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《菩提田》

 

BODHI FIELD

八識規矩頌
Verses Delineating the Eight Consciousnesses

唐三藏法師玄奘造 by Tripitaka Master Xuanzang of the Tang Dynasty
易象乾博士英譯並註解,版權所有,1986年 Translation and explanation by Ronald Epstein, Ph.D. Copyright by Ronald Epstein 1986.
曾偉峰‧王青楠博士 中譯 Chinese translation by Wayne Zeng and Qingnan Wang, Ph.D.

下面四行討論四種我執。

上面已經說過,「非量」是「三量」中的第三量。前兩量是現量與比量。第七識的執著是與生俱來的,因此是根本性的非量,而非基於錯誤的推斷,不同於第六識的較粗地,明顯地,執著於自我,基於錯誤的推斷。(第六識亦有與生俱來的微細我執。)

八大遍行別境慧,貪癡我見慢相隨。

八種大隨煩惱是不信、懈怠、放逸、昏沈、掉舉、失念、不正知、散亂;五種遍行法是作意、觸、受、想、思。我愛、我癡、我見、我慢是四種惑;四惑的產生均基於五別境之「慧」。此「慧」(揀擇性)為完全依於世俗我執的知見而作出的判斷。在聖人的地位(八地以上),「慧」不復存在。這裡是講第七識,所列舉的十八法都與之相互作用,並依之而存在。

恆審思量我相隨,

第七識與以上所說的伴隨著它的心所法,不間斷地緣於第八識之見分,審思其性質,誤認為真我。

第七識與其他諸識相異之處為:從不間斷的現行和審思。

不間斷之現行、審思與八識的關係:

識:

1-5

6

7

8

不間斷地現行

 

 

審思

 

 

有情日夜鎮昏迷;

是第七識使得眾生不斷地輪迴,而俱生我執是我們輪轉不休的根源。

四惑八大相應起,

在第四行我們已經討論了四種惑。而在第三行我們討論了八大隨煩惱。這四惑八大構成眾生的「惑境」。

六轉呼為染淨依。

第七識是意根,為第六識的依托;第六識專門分別染淨。

極喜初心平等性,

在極喜地的初始階段,平等性智開始出現。像第六識一樣,第七識自動地轉成智。第七識自己本身無力除惑,因為它的我執是俱生我執,而非分別我執。運用第六識參禪,可以消除我執,但法執仍然存在。

無功用行我恆摧;

八地菩薩修行是無功用行,無須人為的努力,因為其我執已消融淨盡了。

如來現起他受用,

佛的法身有三德:1.自在體;2.受用體,又細分為二體:一者自受用,二者他受用;3.化身。

十地菩薩所被機。

佛用他們的受用體去教化十地菩薩。

待續

The four types of attachment to self are described in line four below.

Fallacy is the third of the Three Modes of Knowledge, already mentioned above, the first two being direct, veridical perception and inference. The seventh consciousness's attachment is innate and, therefore, a fundamentally fallacious mode of knowledge; it is not based on wrong inference as is the case with the sixth consciousness's coarse, distinguished, attachment to self. (The sixth consciousness also has a subtle, innate, attachment to self.)

The eight major-grade derivative afflictions; the universally interactive; of the particular states, judgment; Self-love; self-delusion; view of self; and self-conceit all interact and accord with it.

The eight major-grade derivative afflictions are lack of faith, laziness, laxness, torpor, restlessness, distraction, improper knowledge, and scatteredness. The five universally interactive dharmas are attention, contact, feeling, conceptualization, and deliberation.

Self-love, self-delusion, view of self, and self-conceit are known as the Four Types of Delusion. The four arise because of one of the Five Particular States, judgment, which refers to decision-making based wholly on worldly knowledge which is defiled by self. "Judgment" ceases to operate on the grounds of the sages, that is, from the eighth ground on. "It" refers to the seventh consciousness. All of the eighteen dharmas listed here are dependent upon the seventh consciousness for their existence and all interact with it.

It continuously focuses its mental activity on inquiry which results in the characteristic that is self.

The seventh consciousness, in conjunction with the above mentioned mind-dependent dharmas, continuously focuses on the perceiver division of the eighth consciousness, inquires into its nature, and erroneously ascertains that it is the true self.

In contradistinction to the other consciousnesses the seventh consciousness both functions continuously and engages in mental inquiry.

Day and night it reduces sentient beings to a state of confusion.

It is the seventh consciousness that keeps beings revolving on the wheel of rebirth. It is innate attachment to self that is the basis of our continued rebirth.

The Four Delusions and the Eight Major-Grade Derivative Afflictions arise interacting with it.

It is the Four Delusions, mentioned in line four above, and the Eight Major-Grade Derivative Afflictions, mentioned in line three above, that constitute "the state of confusion" of living beings.

When the sixth consciousness is functioning, the seventh is called the basis of defilement and purity.

The seventh consciousness is the mind-organ and as such is the basis of the sixth consciousness, which distinguishes what is defiled and what is pure.

During the initial phase of the Ground of Extreme Rejoicing, the Wisdom whose Nature is Equality begins to appear.

The seventh consciousness automatically begins to be transformed as the sixth is transformed. The seventh has no power of its own to eliminate delusion, because its delusions are all innate rather than distinguished. Through meditations utilizing the sixth consciousness, attachment to self is eliminated, but attachment to dharmas still remains.

Practice becomes effortless and the self is destroyed for good.

On the eighth ground of the Bodhisattva all further cultivation is spontaneous and without personal effort because there is no longer any self.

The Thus Come One appears [in a body] for the Enjoyment of Others.

The Dharma-Body of a Buddha has three different aspects: 1) the Body of Self-Mastery, 2) the Enjoyment Body, which in turn has two aspects—self-enjoyment and enjoyment of others, and 3) transformation bodies.

As an opportunity for Bodhisattvas of the Tenth Ground.

The Buddhas use their Enjoyment Bodies to teach and transform the Bodhisattvas who are on the tenth ground.

To be continued

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