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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大佛頂首楞嚴經淺釋
The Shurangama Sutra with commentary

卷八 ROLL EIGHT

第四提婆達多品第十二 Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua
國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute
修訂版 Revised version

「結見則能」:如果在這個見上。則能「為鑑為證」:鑑就好像鏡子似的。在地獄裡有個孽鏡台,在那兒有一個鏡子;你到那兒,生前所做的罪業,在鏡子裡都現出來,也就好像演電影似的,一幕一幕的都現出來,絲毫也不能推諉的,也不能不承認的。為證,如果你不承認,就有證人來證明。「結聽則能,為大合石」:四面的大石頭合成一起,把你夾在中間。「為冰為霜」:都是冷的冰霜地獄。「為土為霧」:這個地獄,由那個黃士壤成的,什麼也看不見,在這個地獄裡頭,令你頭昏腦脹。

「結息則能,為大火車」:這個火車,並不是像我們世間上這個火車,可以坐著它去旅行。這個火車,根本就用火燒紅了這個車,叫你在這個車上去旅行去。「火船」:那個船上都是火,叫你到那個船裡邊去。「火檻」:這個檻,就是一種監獄,那裡頭都是火。「結嘗則能,為大叫喚」:有大叫喚地獄,在那裡邊吵得不得了。「為悔為泣」:悔就是後悔;泣就是哭起來,哭泣。又後悔又哭泣,在這個地獄裡。「結觸則能,為大為小」:為大地獄,為小地獄。「為一日中,萬生萬死」:在這一天裡頭,就死一萬次,生了一萬次。這個「為偃為仰」:偃,就是趴到那個地方;仰,就是仰起來;趴到那個地方也是受罪,仰起來也是受罪。總而言之,這個地方不是一個好去處,不是一個可以去的地方。所以,都有這一些個痛苦來給人受。

阿難。是名地獄。十因六果。皆是眾生。迷妄所造。

阿難,上邊所說這個所有這麼多名稱的地獄,總起來有十種的習因,六種的果報。這十種的習因,就是淫、貪、瞋,這等等的,上邊所講這十種的習因。六種的果報,有這個色、聲、香、味、觸、法,和六根、六塵相接觸,所造的這種業果。「皆是眾生」:這都是眾生,怎麼樣子呢?「迷妄所造」:都是由那個依真起妄,生了無明。由無明,又生出種種的業相來,造成的這一種罪業。要是反聞聞自性,修這個覺道,這一些業也就都空了,都沒有了。

若諸眾生。惡業同造。入阿鼻獄。受無量苦。經無量劫。

「若諸眾生」:假設所有的眾生。「惡業同造」:一同造出來種種的惡業,就要一同入阿鼻獄。阿鼻獄就是比無間地獄重一點的。這個無間獄本來也就是阿鼻獄,但是這兒就較阿鼻獄更重一點。「受無量苦」:受這苦,無量無邊那麼多。「經無量劫」:沒有數量那麼多的劫數。

六根各造。及彼所作兼境兼根。是人則入。八無間獄。

「六根各造」:六根就是眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意各各所造的這種罪業。「及彼所作」:彼就是對著這個境界所造成的業。「兼境兼根」:色塵就叫境;眼根就是根。彼,也就是這個境。兼境兼根:這個六根,對著六塵,所造的這種的罪業。「是人則入,八無間獄」:這個人,是哪一個人?就是順著六根、六塵去造罪業這個人,就應該入八無間地獄。就是八寒八熱這個地獄。這是入這個八寒地獄。

身口意三。作殺盜淫。是人則入。十八地獄。

身有三惡,殺、盜、淫;口有四惡,綺語、妄言、惡口、兩舌;意有三惡,貪、瞋、癡。這身、口、意這叫三業;三業如果不清淨,就造十惡,做殺盜淫這十惡。這個人就入到十八層地獄。這十八層地獄,也都是受罪受得很大的。

三業不兼。中間或為。一殺一盜。是人則入。三十六地獄。

前邊那個造業重的,這回這「三業不兼」;三業不兼全,就是身口意三業不兼全。這個殺、盜、淫、貪、瞋、癡,不滿;或者造一個殺業,或者造一個盜業,或者造一個偷的業;或者造兩個,殺、盜兩個字,或者盜、淫,或者殺、淫,那麼互相都不完全:這身、口、意,所做這三業都不完全,這一種的人,這罪又輕一點。或者為一個殺、一個盜罪。「是人則入,三十六地獄」:入三十六種地獄。這比較罪又輕一點,雖然入的地獄多,但是他罪輕一點。

見見一根。單犯一業。是人則入。一百八地獄。

這個見根,是一切罪的源頭,如果你要是不見,說「眼不見,嘴不饞。」眼要不看見這個東西,嘴也就不饞。「耳不聽,心不煩。」耳要不聽這個美妙的音聲,心裡也不會生這個欲念,所以這個見,就是一個惡之首、罪之魁。那麼在單獨這一個見呢,它造的罪大約是沒有多大。所以

「見見一根」:這個單一個見根,所造的罪業。「單犯一業」:單犯一種的罪業;單犯一種罪業就是在這個殺盜淫裡邊,單單犯一個,或者盜,或者殺,或者淫,犯了一種業。「是人則入,一百八地獄。」

待續

 

Commentary:

When it combines with seeing, it be­comes inspection and testimonies. When retribution for thought enters the seeing it becomes inspection, which re­fers to things like the offense-spotting platform. On the offense-spotting plat­form is a mirror, and when you go to that platform all the offenses you have created will show up in the mirror. It will be just like a movie, frame by frame being revealed. You have no change to get out of it or to not admit it. If you won't admit it, witnesses will come to speak out and prove it. When it combines with hearing, it becomes huge crushing rocks. These huge rocks close in from the four sides and the offender is crushed among them. Or it becomes ice and frost, these are the cold hells that contain ice and frost. Or it becomes dirt and fog. In this hell the dirt swirls up in a storm that is totally blinding. It causes the offender to be disoriented and confused. When it combines with smelling, it becomes a great fiery car. This does not refer to passenger trains that take people on vacations. This is a car that has been set in fire. The offender sits in this fiery car to go on vacation. A fiery boat is the same situation. The boat is on fire and you must ride in it. A fiery jail is full of fire. When it combines with tasting, it becomes loud calling, wailing. The noise is frightening in that hell. Regretful crying. In this hell the offender experiences regret that causes him to cry. When it combines with touch, it becomes sensations of large and small. It becomes the great hells and the lesser hells where ten thousand births and ten thou­sand deaths are endured every day, and of lying prostrate face-down or face-up. In that prostrate position, whether facing up or facing down, one is tortured. In general neither is a pleasant position to be in. It involves a lot of pain and suffering.

Sutra:

Ananda, these are called the ten causes and six retributions of the hells,
which are all created by the confusion and falseness of beings.

Commentary:

Ananda, all these different names of hells that have just been described, are generally referred to as the ten causes and six retributions of the hells. The ten habitual causes are lust, greed, arrogance, hatred, deception, lying, animosity, views, injustice, and litigation. The six retributions involve the karma created when the six sense objects of forms, sounds, smells, tastes, objects of touch, and mental dharmas coming in contact with the six sense organs. All of those are created by the confusion and falseness of beings. Based on the true, the false arises which brings ignorance into being. Be­cause of ignorance all kinds of karma appears. Karmic offenses are created. If one returns the hearing to hear one's own nature and cultivates the path to enlightenment, then all that karma is empty. It disappears.

Sutra:

If beings create this evil karma simultaneously, they enter the avici hell
and endure limitless suffering, passing through limitless eons.

Commentary:

If any beings whatsoever create this evil karma simultaneously, they must together enter the avici hell. This is the most severe of the unintermittent hells. Avici means unintermittent, but here it is referred to by the Sanskrit name to indicate that it is the most severe hell. Those beings endure limitless suffering, passing through limitless eons. One knows not how many great eons they must pass through. The time is beyond reckoning.

Sutra:

If each of the six sense organs creates them and if what is done includes each state and each sense organ, then the person will enter the eight unintermittent hells.

Commentary:

If each of the six sense organs creates them. The six sense organs are eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind. If each creates them refers to the offenses created by each individual sense organ. If what is done by the sense organ as it encounters the external state, includes each state and each sense organ. The offenses that are created when the six sense organs en­counter the six sense objects then the person will enter the eight unintermittent hells. Who is the person? The one who goes along with the six sense organs and six sense objects in created karmic offenses. Such a one should enter the eight unintermittment hells. This refers to the eight cold hells. There are eight hot and eight cold hells.

Sutra:

If the three karmas of body, mouth, and mind commit acts of killing, stealing, and lust, the person will enter the eighteen hells.

Commentary:

The body commits three evils: killing, stealing, and lust. The mouth commits four evils: vulgar speech, false speech, harsh speech, and double-tongued speech. The mind commits three evils: greed, hatred, and stupidity. In short the body, mouth, and mind are called the three karmas. If the three karmas are not pure, then one creates the ten evils. If the three karmas of body, mouth, and mind commit acts of killing, stealing, and lust, and the rest of the ten evils, the person will enter the eighteen hells. The eighteen levels of hells. The tortures undergone in the eighteen hells are also tremendous.

Sutra:

If the three karmas are not all involved, and there is perhaps just one act of killing or of stealing, then that person must enter the thirty-six hells.

Commentary:

The offenses described above are heavy. In this case the three karmas of body, mouth, and mind are not all involved, and so acts involving killing, stealing, and lust, greed, hatred, and stupidity were not all committed. Perhaps someone committed the karma of killing. Or someone committed the karma of stealing. Or someone committed the karma of robbing. Or perhaps someone committed two of these, such as killing and stealing, or killing and lust, or stealing and lust. In general the karma was a mixture that did not involve all the kinds of karma that can be committed by the body, mouth, and mind. Such a person's offenses are lighter. If the three karmas are not all involved, and there is perhaps just one act of killing or of stealing, then the person must enter the thirty-six hells. The offenses are lighter. Even though the number of hells they pass through are more in number, the punishments they undergo are a bit lighter.

Sutra:

If the sense organ of sight alone commits just one karmic offense, then the person must enter the one hundred and eight hells.

Commentary:

The sense organ of sight is the point where all offenses begin. If you didn't look, your mouth would not be gluttonous; if you didn't listen, your mind would not commit transgressions. If your ears did not listen to seductive sounds, your mind would not give rise to thoughts of desire. Seeing is the beginning of creating evil and the leader of making offenses. But the seeing alone commits just one karmic offense and that in itself is not so great. If only the eye organ commits only one offense such as killing, or stealing, or lust, then the person must enter the one hundred and eight hells.

To be continued

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