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《菩提田》

 

BODHI FIELD

陶淵明詩講緣
Lectures on Tao Yuanming's Poems

葉嘉瑩教授 講 By Professor Yeh Chia-ying
郇若慧‧比丘尼恆音 英譯 English translation by Josey Shun and Bhikshuni Heng Yin

東晉的時候,有幾個人都是想要叛亂的。有一個人的名字叫桓溫,他是很有叛亂野心的,因為他的武功及軍事實力都很強大。一個人有了權力,特別是有了兵權,就容易生出野心,想要自己打出一片天地,嚐嚐做皇帝的滋味。可是桓溫沒有成功,他失敗了。後來他的兒子桓玄倒真的把東晉的安帝廢掉了,自己做了皇帝。不過他當皇帝的時間不長,就又被另外一個有野心的帶兵的人打敗了。這個人的名字就叫劉裕。總而言之,中國歷史上從晉朝以來,不止從晉朝,應該說是從三國以來就充滿了「篡」與「亂」的爭奪戰爭。那麼劉裕這個人,當他自己有了權力,軍隊越來越強大了,他就把晉朝的皇帝推翻了,他自己又建立了一個新的國家,他把他的國家稱作「宋」。

在中國歷史上,有兩國叫做宋的朝代。其中一個,他的皇帝姓劉,這就是劉裕。後來中國還有一個叫做宋的朝代,它的皇帝是姓趙的。它的第一個皇帝叫做趙匡胤,這就是唐朝以後的宋代。後來為了區別這兩國宋朝,就把劉裕建立的宋朝叫做劉宋,把趙匡胤建立的宋朝叫做趙宋。這就是說東晉最終是被劉裕的宋朝給滅亡的。劉裕先把東晉的最後兩個皇帝廢掉,然後又想辦法把他們殺死。這樣,晉朝就徹底地滅亡了。

這一切都發生在陶淵明所生活的時代。那麼陶淵明又是如何經歷,如何反應這樣一個亂世的呢?由于陶淵明有很多不同的傳記,所以關於陶淵明的名、字還有他的年壽如何,在中國歷史上有很多不同的說法。

陶淵明生在東晉的哀帝興寧三年。那是公元三百六十五年。根據什麼說他是生在這個年代的呢?在一本記載晉朝歷史的史傳《晉傳》上,有陶淵明的傳記。後來晉朝滅亡了,劉裕建立了新的朝代,陶淵明是經過了晉朝的滅亡,一直活到宋朝的宋文帝時才死的。所以劉宋的歷史上,即《宋傳》上也有他的傳記。除了《晉傳》、《宋傳》以外,還有一本叫做《南史》的史傳上,也有他的傳記。

關於南史的名稱,那是由於我們剛才說過的,從西晉時開始,中國的北方就被外族佔領了。我們前面不是說過「五胡十六國」嗎?所以到了東晉時,中國的漢族所佔有的地方,就只剩下長江以南的地域了。所以記載南方幾個朝代的歷史就叫南史。東晉滅亡以後的劉宋朝廷,其政治也是極其敗壞的,所以他們以及他們之後的朝代的壽命都很短。

既然你可以搶別人的國家和政權,那我也可以搶你的。於是在劉裕搶了東晉的皇位之後,就又有蕭道成搶了劉宋的政權而建立起了齊代;又有蕭衍搶了齊的政權,建立了梁代;梁朝的皇帝也姓蕭,是另外一家蕭姓。然後是陳霸先搶了梁朝的政權,建立起了陳代。

總之,宋、齊、梁、陳,這幾個朝代都很短,這是因為他們的政治都很不穩定所造成的。因為這四個朝代都在中國的南方,所以就管他們叫南朝。那麼在許多異族彼此爭奪征伐的北方,也建立了很多朝代,那些就叫北朝。所以專寫南朝宋、齊、梁、陳,這些短小朝代歷史的,就叫《南史》。

陶淵明是一直活到南朝的第一個朝代——宋——時才死的。所以《晉傳》、《宋傳》、《南史》上,都有陶淵明的傳記。根據歷史傳記中的記載,說他是在劉宋的文帝,元嘉四年死去的。如果依從這個說法,他死的時候是六十三歲。

剛才我們說他是生在公元三百六十五年,那麼宋文帝元嘉四年是公元四百二十八年,由此往上推六十三年,正好是公元三百六十五年,即東晉哀帝的興寧三年。這是我們根據《宋傳》上的陶淵明的傳記所下的結論。可是,關於陶淵明究竟活了多少歲,還有一些不同的說法,但比較可信的還是《宋傳》的說法。因為我們不是講歷史,所以我只能簡單地說到這裡,至於那些考證的問題,今天就來不及講了。

待續

During the Eastern Jin Dynasty [317-419 A.D.], there were several people who wanted to revolt, and one named Huan Wen was very ambitious because his martial skills and military strength were both very good. When a man possessed power, especially military power, he was apt to have ambitions of establishing his own territory so that he could feel like a king.

However, Huan Wen was not successful. Later on, his son, Huan Xuan, succeeded in usurping the throne from Emperor An of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. But it was not too long before he was defeated by another ambitious general, Liu Yu. In Chinese history in general, ever since the Jin Dynasty, or rather the Era of the Three Kingdoms, there had been ceaseless struggles to usurp or rebel against the ruling power. After Liu Yu seized power, his troops kept increasing in strength and he overthrew the Jin Dynasty and established a new country named Song.

There have been two Song dynasties in Chinese history. One was founded by the Liu family, and its first emperor was Liu Yu. The other Song Dynasty, which came right after the Tang Dynasty, was founded by the Zhao family, and its first emperor was Zhao Kuanyin. In order to distinguish these two Song dynasties, the one founded by Liu Yu is called Liu Song [420-479 A.D.] and the one founded by Zhao Kuanyin is called Zhao Song [960-1127 A.D.].

The Eastern Jin Dynasty was vanquished by Liu Yu's Song Dynasty. Liu Yu first dethroned the last two emperors of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, then plotted to kill both in order to finish the Eastern Jin Dynasty completely. All of these events happened during Tao Yuanming's lifetime. How did Tao Yuanming live through and react to such chaotic times?

In the various versions of Tao Yuanming's biography, there are differing accounts of his names and age in Chinese history. Tao Yuanming was born in the third year of the Xingning Reign Period of Emperor Ai during the Eastern Jin Dynasty (365 A. D.). Based on what documents do I say that he was born in that year? On Tao Yuanming's biography in the Book of Jin History. Later, the Eastern Jin Dynasty was overthrown by the new dynasty founded by Liu Yu. Tao Yuanming witnessed the perishing of the Jin Dynasty and lived till Emperor Wen of the Song Dynasty. Therefore, his biography also appears in the Book of the (Liu) Song History. In addition to these two books, the History of the South also has his biography.

The History of the South was so named because ever since the beginning of the Western Jin Dynasty, the northern part of China had been occupied by foreigners. There were the "Five Hu and Sixteen Kingdoms," as mentioned earlier. By the time of the Eastern Jin, only the area south of the Yangtze River was still under Han Chinese rule. The records of the few dynasties in southern China are named the History of the South.

The government of the Liu Song Dynasty, which followed the Eastern Jin, was also very corrupt. Thus, that dynasty and several subsequent ones were all very short-lived. If you can usurp others' country and power, I can also take yours away. Thus, after Liu Yu seized the throne from the emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Xiao Daocheng seized power from the Liu family and set up the Qi Dynasty. Later, Xiao Yan seized power from Qi Dynasty and founded the Liang Dynasty. The emperors of the Liang Dynasty also had the surname Xiao, but they were not the same as the Xiao family of the Qi Dynasty. Then, Chen Baxian took over Liang Dynasty and set up the Chen Dynasty.

Anyway, the dynasties Song, Qi, Liang, and Chen, were all very short because their governments were very unstable. Since these four dynasties were established in south China, people call them Southern Dynasties. Meanwhile, many foreign tribes were fighting each other in north China and setting up many dynasties, which people refer to as the Northern Dynasties. The History of the South records the history these small, brief dynasties, Song, Qi, Liang and Chen, in south China.

Tao Yuanming lived till Song Dynasty, the first of the Southern Dynasties. Therefore his biography was included in the Book of Jin History, the Book of Song History, and the History of the South. Based on these historical books, he died in the fourth year of the Yuanjia reign period of Emperor Wen. So he should have been 63 years old when he died. The Western date was 428 A. D., and subtracting 63 years gives 365 A.D. This conclusion is based on Tao Yuanming's biography in the Book of Song History. However, there are various views on how long Tao Yuanming actually lived. We choose the more reliable one in the Book of Song History. We are not discussing history today, so I can only talk about it briefly. As for the research on the verification, I will skip it today.

To be continued

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