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萬佛城金剛菩提海 Vajra Bodhi Sea

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《菩提田》

 

BODHI FIELD

八識規矩頌
Verses Delineating the Eight Consciousnesses

唐三藏法師玄奘造 by Tripitaka Master Xuanzang of the Tang Dynasty
易象乾博士英譯並註解,版權所有,1986年。 Translation and explanation by Ronald Epstein, Ph.D. Copyright by Ronald Epstein, Ph.D. 1986.
曾偉峰‧王青楠博士 中譯Chinese translation by Wayne Zeng and Qingnan Wang, Ph.D.

第二章 頌第六識

下面的前四行討論第六識的範疇;中間四行討論第六識在造業時扮演的角色與所受的果報;最後四行則討論轉第六識成智。

「三性三量通三境」

三性是指善性、惡性、無記性;三量是現量、比量、非量;三境是性境、獨影境、帶質境。這在上面已經討論過了。(見第一部份第一行)。

第六識依三量了知三境。三性是由道德的角度來看心行的善惡:若心行是善益的,則第六識的分別就是善的。此善心行,生於善根;往昔種善心行之因,現在就得善心行之果,反之則得惡心行之果。無記性則是非善非惡的;往昔非善非惡,現在也非善非惡。

最後這一類無記性,可分為「有覆無記性」和「無覆無記性」。在下文「第七識」中會討論。

「三界輪時易可知」

三界是欲界、色界、無色界。第六識的分別心使得我們在六道中輪迴。分別心能造諸業,使我們受果報。第六識以其強大之分別力,迅速地對諸所接觸的境界加以分別和歸類。

「相應心所五十一」

第六識與五十一種心所法互相作用。這五十一種法詳列在本文的『百法』附表裡,詳情請看『百法明門論』。

「善惡臨時別配之」

當第六識生善念時,百法中的十一種善法即會相隨;生惡念時,則有煩惱法相隨。

「性界受三恆轉易」

換 言之,第六識的善惡分別是念念不休的;第六識處於分別不息的念流之中。三性之中的善性、惡性、無記性表示其道德上的歸類。三境--性境、獨境、帶質境-- 表示境界的真實程度。三受--樂受、苦受、不苦不樂受--之分別,表示情感與知覺的最基本的領納層次。三性與三受的區別之一是:前者是對心行因性的分析; 而後者是對受覺果性的分析。

「根隨信等總相連」

煩惱與善法均依附於第六識,實際上,也不可與第六識分開。這裡只是代表對第六識進行較細致分別的結果。如前所釋,依於第六識的狀況,在一瞬間煩惱與善法不一定全部生起,也就是不一定同時發生。

「動身發語獨為最」

在造業時,第六識的意願起最重要的作用。由審慮思、決定思(兩者都是第六識的功能)與發動,來造語業與身業。

待續


Part Two: The Sixth Consciousness

Below, the first four lines discuss the range of the sixth consciousness; the second four discuss its role in the creation of karma and in the resultant karmic activity. The final four explain its transformation into wisdom.

Having Three Natures and with Three Modes of Knowledge, it pervades the Three States.

The Three Natures are the wholesome, the unwholesome, and the indeterminate. The Three Modes of Knowledge are direct perception, inference and fallacy. The Three States are the natural state, the state of solitary impressions, and the state of transposed substance. They have already been explained above (see Part One, line one). The sixth consciousness uses all three modes of knowledge in its awareness of the three states. The Three Natures refers to classification of the moral nature of its activity. The distinction-making of the sixth consciousness is considered to be of a wholesome nature if it is beneficial. Such activity arises karmically as a result of good roots, that is, it is the fruition of the seeds planted by wholesome activity in the past. The situation is the opposite for distinction-making of an unwholesome nature. Indeterminate distinction-making is neither beneficial nor non-beneficial and arises from past activity that was correspondingly so. The last type, the indeterminate nature, is divided into the obscuring indeterminate nature and the non-obscuring indeterminate nature; they will be explained below in the section on the seventh consciousness.

As it turns on the wheel, it easily comes to know the Three Realms it turns within.

The Three Realms are the realm of desire, the realm of form, and the formless realm. What causes our revolving within the Three Realms on the wheel of the Six Destinies are the distinctions made in the sixth consciousness. The distinctions lead to karmic activity and then to karmic retribution. Because of its great power of making distinctions, the sixth consciousness easily distinguishes and classifies the different states—environments—of the realms with which it comes into contact.

It interacts with all fifty-one Dharmas Interactive with the Mind.

The sixth consciousness interacts with all fifty-one of the Dharmas Interactive with the Mind. The fifty-one are listed in the appendix on the One Hundred Dharmas and are described in the Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred Dharmas.

Whenever it is wholesome or unwholesome, they make distinctions and accompany it.

When the activity of the sixth consciousness is wholesome, it is accompanied by the Eleven Wholesome Dharmas of the One Hundred Dharmas. When its activity is unwholesome, the dharmas of affliction arise in conjunction with it.

Its Three Natures, the Three States it relates with, and its Three Kinds of Feeling are constantly in flux.

In other words the moral classification, and so forth, of the sixth consciousness changes from moment to moment. The sixth consciousness is involved in a constant flux of distinction-making. In the case of the Three Natures, wholesome, unwholesome, and indeterminate indicate the moral categories of its activity; in the case of the Three States—the natural, and those of solitary impressions and of transposed substance—the categories indicate degrees of reality; and in the case of the Three Kinds of Feeling, the distinctions of pleasure, of pain, and of neutral feelings classify the emotional and perceptual experiences we undergo on their most fundamental level of reception. One difference between the Three Natures and the Three Kinds of Feeling is that the former is an analysis of causal activity and the latter is an analysis of experiential effect.

The basic and subsidiary afflictions together with faith and other wholesome dharmas always arise jointly with the sixth consciousness.

The afflictions and wholesome dharmas are all dependent upon the sixth consciousness. In other words they are not really separate from it but represent further categorization of distinctions within it. However, as explained above, depending on the nature of the sixth consciousness at any particular moment, the afflictions and the wholesome dharmas do not necessarily all arise together, that is, at the same time.

In physical action and in speech it is the most important.

In the creation of karma the volitional activity of the sixth consciousness plays the most important role. Examination and decision, which are both functions of the sixth consciousness, lead to activity, which creates both speech and bodily karma.

To be continued

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