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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
The Flower Adornment Sutra with Commentary

【卷四 世主妙嚴品第一之四】

Roll Four, Chapter One: The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Part Four

宣化上人講於一九七三年十一月二十七日 Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua
國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute
修訂版 Revised version

普生歡喜主河神,得修行具足施,令一切眾生永離慳著解脫門。廣德勝幢主河神,得作一切歡喜福田解脫門。

普生歡喜這一位主河神,他的名字令一切眾生普生歡喜。普生歡喜,就能離開慳貪,離開執著。你要有慳貪,有執著,就不會有歡喜;沒有慳貪執著行,常常有歡喜心,所以他叫「普生歡喜主河神」。

他得到佛的境界。是什麼呢?「得修行具足施」:他得到修行的這個施的法門。佈施的法門有財施、法施、無畏施。財施,有內財、外財。外財,是國城、妻子,都可以把它捨掉了。

法施,有有為法和無為法。有為法就是有形有相的這一切的有為法;無為法就是無為而無不為的,叫無為法。

無畏施,就是人遇到恐怖的事情,安慰他,令他沒有恐怖心,這便是無畏施。這無畏施,令人心裡沒有恐怖,環境沒有恐怖,令人不發生恐怖的心。

又特別無畏施,就是因為人有的時候有怖畏了,有恐懼了;有恐懼這個時候,他就沒有主宰了,不知道怎麼樣子好。這個時候,你來幫助他,說是啊,不要怕,這事情不是很重要的,沒有什麼危險,你不要恐懼。這就是一種無畏施,這是安慰。好像這人生了病,有的人也不知道這是什麼病,就說了:「哎呀!這個病不得了。這個病一定死的,這比cancer(癌)厲害。」每個人,不要等這病死,嚇都嚇到要死的。」那麼,要是懂佛法的人呢,就對他講:「請你不要害怕。這個病,沒有什麼問題的。暫時雖然很痛苦的,慢慢它就好了,看看醫生,或者吃一點什麼藥。」這個人就沒有恐懼的心理了,這就叫無畏施。

這個就叫具足施。「令一切衆生」:使令所有的衆生。「永離慳著」:遠離開慳貪和執著。這個慳貪執著也離開了,快樂了,所以普生歡喜。他得到這個「解脫門」。

「廣德勝幢主河神」:這位主河神,他有廣大的德行。他的功德猶如寶幢,非常莊嚴。「得作一切歡喜福田:他得到佛給衆生作歡喜的福田,令衆生種福的這個菩提的善根。這一位主河神,他得到這種的「解脫門」。

光照普世主河神,得能令一切衆生雜染者清淨,瞋毒者歡喜解脫門。海德光明主河神,得能令一切衆生入解脫海,恆受具足樂解脫門。爾時,普發迅流主河神,承佛威力。普觀一切主河神衆,而說頌言。

「光照普世主河神」:光照普世,是這主河神的名字。他「得能令一切衆生雜染者清淨」:雜染,就是不清淨,有善有惡,有好有壤,有正念有邪念。所謂善惡夾雜,在善念裡又雜一點惡;在惡念裡邊,又摻雜一點善,這叫雜染。好的裡邊,又有一點點壞;壞的裡邊,又有一點點好的,這是雜染者。清淨,令他乾淨、沒有污染。

「瞋毒者」:瞋,就是無明火。這個瞋恨心,猶如毒蛇一樣。「歡喜」:這個瞋人的人,他就很少有歡喜心。那麼,現在這一位主河神,令這瞋恨心重的衆生,生出一種歡喜心來,他得到這一種的「解脫門」。

「海德光明主河神」:這「海德光明」,是主河神的名字。他「得能令一切衆生入解脫海」:入這個解脫的大海裡邊。因為解脫門是很多的,猶如大海,入這個解脫海。「恆受具足樂」:這是圓滿的快樂,也就是無上的快樂,沒有再比這種快樂了。他得到這種的「解脫門」。

「爾時」:當爾之時。「普發迅流主河神」:這個普發迅流—一第一個主河神。「承佛威力」:承仰了這個佛的大威神力。「普觀一切主河神眾」:普遍觀察一切主河神的這種的根機,這種的因緣。「而說頌言」:普發迅流主河神,又把這個長行,用偈頌再來講一講。

如來往昔為眾生,
修治法海無邊行;
譬如霈澤清炎暑,
普滅眾生煩惱熱。

佛昔難宣無量劫,
以願光明照世間;
諸根熟者令悟道,
此普潔神心所悟。

「如來往昔為眾生」,這是說佛在無量劫以前修行;修行他不是為自己修,他為眾生而修。佛看一切眾生受苦,不想離苦得樂,所以佛就發願修行;願意開悟成佛以後,來救度一切眾生,所以說如來往昔為眾生,修治法海無邊行」,佛所修行得這個行門,無量無邊,猶如大海一樣,所以說「修治法海無邊行。」

主要的,佛先修無我、佈施、持戒、忍辱、精進、禪定、智慧,又令入無礙空,六度佈施,你要佈施給人;不是盡叫人佈施給自己。持戒,持戒也是要自己實實在在去持去,不是叫人去持戒,自己不持戒。忍辱,這個忍辱,今天所講的那個八風吹不動的這個定力,有的定力八風吹不動;八風吹不動也就是忍辱。這個忍辱,要忍人所不能忍的——一般人不能忍,那麼自己能忍;一般世俗人不能忍的,自己要忍;一般出世人——修出世法的人——不能忍的,自己要忍。這個忍,就是一個考驗。這個考驗,你要有功夫,就可以考上;要是沒有功夫,就考不上,所以佛所修的行門,就是這樣子。一般人忍不了的,他能忍;一般人受不了的,他能受。為什麼呢?他要先修無我;沒有我了,又是誰受呢?沒有一個能忍所忍,沒有一個能受所受,所以在修治法海無邊行這一個期間,那個氣不知受了多少。唉!有人打他,罵他,他都是不為所動,心裡不動。所以修這個無邊的行門,然後得到這個無邊的神通妙用,教化眾生。

這有一個譬喻。譬喻什麼呢?「譬如霈澤清炎暑」:霈,就是沛然下雨的樣子。這雨下得非常大,你想用什麼東西來擋住它也擋不住。所以孟子上有這麼幾句話:「天油然作雲」。油然,就好像油那個樣子;作雲,有一種雲彩生出來的。「沛然下雨」:就是這雨下得很相當。正是需要雨的時候,它就下雨。下這個雨,也不太過,也無不及。「稻苗勃然興之矣」:所種的那個田,勃然興起來了。現在這個及時雨,就說佛教化眾生,就好像霈澤似的。霈澤,也就是剛才所講的譬喻。清炎暑,在暑天,非常熱的時候,下一點雨,就得到清涼了;得到清涼,這個炎暑消去了。炎,也就是炎熱;暑,也就是夏天,熱天也叫暑。清了,不熱了。

「普滅眾生煩惱熱」:佛用那個清涼的佛法來普遍地消滅一切眾生的煩惱熱;煩惱熱消去了,就得到清涼。

「佛昔難宣無量劫」:佛,在以前難以宣說那麼多的無量劫。「願以光明照世間」:以他的這個大願力、大光明,教化世間,清淨世間,令一切眾生離苦得樂。

「諸根熟者令悟道」:諸根,一切眾生善根成熟的,令這一類的眾生覺悟這個道。「此普潔神心所悟」:這是這個普潔泉澗主河神,他心中所明白的解脫門這種的境界。

待續

Sutra:

The River-Ruling Spirit named Universally Bringing Forth Joy obtained the liberation door of cultivating giving to perfection, thereby causing all living beings to eternally separate from stin­giness and attachment. The River-Ruling Spirit named Su­preme Banner of Vast Virtue ob­tained the liberation of being a field of blessings of pervasive happiness.

Commentary:

The next River-Ruling Spirit is named Universally Bringing Forth Joy. He causes all living beings everywhere to give rise to happiness. Once they are happy, they leave behind stinginess and attachment. If you are stingy and attached, you are not happy. Without thoughts of stinginess and attachment, you are always happy. Hence his name is the "River-Ruling Spirit Universally Bringing Forth Joy." What was the state of the Buddha that he obtained? He obtained the liberation door of cultivating giving to perfection. He obtained the Dharma door of cultivating giving. The Dharma of giving includes giving wealth, giving Dharma, and giving fearlessness. Wealth can be divided into inner wealth and outer wealth. Outer wealth: One can give away one's country, city, spouse, and children. Inner wealth: One can renounce one's body, mind, and life. Giv­ing Dharma includes the giving of conditioned dharmas and unconditioned Dharma. Conditioned dharmas have form and appearance; the unconditioned Dharma is unconditioned, yet there is nothing not conditioned by it. The giving of fearlessness is practiced when someone is in a frightening situation and you comfort him and allay his fears. In giving fearlessness, you eliminate the fear in the person's heart as well as any sources of fear in the environment.

Sometimes when people are frightened, they may panic and not know what to do. At that time, you can console them, saying, "Don't be afraid. It's not serious. There's no real danger." That's the giving of fearlessness. Suppose someone comes down with an illness and another person doesn't know what the illness is and says, "This is serious. You're probably going to die from this illness. It's worse than cancer." Hearing that, the sick person doesn't have to wait for the illness to kill him; he will be scared to death. A person who understands the Buddhadharma would say to him, "Don't be scared. Your illness isn't a major one. You might have to suffer a little bit, but you'll soon get well. Just see the doctor and take some medicine." Such words relieve the person's fears. That's what the giving of fearlessness is all about. One cultivates giving to perfection, thereby causing all living beings to eternally separate from stinginess and attachment. Once stinginess and attachment are left behind, one attains happiness. That's "Universally Bringing Forth Joy."

The next River-Ruling Spirit, who is named Supreme Banner of Vast Virtue, has vast, great virtuous conduct. His merit and virtue resemble a precious banner that is extremely adorned. He obtained the liberation of being a field of blessings of pervasive happiness. He obtained the Buddha's ability to be a field of blessings of happiness for living beings, and of enabling living beings to plant blessings and plant wholesome roots of Bodhi. That's the door to liberation that this River-Ruling Spirit obtained.

Sutra:

The River-Ruling Spirit named Light Universally Illumining the World obtained the liberation door of causing all living beings who are tainted with defilement to become pure and those who are poisoned by anger to become happy. The River-Ruling Spirit named Light of an Ocean of Virtue obtained the liberation door of enabling all living beings to enter the ocean of liberation and constantly experience complete happiness.

At that time the River-Ruling Spirit named Universally Issuing Swift Currents received the Buddha's awesome might, contemplated the mul­titudes of River-Ruling Spirits, and spoke the following verses.

Commentary:

The next River-Ruling Spirit is named Light Universally Illumining the World. He obtained the liberation door of causing all living beings who are tainted with defilement to become pure. "Tainted with defilement" means impure, having both wholesome and evil, good and bad. It means one has both proper thoughts and deviant thoughts. The good and the bad are mixed together. Within the good, there is a bit of evil. Within the evil, there is also some good. Those who are "tainted with defilement" are purified and made clean, so that the defilement is gone, and those who are poisoned by anger are caused to become happy. Anger refers to the fire of ignorance and to hatred, which is like a venemous snake. People who are given to anger are seldom happy. This River-Ruling Spirit causes people with big tempers to become happy. He obtained that kind of liberation door.

The River-Ruling Spirit named Light of an Ocean of Virtue obtained the liberation door of enabling all living beings to enter the great ocean of liberation and constantly experience complete happiness. The doors to liberation are so numerous that they are like an ocean. Complete happiness is a full, perfect, and supreme happiness; a joy beyond compare. He obtained that kind of door to liberation.

At that time the first River-Ruling Spirit, named Universally Issuing Swift Currents, received the Buddha's awesome spiritual might, contem­plated the multitudes of River-Ruling Spirits, observing their potentials and causal conditions, and spoke the following verses to elaborate upon the previous lines of prose.

Sutra:

The Thus Come One in the past, for the sake of living beings,
Cultivated boundless practices within the sea of Dharma.

Just as a torrential rain cools the summer heat,
He universally extinguished living beings' heat of afflictions.
The Buddha, throughout inexpressibly limitless eons in the past,
By the light of his vows purified the world,
Causing those of mature dispositions to awaken to the Way.
The Spirit Universally Purifying awakened to this.

Commentary:

The Thus Come One, in the past, for the sake of living beings... When the Buddha was cultivating during limitless eons in the past, he was not doing it for himself, but for living beings. The Buddha saw living beings suffering, not knowing how to leave suffering and find happiness. He thereupon vowed to cultivate, and vowed that when he became enlightened and realized Buddhahood, he would rescue all living beings.

He cultivated boundless practices within the sea of Dharma. The doors of practice cultivated by the Buddha were limitless and boundless, like a great ocean. Primarily, the Buddha cultivated selflessness, giving, holding precepts, patience, vigor, Dhyana samadhi, and wisdom. He cultivated the Six Perfec­tions and the myriad practices. Among the Six Perfections, giving refers to giving to others, not demanding that others give to you. Holding precepts: You yourself must honestly hold them, not just tell others to do so without doing so yourself. Patience: When you have samadhi, then you will not be moved by the Eight Winds discussed earlier, and that means you have patience. Patience is being able to bear what others cannot bear. You have to be able to bear what ordinary, worldly people cannot bear. You also have to be able to bear what people who cultivate transcendental Dharma cannot bear. Patience is a kind of test. If you have skill, you pass. Otherwise, you fail. The practices cultivated by the Buddha were like this. He was able to bear what ordinary people could not. He could endure what most people found unendurable. Why? He first cultivated selflessness. Without a self, who is being patient?

Who is doing the enduring? There is neither a person who endures, nor any­thing that is endured—no receiver and nothing received. While the Buddha was cultivating boundless practices in the sea of Dharma, it's not known how much abuse he took. People beat him and scolded him, but he remained unmoved; his mind didn't react. Cultivating boundless practices, he attained the wonderful functioning of boundless spiritual powers with which to teach living beings. There is an analogy for this.

Just as a torrential rain, a huge downpour that nothing can block, cools the summer heat...The Book of Mencius has these lines: "Ominous dark clouds suddenly appear in the sky, and the rain falls in torrents." It was a timely rain. The rain pame at just the right time, exactly when it was needed. It was neither too much nor too little, but just the right amount. "The crops suddenly sprang up." This analogy compares the Buddha's teaching of living beings to the torrential rain that cools the summer heat. In the extremely hot weather of summertime, a rain brings refreshing coolness that dispels the summer heat.

He universally extinguished living beings' heat of afflictions.The Buddha uses the cool and refreshing Buddhadharma to completely dispel the heat of living beings' afflictions. Once the heat of afflictions is gone, beings attain coolness.

The Buddha, throughout inexpressibly limitless eons in the past, /By the light of hisgreat wisdom and great vows, taught those in the world and purified the world,enabling all living beings to depart from suffering and find happiness.

Causing those of mature dispositions to awaken to the Way.Living beings whose good roots had matured, he caused to awaken to the Way. The Spirit Universally Purifying awakened to this.This is the liberation door and the state that the Spirit named Universally Purifying Springs and Torrents understood.

To be continued

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