脫門。

這位妙嚴環髻主稼神,他是功德莊嚴。什麼功德?是微妙不可思議的功德來莊嚴。環髻,環是一種飾物,裝飾的一種東西,它是圓圓的。圓是代表重重無盡的意思。髻是表示功德莊嚴的樣子。這是一種很淺顯的講法,若是詳細講,那是窮劫難盡的。

這一位主稼神,他明白佛的境界一小部分。是什麼呢?他得到普發眾生淨信花解脫門。普是普遍,他令所有的一切眾生都能發這個淨信花。發是以前沒有,現在有了就是發。這個淨信的花,在眾生來說,以前他有很多的染污,很多的妄想,很多的私欲,沒能發這個淨信的花。那麼,現在是發了。所以沒發善心的人,令他發心;沒種善根的人,令他種善根,這都謂之發。

好像我們種穀,把種子種到地下,它得到種種的助緣一溫暖的助緣,溼的助緣,再加上土的助緣一種種的助緣,它就發出芽來了。發出一個芽,它就生出來,長大了,就會結果。發了淨信的花,就要結淨信的果。不能有花而無果,若有花而無果,這是謊花。也不能有果而無花;有果而無花,那就變成無花果了。現在這個淨信,也就是由功德所成就的。淨信這種花是成就菩提道的一種表現,也就是結圓滿覺果的花。這個淨信花是因,能結淨信的圓滿覺果,那是成佛的果。

潤澤淨華主稼神,得大慈愍濟諸眾生,令增長福德海解脫門。

這一位是潤澤淨華主稼神。這個淨信的花要有潤澤;潤澤淨信的花,就是要做種種的功德。你能有功德,你的淨信花就茂盛,所以叫潤澤淨華主稼神。他得到大慈愍。慈就是用一種慈悲心攝受一切眾生;愍就是愍念,也就是憐憫,也就是愛護一切眾生。這個愛護;愛,「愛之欲其生,惡之欲其死。」你愛他,就想要他活著;你討厭他,就想要他死,這在儒教中講到的。這個慈愛,慈愛一切眾生,視一切眾生都好像自己的小孩子似的。這一位主稼神,他得到大慈愍。「幼吾幼以及人之幼」,這種的慈悲愛護,在儒教講來,就是愛護自己幼小的小孩子,和愛護其他人幼小的小孩子是一樣的,這是儒教的道理。

佛教的道理,就是愛護所有的小孩子,都是一樣的。大慈平等愛護一切眾生,所以叫「大慈愍濟諸眾生。」濟就是救濟,也就是濟度。什麼叫救濟呢?譬如有人掉到水裡,將要淹死,也沒有到彼岸,也沒有到此岸,正在水的中流裡邊,將要淹死了。你用一個救生的圈,把他救上來。或者你用一個救生的索,把他拉上來。你用種種的方法,把他救出來,這叫救濟。什麼是濟度呢?濟度就是從此岸把他度到彼岸去。或者他坐著一個船要過海,或者是大江,在江的中間,船壞了,不夠力量到彼岸了,你用另外一艘好的船,把他度到彼岸去,這叫濟度。所以古人為了殺人而焚舟呢?

我記不清楚是哪那一個朝代,大概是列國的時候,有那麼一個將軍,帶著很多的兵,去征伐另外一個國,把兵都過了河,那時候他把過河的船都用火燒了它。這叫濟河焚舟,意思是怎樣呢?就是你要不是英勇去作戰去,你就沒有回來的希望了。你必須要捨死忘生,把生死都置之度外了,和敵國作戰,然後才有回來的希望。我們現在修行也要這樣。要到了彼岸,就不要想再回來。我們到涅槃彼岸,把我們所用的舟航也燒了它,不要再希望回來。也就是一斷永斷,一濟永濟,一勞永逸。到了彼岸,不要再回來了;再回來還是受生死嘛!濟諸眾生,不是我們一個要到彼岸,我們要把所有的眾生,都濟度到彼岸去。濟度到彼岸做什麼呢?令增長福德海。譬如到西方極樂世界,在那地方等著,修行成佛,增長福和德行;福和德行多了,就猶如海一樣無量無邊。海,你不容易測量得出來是多深?是多寬?是多大?那個福德的海,亦復如是。也就像這個,所以入這種的解脫門。成就妙香主稼神,得廣開示一切行法解脫門。

這一位主稼神叫成就妙香。這個主稼神呢,就包括一切的花都在內,所以這一位主稼神叫成就妙香。他能成就種種的香,種種的妙香。一切眾生聞見這種的妙香,都會改惡向善,發菩提心,所以叫妙香。這種的妙香,也就是戒香、定香、慧香、解脫香、解脫知見香,所以叫妙香。

這一位主稼神是這樣子,他得到佛的境界一部份。什麼呢?廣開示一切行法。廣開示也就是沒有窮盡的意思。他指示眾生一切修行的法門。往向前說,說過去諸佛無量無邊,修行的法門,說現在諸佛所修行的一切無量無邊的法門,也指示一切眾生,未來的諸佛,也是從這無量無邊的法門修行而成的。所以我們眾生,不要對這個法門生出一種畏懼心,生出一種望洋興嘆的心。什麼叫望洋興嘆呢?說這個佛法啊!猶如大海那麼多,我要什麼時候能修成這麼多的法門。就好像有一個人,站在海的邊上,看見大海的水這麼多:我什麼時候能把這海水能喝乾了呢?我什麼時候可以度過這個海呢?這麼大!這叫望洋興嘆。於是乎!就嘆起來了:「啊!我是沒有時候可以把這海水喝乾,也沒有時候可以度過這個海。」這叫望洋興嘆。

怎麼辦呢?你只要是躬行實踐,實實在在去認真地修行,都能彈指圓成八萬門。這一彈指的時間,就可以把八萬法門都修了,成就了。為什麼呢?一通一切通。你一個法門成功了,所有的法門你都通達無礙了;你通達無礙了,「剎那滅卻三祇劫」。在那一剎那的時間,三大阿僧祇劫都圓滿了。所以你不要對佛法生出一種難修的心。這一位主稼神,就是成就妙香主稼神。他得到這種的解脫門。

今天我有一個問題,我不問你們的問題,我問你們我的問題,我不知道八萬四千法門,哪一個法門是第一?你們誰要知道可以告訴我。「但修行法門,沒有哪個是第一,那麼多都是第—。」它們都第一嗎?為什麼?你那一個法門是哪一個?

「睡。」嗯!你真會睡覺嗎?「不會。」那睡覺的法門,你也沒有會,那你怎麼能變成有睡覺的法門?你要能會睡覺的法門的話,得到睡覺三昧了!睡也就是醒;醒也就是睡:醒睡是一如,醒和睡著沒有分別。睡和醒的時候又沒有分別,那是得到睡覺三昧;也是得到不睡覺的三昧。這是醒睡,睡醒是一樣的。那你這個法門怎麼樣了?

那你是什麼樣?講一講!妄想;妄想也是一個法門。聽!第一。為什麼這樣說?這要有根據的,不是隨便空談,不是空穴來風。為什麼呢?《金剛經》上說得明明白白的,「是法平等,無有高下」,沒有一個第一,也沒有一個第二。你要不信,你就去研究研究。對你的那個法門不錯,與你相應了,你那個法門就是第一。睡覺,對我的這個法門相應了,我這個法門又是第一。吃飯,對他的那個法門若相應了,他那個法門又是第一。穿衣服、吃飯;穿衣服、睡覺,沒有旁的。那麼趕快拜懺,把懺拜完了,就趕快睡覺。睡醒了覺,就趕快等到十一點鐘再吃飯。不,睡醒了覺,就要穿衣服;穿完了衣服,等十一點鐘吃你的那一頓飯,旁的不要幹什麼。還有一點事,我們那個果逸,有點毛病,拜懺的時候大家給她迴向一下,叫她的毛病快點好了。

待續

Sutra:

The Crop-Ruling Spirit named Wonderfully Adorned Circular Cowl obtained the liberation door of universally causing flowers of pure faith to blossom in living beings. The Crop-Ruling Spirit named Moistening Pure Flowers obtained the liberation door of rescuing all beings out of great compassionate mercy, increasing their ocean of blessings and virtue. The Crop-Ruling Spirit named Accomplishing Wonderful Fragrance obtained the liberation door of vastly explaining all methods of practice.

Commentary:

The Crop-Ruling Spirit named Wonderfully Adorned Circular Cowl is adorned with merit and virtue. What merit and virtue? Subtle, wonderful, inconceivable merit and virtue. The circle represents infinity. The cowl symbolizes the appearance of adornment with merit and virtue. That's a rather shallow explanation. If we were to go into detail, we could discuss this for endless eons without finishing. This Crop-Ruling Spirit understood a little bit of the Buddha's state and obtained the liberation door of universally causing flowers of pure faith to blossom in living beings. "Universally" means that these flowers of pure faith bloom in all beings. Their blossoming means that previously they did not exist, but now they do. Living beings formerly had a lot of defilement, false thinking, and selfish desires, and it was impossible for their flowers of pure faith to bloom. But now they have bloomed. So, beings who had not brought forth good resolves now do so; beings who had not planted good roots before now plant them. This is all included in the meaning of "blossom."

For example, when seeds are planted in the ground and all the conditions of heat, moisture, soil, and so forth are present, they germinate, grow, and eventually bear fruit. Once the flowers of pure faith have bloomed, they must bear the fruit of pure faith. It cannot be that there are flowers, but no fruit. Such flowers are barren. If there is fruit but no flower, then that is like the fig [which in Chinese is literally the "flowerless fruit".] Pure faith is accomplished through merit and virtue. Such flowers are a manifestation of the realization of the Bodhi Way. They are flowers that bear the fruit of perfect enlightenment. Flowers of pure faith are the cause; the fruit of perfect enlightenment is the result.

The next Crop-Ruling Spirit is named Moistening Pure Flowers. Flowers of pure faith need moisture. To nurture flowers of pure faith, one must do all kinds of merit and virtue. If you have merit and virtue, your flowers of pure faith will flourish. So the name of this Crop-Ruling Spirit is "Moistening Pure Flowers." He obtained the liberation door of rescuing all beings out of great compassionate mercy. Compassion can gather living beings in. Mercy means taking pity on all beings and bestowing love and protection upon them. It is said that,

One wishes that those whom one loves will live,
And hopes that those whom one hates will die.

With compassionate mercy, which is a teaching of Confucianism, one regards all beings as if they were one's own children. This Spirit's compassion and loving protection is that of "loving all children as one would love one's own sons and daughters." That's a Confucian doctrine. Buddhism also teaches that we should love all children equally, with impartial great kindness. "Rescuing all beings": What is meant by rescuing? Suppose someone falls into the water and is about to drown.

He's in the middle of the water, far from either shore, and he's close to drowning. You can toss him a lifesaving ring or rope, and pull him to shore. Imagine another scenario in which a boat breaks down in the middle of a river or sea. You can go out in another boat and take the passengers to shore.

In ancient China, there was the story of "burning of boats at the Ji River." I can't remember which dynasty it happened in; it was probably during the Era of Warring States. There was a general who led a large army to invade another state. After the troops had crossed the river, he burned all the boats. He was letting his men know that they had to fight well, for there was no way to go back. They had to forget about whether they lived or died; only then would there be hope of going home. Cultivation is the same way. Once you reach the other shore, don't think about going back. Once we arrive at the further shore of Nirvana, we should burn the boat we used to come over. Don't think about going back.

Once you've severed it, it's severed forever.
Once you're saved, you're saved forever.
Once you're done toiling, you'll enjoy leisure forever.

Once we reach the other shore, we don't want to come back. If we come back, we still have to undergo birth and death. "Rescuing all beings": We don't want to go to the other shore alone; we want to rescue all beings and bring them to the other shore. What for? For the purpose of increasing their ocean of blessings and virtue, so that, for example, they may go to the Western Land of Ultimate Bliss, where they can cultivate to become Buddhas. When the amount of blessings and virtue becomes very great, they are like an ocean, limitless and boundless. It is difficult to measure the ocean's breadth and depth; the same holds true for the ocean of blessings and virtue. That's the door to liberation that this Crop-Ruling Spirit obtained.

The next Crop-Ruling Spirit is named Accomplishing Wonderful Fragrance. Crop-Ruling Spirits also rule over all flowers, so this Crop-Ruling Spirit is able to accomplish all kinds of wondrous fragrances. When beings smell these wondrous fragrances, they change their evil ways, become good, and bring forth the Bodhi resolve. Wonderful fragrance is the fragrance of precepts, the fragrance of samadhi, the fragrance of wisdom, the fragrance of liberation, and the fragrance of liberation from knowledge and views. This Crop-Ruling Spirit obtained a portion of the Buddha's state, namely, the liberation door of vastly explaining all methods of practice. "Vastly" means his explanations are endless. He instructs living beings in all Dharma doors of cultivation—the limitless and boundless Dharma doors cultivated by all past Buddhas, the limitless and boundless Dharma doors cultivated by all present Buddhas, and the limitless and boundless Dharma doors cultivated by all future Buddhas. We living beings should not be intimidated by all these Dharma doors. We should not "gaze at the ocean and sigh in despair." We should not say, "The Buddhadharma is as vast as the great ocean. When am I going to finish cultivating so many Dharma doors?" It's like a person standing beside the ocean and saying, "The ocean is so huge. How could I possibly drink up all the water in it? How could I ever cross it?" He heaves a sigh and concludes, "I'll never be able to drink the ocean dry. I'll never get to the other side."

What should we do? We must truly and honestly get down to cultivation. Then, in a fingersnap, we can perfect the cultivation of 80,000 Dharma doors. Why? Because when we penetrate and master one Dharma door, we have penetrated and mastered them all. With such unobstructed penetration, "in a kshana the three asamkhyeyas of kalpas are done." In the briefest instant, we perfect the cultivation of three great asamkhyeyas (an uncountable number) of eons. So, there's no reason to feel that the Buddhadharma is too difficult to practice. The Crop-Ruling Spirit named Accomplishing Wonderful Fragrance obtained this kind of liberation door.

Today I have a question for you. Instead of asking you for questions, I will ask you my question. I would like to know: "Among the 84,000 Dharma doors, which Dharma door is number one?" If you know the answer, please tell me.

Disciple: Of the Dharma doors of cultivation, there isn't one that is number one. They are all number one.

Venerable Master: They are all number one? Why?

[Answer is inaudible.] Which one is your Dharma door?

Disciple: Sleeping.

Venerable Master: Oh? Do you really know how to sleep?

Disciple: No.

Venerable Master: If you don't know how to sleep, then how can you consider that your Dharma door? If you master the Dharma door of sleeping and attain the sleeping samadhi, then being asleep would be the same as being awake, and being awake would be the same as sleeping. Wakefulness and sleep would be one and the same. There would be no difference between them. That's the attainment of the "sleeping samadhi"; it's also the attainment of the "no sleep samadhi." Sleeping and waking, waking and sleeping-it's all the same. So, what about your Dharma door? Tell me what your state is.

Disciple: False-thinking.

Venerable Master: So false-thinking is also a Dharma door. Why do you say none of them are number one? You have to have a reason. You can't just make baseless claims. What are your grounds? The Vajra Sutra says very clearly, "The Dharma is all the same, with no high or low. There is no number one and no number two." If you don't believe it, you can look into it. If your Dharma door works for you, then your Dharma door is number one for you--sleeping. If my Dharma door works for me, then it's number one for me--eating. If his Dharma door works for him, then it's number one for him--wearing clothes. Eating, wearing clothes, and sleeping--that's all there is. Now, quickly go to bow the repentance ceremony. After bowing, quickly go to sleep. After you wake up, put on your clothes. After putting on clothes, at eleven o'clock you can eat your meal. You don't have to do anything else. There's one other matter. Guo Yi has a slight illness. During the repentance, everyone should dedicate some merit to her so that she will get well soon.

To be continued

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