萬佛城金剛菩提海 Vajra Bodhi Sea
萬佛城金剛菩提海 Vajra Bodhi Sea

金剛菩提海:首頁主目錄本期目錄

Vajra Bodhi Sea: HomeMain IndexIssue Index

《菩提田》

 

BODHI FIELD

佛陀時代印度的六種外道及其析偽
The Six Major Heterodox Philosophical Schools in India
during the Time of the Buddha and the Buddhist Refutations of Their Doctrine

西尼 文 by Sini
曾偉峰 中譯Chinese translation by Wayne Zeng

前期提示:無 我與空

《楞嚴經》中之七大

本經到此處佛已經宣說了五蘊、六入、十二處、十八界,均為如來藏性。然後佛繼續說七大的體性周遍法界。這七大 是:地、水、火、風、空、見、識。Kakuda Katyayana 也有他的七大。前面的四大是一樣的,但是Kakuda Katyayana 最後的三大是苦、樂、心命;而本經中則是空、見、識。佛提出這七大以幫助阿難明白實相。最後佛分析這七大時,說:

汝元不知,如來藏中,性色(地、火、水等)真空,性空真色,清淨本然,周遍法界。隨眾生心,應所知量,循業發 現。

世間無知,惑為因緣,及自然性,皆是識心,分別計度,但有言說,都無實義。

這裡又再一次強調業的重要性。眾生對這一世界的感受,都是由他自己所作的業決定的。人觀水是水;地獄眾生觀水 則成火;天人觀水又成甘露。對於一位已開悟的聖人而言,整個世界都是幻化而成的。正如一首偈頌所言:「若人真了悟,大地無寸土。」塵垢盡滌。如果一個人的 心地清淨了,所有的地方也都清淨了,所以說不管佛在哪,都是淨土。

《法華經》中所列之正邪之見

在《法華經》第十四品--安樂行品中,亦曾提及此六種外道。此品中,佛先描述菩薩行處與諸菩薩與文殊師利菩薩 之親近處。親近處包括:(一)當避之人與事。(二)所修之行。(三)當避之行。

當避之人包括外道梵志:

云何為菩薩之親近處?菩薩摩訶薩不親近外道、梵志、尼健子等,或是詠讚外書,及路伽耶陀、或是逆路伽耶陀。

偈頌說此節時,說菩薩應時時遠離外道與梵志。外道乃泛指一切非佛教的宗教與哲學的總稱。中文即指那些心外求法 之人。

梵志,在印度指(修道的)婆羅門--印度四階層最高的種姓--即僧侶階層,這階層是主祭祀、唱頌吠陀經、守淨 戒者。尼健子則是 Nirgranthas Jnatiputa(又叫作Mahavira ) 原來所追求的外道哲學的一宗。但也更可能是佛陀時代頗具競爭力影響力的奢那教,他們有自己的寺廟、僧團、經書。路伽耶者是自然派與唯物論者。對於物質世 界,他們相信自然論;對於有無來生,他們相信斷論。捲入思想的辯論對人的修行不利,無有幫助,所以菩薩不僅應該遠離這些人,也應該遠離逆路伽耶。逆路伽耶 包括一切理想論者思想,相信永久不變的自我--這包括婆羅門教的吠陀經、優婆尼薩傳統。

婆羅門教徒是指那些獨身的吠陀經學生。按照印度教育體系理想的傳統,認為人的一生經過四個階段。童年之後的第 一個階段是叫作brahmacharya 是一種極為艱苦的獨身生活,是學生階段。緊接著便是一個家庭主的生活階段,但是最後還是要放棄,而回歸到林間隱士的生活。最後一個階段是獨身行腳遊方生活 --sannyasin,一個徹底拋棄一切世間繫縛的人。婆羅門教徒(梵志)也可以指任何獨居的人,不管他是在哪一個生命階段。甘地雖然結過婚,但在他三 十六歲以後也修淨行。他在他的書裡面也經常讚嘆這種淨行。

下一節討論禪坐--菩薩所應親近處:

常好禪坐,於阿蘭若處,收攝其心。文殊師利,此為菩薩第一親近處。

菩薩應如何觀想所有的現象呢?經典又列出了一些修行人既不應疏離也不應親近的智慧與境界。

再者,菩薩摩訶薩,觀一切法空,如實相、不顛倒、不動、不退、不轉、如虛空、無所有性、一切語言道斷、不生、 不出、不起、無名、無相、實無所有、無量、無礙、無障。但以因緣有,從顛倒生,故常樂觀如是法相,是名菩薩摩訶薩第二親近處。

與上述諸邪論相反,此表列舉了菩薩的正知正見。我們可以再一次發現對空、無我的強調,與對自性的否定。一切現 象的存在,皆由因緣與無明而起。為什麼要離這些境界不遠也不近呢?因為修行人是不執著任何的觀點、意見,或禪坐經驗的。真正的智慧是不動情感,不執著;開 悟是離文字相的。這就是言語道斷的意思。

待續


From last issue:No Self and Emptiness 

The Seven Elements in the Shurangama Sutra

Up to this point in the Sutra, the Buddha has already established that the five skandhas, the six entrances, twelve places, and eighteen realms are the Treasury of the Thus Come One. Then he continues to show how the nature of the seven elements is all-pervasive. These seven elements that penetrate the entire Dharma Realm are: earth, fire, water, wind, emptiness, seeing-awareness (perception), and consciousness. Kakuda Katyayana had his list of seven elements, of which the first four are the same as here. But instead of Kakuda's pain, pleasure, and soul/life, the Shurangama Sutra completes the list with emptiness, perception, and consciousness. The Buddha brings up the seven elements to help Ananda understand the Real Appearance. He finishes his analysis of each of the seven elements with the following passage:

You simply do not know that in the Treasury of the Thus Come One the nature of form [i.e., earth/fire/water, etc.,] is true emptiness, and the nature of emptiness is true form. Pure at its origin, it pervades the Dharma Realm. It accords with living beings' minds, in response to their capacity to know.

It is experienced to whatever extent is dictated by the law of karma. Ignorant of this fact, people in the world are so deluded as to assign its origin to causes and conditions or to spontaneity. These mistakes, which arise from the discriminations and reasoning processes of the conscious mind, are nothing but the play of empty words which have no real meaning.

Again the importance of karma is emphasized. The karma of living beings determines how they experience the world. What appears as water to human beings would be scorching fire to hell-beings, and nectar to gods. But to an enlightened sage the entire world is transformed, and as a verse says, “With complete enlightenment there is not a speck of dust anywhere on the great earth.” All defilements have been done away with. When one's mind ground is purified, all places are purified as well. This is why it's said that the Buddhas live in a Pure Land wherever they are.

Deviant and Proper Views Listed in the Dharma Flower Sutra

Some of the six heterodox schools are mentioned in the fourteenth chapter (Skt. Sukha-vihara, ‘Happily-Dwelling Conduct,' Chin. an le heng pin, ‘Peaceful and Happy Conduct') of the Dharma Flower (Lotus) Sutra. In this chapter the Buddha first describes the Bodhisattva's range of practice and the range of association to Manjushri Bodhisattva. The range of association consists of (1) people and situations to be avoided, (2) practices to be associated with, and (3) practices to be neither avoided or associated with. The list of people to be avoided include adherents to deviant philosophical schools:

What is meant by the Bodhisattva's range of association? Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas do not draw near to (...) externalists, Brahmans, Nirgranthas, and the like, or to (...) those who sing praises of externalist writings, to Lokayatas, or to the opponents of Lokayatas. [Verses recapitulating this section add that the Bodhisattva] (...) should always stay away from (...) externalists and Brahmacharins.

 ‘Externalist' is a generic name for all non-Buddhist religions and philosophies. The Chinese literally means ‘outside way' which refers to ‘those who seek [the truth] outside the mind.' Brahmans (Skt. brahmana) refers to the highest of the four classes of Indian society, the priestly class that officiated at sacrifices, upheld the Vedic scriptures, and observed strict ritual purity. Nirgranthas could mean the philosophical school that Nirgrantha Jnatiputra alias Mahavira originally followed, but more probably it refers to the Jainas who were an influential rival religious group at the time of the Buddha, with their own monastic communities, temples, and Sutras. Lokayatas were the naturalists or materialists who in respect to the physical universe believed in spontaneity and in respect to an afterlife in annihilationism. As getting involved in philosophical disputes is not conducive to one's cultivation, the Bodhisattva is advised to stay away from the opponents of Lokayatas as well--this would include all manner of idealistic doctrines, including the Brahmanic Vedic and Upanishadic tradition, that believed in an eternal, immutable self.

Brahmacharin refers to a student of the Vedas who leads a celibate life. The traditional, if idealized, Hindu system recognizes four distinct stages in the life of man. The first stage after childhood is brahmachariya, the austere life of a celibate student. This is followed by the life of a householder, which is eventually given up in favor of the life of a forest-dwelling hermit, and finally, the solitary, wandering life of a sannyasin, one who has totally renounced all wordly ties. A Brahmacharin could also refer to anybody who observed celibacy, whatever his station in life. Mahatma Gandhi, even though a married man, observed the practice of brahmachariya (Brahma conduct, pure conduct) from his 36th year onward, and often praised it in his writings.

The next section discusses the practice of Dhyana (Chin. chan) meditation that Bodhisattvas should associate with:

They always delight in sitting in Dhyana, and in a quiet place cultivate collecting their thoughts. Manjushri, this is called the first range of association.

And how should the Bodhisattva contemplate all phenomena? The Sutra continues to list states and wisdoms one neither stays away from nor draws near to:

Further, Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas contemplate all dharmas as empty, as characterized by actuality, as not upside down, as not moving, as not retreating, as not turning, as being like empty space, as without a nature, as having the path of language cut off, as not coming into being, as not coming forth, as not arising, as without a name, as without an appearance, as in reality nonexistent, as measureless, as boundless, as unimpeded, and as unobstructed. They exist only because of causes and conditions and are produced from inversion. Therefore, it is said that constantly delighting in contemplating such characteristics of dharmas is called the second range of association of a Bodhisattva.

開悟是離文字相 的。這就是言語道斷的意思。
Enlightenment is beyond words; this is why the path of language is cut off.

As opposed to the deviant doctrines mentioned above, this list describes the proper perception and proper views of Bodhisattva. Again we see the emphasis on emptiness, no-self, and the denial of an inherent nature. Phenomena only exist due to causes and conditions, and ignorance (inversion). But why are these states neither to be associated with nor avoided? The cultivator should not attach to any views, insights, or meditational experiences. True wisdom is dispassionate and detached and does not grasp at anything. Enlightenment is beyond words; this is why the path of language is cut off.

To be continued

 

▲Top


法界佛教總會Dharma Realm Buddhist Association │ © Vajra Bodhi Sea