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《上人法雨》

 

VENERABLE MASTER'S DHARMA RAIN

藥師琉璃光如來本願功德經淺釋
Sutra of the Merit and Virtue of the Past Vows of
Medicine Master Vaidurya Light Tathagata with Commentary

宣化上人/講於一九八三年美國加州洛杉磯金輪聖寺Explained by the Venerable Master Hua in 1983 at Gold Wheel Monastery in Los Angeles

前期經文提示:第九大願、願我來世得菩提時。令諸有情。出魔罥網。解脫一切外道纏縛。若墮種種惡見稠林。皆當引攝。置於正見。漸令修習諸菩薩行。速證無上正等菩提。

「解脫一切外道纏縛」:這個外道也是天魔外道;外道都是以天魔為眷屬。外道他總想控制人,不給人自由,用種種的邪術,來控制著人。甚至於他教你發毒咒、發惡誓,你不能背叛他這個道;你若背叛他這個道,就要怎樣子啊?五雷轟頂,得到一切的災難,令你就怕了,也不敢違背他;明明知道他不對,也不敢違背他,這就纏縛。就好像用繩子把你捆住了,用那種絲把你纏住了,你想擺脫是擺不了的。

「若墮種種惡見稠林」:墮,就是墮落到那裏邊去了。種種惡見,這包括種種的邪知邪見;稠林,就好像樹林子那很稠密的。有很多這種邪知邪見的邪法,來控制著你,令你一點自由也沒有。

所以在佛教裏,我不控制人。以前我對於斌樞機主教曾經講過,我那時候告訴所有的佛教徒,我說:「你們信佛;若覺得佛教很古老了,不願意在佛教這個小範圍裡頭來轉了,想要找一個新鮮的宗教、時髦的宗教,現在是機會了!你可以隨便改變你們的信仰,因為佛教不是監獄,佛教不能把人來管得嚴嚴的,控制得緊緊的,不這樣子。隨便你願意選擇你所歡喜的、信仰的宗教,可以隨便。」然後我就問,我說:「于樞機,你敢不敢講這話?」他晃頭,說他不敢講。

那麼為什麼他不敢講呢?就因為他們那裏頭,就是要控制人,你不能擺脫他;你一擺脫啊,那這就犯了瀰天大罪了!這是惡見稠林;就是見不得光,邪知邪見,不值得研究,不能擺出來公開來討論,這都叫「惡見稠林」。

遇著這一種邪知邪見的人,「皆當引攝」:引攝就好像用吸鐵石吸鐵似的,把他「置於正見」:給他說明正知正見。「漸令修習諸菩薩行」:行菩薩道。「速證無上正等菩提」:很快證得無上正等正覺的佛果。

第十大願。願我來世得菩提時。若諸有情。王法所加。縛錄鞭撻。繫閉牢獄。或當刑戮。及餘無量災難陵辱。悲愁煎逼。身心受苦。若聞我名。以我福德威神力故。皆得解脫一切憂苦。

這一段經文,是藥師琉璃光如來,在因地所發十二大願其中的第十願。這一個願力,他發願解除一切眾生的王難苦。所以他的願文才說「第十大願,願我來世得菩提時」:願我來世得到菩提的時候。「若諸有情」:諸有情,就是所有一切的眾生。「王法所加」:或者你沒有做犯法的事情,被人誣告;或者被人挾嫌來冤枉;或者你自己在無心的時候,所造的犯法的罪,不是故意去造的。王法所加,王法加到你的身上了,把你抓去,懲罰你,放到監獄裡了,所以它說「縛錄鞭撻」:縛,就是把你綁上了,用這個手銬子,或者腳鐐子,把你綁上了;錄,就錄取你的口供,給你存一個記錄,說明白你是犯過法的人;鞭,用那個鞭子來鞭;撻,來打你這個身體,或者用板子打,就是懲罰你。

「繫閉牢獄」:繫,就三大件都戴上了,脖鎖子、手捧子、腳鐐子,都戴上了。為什麼戴上呢?就怕你跑;因為怕你逃跑了,所以教你不自由,把你綁住,還放到監獄裡頭,關閉起來,內外不通消息,這是繫閉牢獄。「或當刑戮」:或者被處罰死刑,那麼要去殺頭,斬首示眾,這叫或當刑戮。戮就是殺了,受這個刑戮,就是把頭給斬下了,或者槍斃,或者坐電椅,總而言之,是不能活著了,要死了。

「及餘無量災難陵辱」:及,當「到」字講。乃至於其餘種種犯罪的行為,種種的懲罰。無量災難,至於其餘的,或者天災、人禍、種種的意外。陵,就是被人家欺淩;辱,就是侮辱、羞辱,令你沒有面子。「悲愁煎逼」:又悲哀憂愁,就好像在那個火鍋裏頭那麼煎,來逼迫,那麼樣子,很難受的。「身心受苦」:身也受苦了,心也受苦了:身心都得不到自在了。

那麼這時候,「若聞我名」:藥師琉璃光如來發願說,在這個困苦艱難,危險萬狀的時候,他若能聽見我這佛的名號。「以我福德」:以我過去生中所修的福德,和「威神力故」:和這個大威神的力量,「皆得解脫」:這一切前邊所說的種種災難,都能解決問題,沒有問題了。「一切憂苦」:那麼一切憂苦也都沒有了,就離苦得樂了。

待續

Sutra text from last issue: "The ninth great vow: 'I vow that in a future life when I attain Bodhi, I shall liberate sentient beings from the nets of demons and the bonds of external sects. If they have fallen into the dense forests of evil views, I shall lead them to have proper views and to gradually cultivate the practices of Bodhisattvas so they will quickly realize Unsurpassed, Proper and Equal Bodhi.'"

And the bonds of external sects. External sects follow the demons in the heavens. They use various evil methods to con­trol people, even making them say spells and swear that if they disobey their religion, they will be struck by lightning or suffer other calamities. Thus the adherents of external sects are afraid and dare not offer any opposition, even though they know their belief is mistaken. They are as if tied up with rope, so that they have no freedom and cannot escape.

If they have fallen into the dense forests of evil views. There are all sorts of teachings based upon deviant knowledge and deviant views, as thick as forests, that totally control people's minds and allow them no freedom whatsoever. Buddhism, however, does not attempt to control people. I once announced to a group of Buddhists in the presence of the Roman Catholic Cardinal of Taiwan, Paul Yubin, "If you think Buddhism is too old-fashioned and you want to find a new, trendy religion, here is your chance to change your faith. Buddhism is not a prison. People are free to choose whatever religion they like." Then I turned to Cardinal Yubin, "Do you dare to tell your followers the same thing?" He shook his head and said no.

Why couldn't he do it? It's because his religion still wants to control people. Those who desert the religion are considered the greatest offenders. The "dense forests of evil views" refers to views that cannot be brought out into the open and discussed in public.

Medicine Master Buddha says, "When I meet people of devi­ant views, I shall lead them to have proper views and to gradually cultivate the practices of Bodhisattvas. I shall ex­plain proper views to them and teach them to cultivate the Six Perfections and myriad practices of Bodhisattvas so they will quickly realize Unsurpassed, Proper and Equal Bodhi."

Sutra:

"The tenth great vow: 'I vow that in a future life when I attain Bodhi, I shall cause sentient beings who fall into the hands of the law and are bound, interrogated, whipped, fettered, imprisoned, sentenced to execution, or subjected to endless disasters, hardships, abuse, and humiliation so that they are torn by grief and distress and suffering in body and mind, to obtain, upon hearing my name, liberation from all worry and suffering by means of my blessings, virtue, and awesome spiritual power."

Commentary:

This passage of Sutra text describes the tenth great vow among the twelve great vows that Medicine Master Buddha made when he was cultivating on the causal ground. In this vow he resolves to deliver living beings who are in trouble with the law. He says: "I vow that in a future life when I attain Bodhi, I shall cause sentient beings who fall into the hands of the law and are bound, interrogated, whipped, fettered, imprisoned, sen­tenced to execution..." People may be arrested on false charges, or they may break the law by accident and end up in prison. In any case, they are arrested and punished by the law. They are interrogated so that their testimony can be used to incriminate them. They are flogged, beaten, and bound hand and foot, los­ing their freedom and being cut off from the outside world. Why are prisoners bound with handcuffs, the cangue, and footchains? Because the authorities are afraid they will run away otherwise. So all their freedom is taken away. Perhaps they are sentenced to die, because the government wants to make an example out of them—they may be beheaded, shot, or electrocuted. In any case, they are not allowed to live; they must die.

Or they may be subjected to endless natural or manmade disasters, hardships, abuse, and humiliation so that they are torn by grief and distress and suffering in body and mind... Others may insult them and strip them of their dignity. Under the mental and physical anguish, they feel as if they were being roasted alive. It is very hard to bear, and they cannot be at peace in body or mind.

At that time, they are caused to obtain, upon hearing my name, liberation from all worry and suffering by means of my blessings, virtue, and awesome spiritual power. Medicine Master Buddha vowed, "If such people hear my Buddha-name, then by means of the blessings and virtue that I cultivated in past lives, they will be saved from all disasters and hardships, and will obtain bliss."

To be continued

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