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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
The Flower Adornment Sutra with Commentary

【卷四 世主妙嚴品第一之四】

Roll Four, Chapter One: The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Part Four

宣化上人講於一九七三年十一月二十七日 Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua
國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute
修訂版 Revised version

大悲方便等眾生,
悉現其前常化誘;
普使淨治煩惱垢,
淨眼見此深歡悅。

佛演妙音普使聞,
眾生愛樂心歡喜。
悉使滌除無量苦,
此遍吼神之解脫。

「大悲方便等眾生」:佛,用大悲心來救度一切眾生。大悲心,就是拔除眾生的苦,給眾生的樂。方便,就是令眾生容易接受這種的教化,這叫方便法。權巧方便,是暫時間的一個變通活動的法門,不是不變通的法門,這叫方便。有多少大悲心方便法門呢?有多少眾生,就有多少大悲心和方便法門,所以說是等眾生——等於眾生那麼多。

「悉現其前常化誘」:佛,常常示現在眾生的面前,常常用種種的方法來教化眾生,來誘導眾生,令眾生知道改邪歸正,改過自新,所以說常化誘。

「普使淨治煩惱垢」:普遍地使令一切眾生,把他的毛病都去了,返本還原,把他的煩惱也都去掉了。所以叫煩惱垢,就因為煩惱好像那邋遢的東西一樣,所以要把它除去。

「淨眼見此深歡悅」:這個淨眼主河神,他見到這種境界,心裡深深地歡喜,深深地快樂。

「佛演妙音普使聞」:佛演說清淨法音,微妙不可思議的法音。普使聞,普遍使一切眾生都聽見這個清淨的妙音。

「眾生愛樂心歡喜」:眾生生出一種愛樂的心,生出一種歡喜心——愛樂這種的妙音,歡喜佛的妙音。

一聽到佛這個妙音,「悉使滌除無量苦」:能普遍令一切眾生,洗滌他這個無量劫的苦根;苦根都能洗淨了,善根也就生了。

「此遍吼神之解脫」:這是遍吼主河神,他得到這種的解脫門。

佛昔修習菩提行,
為利眾生無量劫;
是故光明遍世間,
護神憶念生歡喜。

「佛昔修習菩提行」:釋迦牟尼佛在以前因地的時候,修習這種覺悟的行門。

「為利眾生無量劫」:修習為利益一切眾生的行,經過無量無邊的那麼多大劫。

「是故光明遍世間」:因為有這麼長的時間來修行,所以他的光明普照十方的有情世間。

「護神憶念生歡喜」:普救護一切眾生主河神,他憶念這種境界,心裡生出無量無邊的歡喜,他得到這種的解脫門。

誰有問題?沒有問題了?我有一個問題:什麼法子可以多睡一點覺?又有什麼好的辦法可以不睡覺?我要有辦法我就不問你們了。我只有一個辦法,自己不睡覺。

問:「什麼是生忍?什麼是法忍?什麼是無生法忍?」

我以前怎麼講給你?這個生忍,就是眾生忍。你對眾生,誰罵你,你也能忍;誰打你,你也能忍;誰殺你,你也總是忍。什麼叫法忍?你看這佛法,深如大海,要是沒有忍,你就不能學佛法。「這麼多佛法,我怎麼學?我沒有法子學。」這就是沒有法忍。無生法忍,是證得一種境界——不見有少法生,不見有少法忍,不見有少法滅。那個生忍,叫作人空的境界。你能有人空,就有生忍;你再要有法空,就有法忍了;你人也空了,法也空了,這叫人法雙亡。這就是無生法忍——不見有少法生,不見有少法滅,忍可於心。心裡頭,對這境界,你想要說,說不出來;說不出來這種境界,這就是無生法忍。懂了沒有?

「懂了!懂了!」

這回你證得了人空法空啦!學完了,怎麼了?什麼也不會!

佛昔修行為眾生,種種方便令成熟;
普淨福海除眾苦,無熱見此心欣慶。

施門廣大無窮盡,一切眾生咸利益;
能令見者無慳著,此普喜神之所悟。

「佛昔修行為眾生」:佛為眾生而修行,不是為自己而修行。為什麼為眾生而修行呢?因為佛看一切眾生,就等於他自己一樣;眾生的苦不除,佛自己的苦也沒有盡,所以發願要拔除眾生的苦惱,所以他修行。

「種種方便令成熟」:佛用種種的方便法門,方便權巧,權巧方便,來使令眾生的機緣成熟。也就是沒有種善根的,想辦法教他種善根;已經種善根的,又幫他們增長這個善根;已經增長善根的眾生,又幫助他們成熟這個善根;已經成熟的善根眾生,令他們得到解脫。所以說種種方便令成熟,令他得到佛果。

「普淨福海除眾苦」:普遍使令一切眾生,得到清淨的福田,成就無上的道業,把一切的眾苦除去了。

「無熱見此心欣慶」:無熱,就是沒有煩惱。這一位主河神,他遇到一種境界,明白這種境界,所以心裡非常地歡喜,非常地慶幸。

「施門廣大無窮盡」:這一位主河神,他見到佛所修的這個施門廣大不窮盡,說不完,這個布施法門。所謂財拖、法施、無畏施,種種的施,無窮無盡。

「一切眾生咸利益」:這一切眾生,無論哪一類的眾生,完全都得到利益。

「能令見者無慳著」:佛的大威神力、大智慧力、大光明照破一切黑暗,所以能令見者無慳著;能使見到佛的光的眾生,聞到佛的法的眾生,聽見佛的音聲的眾生,離慳著——無慳著也就是離慳著。慢就是慳貪不捨。人修行應該是利益人,不是利益自己。利益人就是自己能做得到的事情幫助人;做不到的事情,也要幫助人,這就是無慳著;沒有一種慳貪,沒有一種執著。慳貪不捨,捨不得;捨不得的,你要捨才能得。捨得,捨得,你要不捨呢,就不能得。得甚麼?得到這種德行。你利益人,這就有德行;你利益自己,談不到德行。所以我們修道的人,外邊把一切的的(原文也是兩個“的”字,感覺此處多了一個“的”字)財產都要布施;內裡邊身心性命也要布施。你要能把身心性命都捨得布施給人,那還有甚麼慳著呢?沒有的。

「此普喜神之所悟」:你不要以為這種道理很容易明白,這很不容易明白的。怎麼說不容易明白?你看這個文就知道。這是這個普喜神,他所能悟解的,他所能明白的這種境界,所以說是不容易。

佛昔修行實方便,成就無邊功德海。
能令見者靡不欣,此勝幢神心悟悅。

「佛昔修行實方便」:佛以前修行這種種的方便法門,為什麼說實方便呢?因為要「為實施權」——為了實教,而修方便法門。

「成就無邊功德海」:佛為利益眾生,布施眾生,作種種的功德。凡是利益眾生的事,他都去做去,不是專為利己,所以他成就無邊功德海。

「能令見者靡不欣」:佛能令所有見到佛的這些個眾生,心裡都生出歡喜。

「此勝幢神心所悅」:這種的境界,這種的解脫門,是這個勝幢主河神,他所明白的這種道理,這種的解脫門。

待續

 

Sutra:
With great compassion and skill-in-means commensurate 
He manifests before them all to constantly guide and transform them, 
Universally enabling them to purge the filth of afflictions. 
Pure Eyes sees this and is profoundly delighted.
The Buddha proclaims the wonderful sound so that all can hear. 
Living beings adore and delight in it with happy hearts, 
For it enables them to completely wash away limitless sufferings. 
This is the liberation of the Spirit Pervasive Roar.

Commentary:
With great compassion and skill-in-means commensurate to living beings. The Buddha uses a heart of great compassion to rescue all living beings. That heart of great compassion acts to eradicate living beings' sufferings and bestow happiness upon them. Skill-in-means, clever expedient dharmas, are utilized to make it easy for living beings to accept the teachings. They are temporary methods applied in a dynamic, expedient way. They are not rigid dharmas. How much great compassion and how many expedient means are there? As many as the number of living beings. They are equal to the amount of living beings.

He manifests before them all to constantly guide and transform them.The Buddha constantly appears before living beings and uses various methods to teach them, to guide them to change from deviant to proper, to change their faults and renew themselves. He always teaches them, universally enabling them to purge the filth of afflictions.He causes living beings to get rid of all their faults, return to the source, and do away with afflictions. Afflictions are filthy things that should be cleaned up and discarded.

The River-Ruling Spirit named Pure Eyes sees thiskind of state and is profoundly delightedand happy at heart.

The Buddha proclaims the pure Dharma sound, the inconceivably subtle, wonderful sound of Dharma so that all living beings everywhere can hearit. Living beings adore and delight in it with happy hearts. Beings take delight in and love the Buddha's wonderful sound, for as soon as they hear it, it enables them to completely wash away limitlesseons' worth of sufferings. Once the roots of suffering are washed away, their good roots come forth. This is the liberation door of the River-Ruling Spiritnamed Pervasive Roar.

Sutra:
The Buddha in the past cultivated practices for Bodhi, 
For the sake of benefiting beings through limitless eons. 
Therefore his brilliant light pervades the world. 
The Spirit Protecting recollects this and feels happy.

Commentary:
The Buddha Shakyamuni, in the past when he was cultivating on the causal ground, cultivated practices for Bodhi, the doors of practice leading to enlightenment. He cultivated the practices for enlightening both self and others, and for the sake of benefitingall living beings through limitless eons. He cultivated for such a long time, therefore his brilliant light pervades the ten directions of the sentient world. / The River-Ruling Spirit named Rescuing and Protecting Living Beings recollects this state and feelsimmeasurably and boundlessly happy. He obtained that kind of door to liberation.

Are there any questions? If not, I have a question: How can one find a way to sleep more? Is there a good way to be able to go without sleeping? Now, if I had a method, I wouldn't ask you. My only method is: Don't sleep.

Someone is asking how patience with production, patience with dharmas, and patience with the nonproduction of dharmas are explained. As I have explained before, patience with production is just patience with living beings. If living beings scold you, beat you, or kill you, you are able to patiently bear it. What is patience with dharmas? Take a look at the Buddhadharma—it's as deep as the great sea. If you lack patience, you cannot study the Buddhadharma. You would say, "There's so much Buddhadharma. I could never study it all." That shows a lack of patience with dharmas. Patience with the nonproduction of dharmas is a state that one certifies to, in which one does not see the slightest dharma produced or extinguished, so that people and dharmas are both empty. Patience with production is the emptiness of people. When you reach the state of people being empty, you can attain patience with production. When you also see dharmas as empty, you attain patience with dharmas. When people and dharmas are both empty and gone, that is patience with the nonproduction of dharmas. One sees not the slightest dharma produced, and not the slightest dharma extinguished. One can only bear this kind of state in one's heart; it cannot be expressed in words. Do you understand? You do? You must have realized the emptiness of people and dharmas, right? You all have been so lazy that after studying, you still don't know anything.

Sutra:
The Buddha in the past cultivated for living beings, 
Using various expedients to bring them to maturity. 
He universally purified an ocean of blessings and cast out 
all sufferings. 
Devoid of Heat sees this and his heart rejoices.
The gate of giving is vast and inexhaustible, 
Bringing benefit to all living beings. 
Those who see it depart from stinginess and attachment. 
This is what the Spirit Universal Joy has awakened to.

Commentary:
The Buddha in the past cultivated for the sake of living beings, not for himself. Why? Because the Buddha regarded all living beings as being the same as himself. Before living beings' sufferings were eradicated, the Buddha felt as if his own suffering had not come to an end. He made vows to eradicate the suffering and afflictions of living beings, and then he cultivated, using various expedients to bring them to maturity. The Buddha employed all manner of expe­dient Dharma doors—ingenious methods—to help living beings whose conditions were ripe. For those beings who had not planted good roots, he devised ways to get them to plant good roots. For those who had already planted good roots, he helped them to increase them. For those who had increased their good roots, the Buddha helped them bring their good roots to maturity. For living beings whose good roots were already mature, he caused them to gain liberation. So, the Buddha used "various expedients to bring them to maturity," to bring them to Buddhahood.

He universally purified an ocean of blessings, causing living beings to obtain a pure field of blessings, to accomplish the supreme Way, andto cast out all sufferings.

Devoid of Heat sees this and his heart rejoices. "Devoid of Heat" means free of afflictions. This River-Ruling Spirit encoun­tered this kind of state, understood it, and was extremely happy.

The gate of giving is vast and inexhaustible.This River-Ruling Spirit saw the Buddha cultivating the vast, great, infinite gate of giving. One can never finish discussing the Dharma door of giving, which includes the giving of wealth, Dharma, and fearlessness—all kinds of giving, endless in variety.

Bringing benefit to all living beings. All living beings, no matter what kind, derived benefit. Those who see it depart from stinginess and attachment. The Buddha's awesome spiritual might, his great power of wisdom, and his brilliant light can shine through and destroy all darkness. The Buddha can cause beings who see his light, hear his Dharma, and listen to his voice, to leave behind stinginess and attachment. Stinginess is a form of greed, the inability to renounce. Cultivators should benefit others, not themselves. One should do what one can to help others. One should also try to do things beyond one's capability to help others. That's being without stinginess and attachment.

Those who are stingy and greedy cannot give things up. However, you must give before you can get something back. If you cannot renounce things, you cannot obtain anything. Obtain what? Virtuous conduct. When you benefit others, you have virtuous conduct. When you help yourself, that cannot be considered virtuous conduct. Therefore, we who cultivate the Way should renounce all external possessions. We should also give away our internal wealth—our body, mind, and life. If you can give away your own body, mind, and life, how can you still be stingy and attached?

This is what the Spirit Universal Joy has awakened to. Don't think that this principle is easy to understand. It's not easy at all. Why not? Just take a look at the text: This is the state that the Spirit named Universal Joy was able to awaken to and understand. That's why I said it's not easy.

Sutra:
The Buddha in the past cultivated expedients for the sake of the real,
Accomplishing a boundless ocean of merit and virtue.
Of those who see him, none are not elated.
This insight gladdens Supreme Banner Spirit's heart.

Commentary:
The Buddha in the past cultivated expedients, various expedient Dharma doors, for the sake of the real. He "bestowed the provisional for the sake of the real." For the sake of the Real Teaching, he cultivated expedient Dharmas, accomplishing a boundless ocean of merit and virtue. The Buddha benefited and gave to living beings, creating all manner of meritorious virtue. As long as a deed was beneficial to living beings, he would do it. He wasn't concerned with helping himself; he only wanted to help others. Thus he accomplished a boundless ocean of merit and virtue.

Of those who see him, none are not elated. The Buddha could make every living being who saw him feel happy inside his heart. This insight gladdens Supreme Banner Spirit's heart. This kind of state, this liberation door, is what the River-Ruling Spirit named Supreme Banner understood.

To be continued

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