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《上人法雨》

 

VENERABLE MASTER'S DHARMA RAIN

藥師琉璃光如來本願功德經淺釋
Sutra of the Merit and Virtue of the Past Vows of
Medicine Master Vaidurya Light Tathagata with Commentary

宣化上人講於一九八三年美國加州洛杉磯金輪聖寺
Explained by the Venerable Master Hua in 1983 at Gold Wheel Monastery in Los Angeles

前期提示:第六大願。

「盲聾瘖啞」:盲,就沒有眼睛了;聾,沒耳朵聽不見。有眼睛也看不見,有耳朵也聽不見,這叫盲、聾。瘖,這個 聲音發不出來,說話像蚊子叫似的,在那個喉嚨裏頭,人幾幾乎就聽不見。啞,就是不單聽不見,而且根本就是啞吧了。這盲聾瘖啞。哎!你看這多苦!為什麼他受 這個果報?就因為在因地的時候,人家給他講佛法,他有所懷疑,不聽。因為他對面不認識佛,所以就盲了。有人講法,他不聽了,所以就聾了;教他來研究佛法, 他也不研究,就瘖了,再甚至於就啞吧了,受這種果報。

「攣躄背僂」:攣,就是痙攣了,手也伸不開,手指頭也轉在那兒,伸不開拳,總是拳著的,這叫攣。躄,就是麻 痹,不能有作用了。背僂,就是羅鍋子,廣東話叫駝背,就像那駱駝似的,那個樣子,所以叫駝背,這是背僂。

「白癩顛狂」:或者生一些個白癬,面上白一塊,紅一塊的,好像開花了似的,在這個面上。這是白癩,有種種這種 不好看的樣子。那麼又顛狂,顛狂就是那個小孩子,有的是那種虐待狂,有的自己咬自己,自己要吃自己的手指頭,自己都啃吃自己的肉,那麼糟蹋自己、作賤自 己。這都是在因地的時候,謗譭《楞嚴經》,謗譭大乘經,謗譭佛法,所以受這種果報--白癩顛狂,發顛、發狂這個樣子,及「種種病苦」:前面所說種種病苦。

「聞我名已」:若聽見我藥師琉璃光如來這個名號的,就一聽這個名字之後,「一切皆得端正」:所有都得到端正 了。這一些醜陋的也不醜,也不難看了。「黠慧」:也聰明了,也有智慧了。「諸根完具」:這時候,眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意也都完具了,六根通利了。

「無諸疾苦」:所有的疾病、痛苦都解除了,也不用吃藥,也不用看醫生,你看妙不妙?只聽一聽藥師琉璃光如來這 個名號,所有的疾病、痛苦都能解除了。你看佛,他對人類這種的利益是多大!他一舉一動都是為眾生做著想,沒有想要害眾生的地方,沒有想要令眾生受什麼果 報。他都是發願令眾生得到一切的遂心滿願,都得到他真正的快樂,這是佛的意思。

第七大願。願我來世得菩提時。若諸有情。眾病逼切。無救無歸。無醫無藥。無親無家。貧窮多 苦。我之名號。一經其耳。眾病悉除。身心安樂。家屬資具。悉皆豐足。乃至證得無上菩提。

這個藥師琉璃光如來,有很多來聽經的人還不認識這一位佛是誰,我現在不妨給你們講多一點。藥師琉璃光如來就是 個大醫王--醫生之王。他這個醫生之王,不需要用藥去治人的病,只要有眾生聞到藥師琉璃光如來這個名號,他的病痛就解除了,就沒有了,所以藥師琉璃光如來 就是個大醫王。

一般的醫生都講望、聞、問、切。望就是看一看;聞就是聽一聽;問就是用言語來詳細問一問,你的病情是什麼樣 子?或者你是頭痛啊?是腳痛啊?是牙痛啊?是眼睛痛啊?是鼻子痛?或者其他什麼病?切就是切脈,就是給聽聽脈。這叫望、聞、問、切。

又有神、聖、功、巧。神就是不可思議;聖就不是像神那麼樣子不可思議了,可是還可思議一點;功就是要下點功夫 才能知道;巧就是很巧妙地就知道了。望而知之,這叫神;聞而知之,這叫聖;問而知之,謂之功;切脈而知之,謂之巧。

普通的醫生要用這四種的方法、八種的理論,來知道這個病情。可是藥師琉璃光如來,這些個工具他都不用了,他也 不需要望,也不需要聞,也不需要問,也不需要切;你就一稱他的名號,這病就好了,所以這是藥師琉璃光如來,他利益眾生特別的地方。

他為什麼有這麼大的威神力呢?因為他在因地發過願,所以他這十二個大願裏頭,「第七大願」就說了,說「願我來 世」,「得菩提時」。我得到成佛的時候,「若諸有情」:說所有的一切有情眾生,「眾病逼切」:所有的疾病來逼迫熬煎,令他痛苦得不得了。這時候,「無救無 歸」,也沒有人可以救他、幫助他;無歸,也沒有一個歸宿,也沒有寄託,有病是最痛苦了。「無醫無藥」:也沒醫生給他看,也沒有什麼藥品給他治病。「無親無 家」:他又沒有親戚,也沒有家眷。「貧窮多苦」:為什麼他這樣子呢?就因為他貧窮多苦。

「我之名號」:藥師琉璃光如來說,我這個名號。

「一經其耳」:這個有病的人,他若能聽見,只要聽見我的名,聽見「消災延壽藥師佛」這個名號,一歷耳根,「眾 病悉除」:所有的疾病都沒有了,所有疾病都解除了。啊!你看看,也不用吃藥,也不用打針,也不用照X光(愛克斯光),也不用鐳射,什麼都不用;也不用電, 也不用火,不用艾子灸,也不用針灸,什麼都沒有。你看!眾病悉除,病沒有了。

「身心安樂」:這做醫生的聽見這個經文,很不高興的,說:「這把我的生意都給搶去了!」不要緊,你還有你的顧 客,不會他都搶去的。那麼眾病悉除了,身心都得到安樂了。「家屬資具」:家庭的用具和這個眷屬。「悉皆豐足」:都圓滿無缺。

「乃至證得無上菩提」:最後乃至於能證得這無上菩提的道果,無上菩提就是成佛。所以佛教的理論是一切眾生皆有 佛性,皆堪作佛。佛不是說:「只可以我成佛,你不可以成佛。」因為他是平等的,他和人人都一樣。他只是比我們人有智慧;佛是一個大智慧者,所以他不說糊塗 話。我們學佛,也就是學的不顛倒、不糊塗,不再去做一些個損人利己的事情,不再去做一些個妨礙社會的事情。就是要老老實實,好好地循規蹈矩作一個好人,然 後才能成一個有智慧的佛。你要是不守規矩,那絕對不會有智慧的;因為有智慧的人才會守規矩,沒有智慧的人,你教他守規矩,他一定反對的。

第八大願。願我來世得菩提時。若有女人。為女百惡之所逼惱。極生厭離。願捨女身。聞我名已。 一切皆得轉女成男。具丈夫相。乃至證得無上菩提。

藥師琉璃光如來,他在沒成佛之前,又發過一種願,這種願是轉女成男的願。為什麼要轉女成男呢?並不是說女人不 好,不願意做女人而做男人。那麼現在在這個國家,有一些個婦女解放的人,就來反對阿彌陀佛,說:「阿彌陀佛嘛!是大男人主義,在這個極樂世界,只有男人沒 有女人!」這是她們反對的。其實不是這樣子,阿彌陀佛他根本就沒有一個男女相。他見到男人,也不知道他是個男人,見到女人,也不知道她是個女人;不是不知 道,而是不生這種的分別心,沒有這種分別相。

待續


Text from last issue: The sixth great vow.

The blind have eyes, but cannot see. The deaf have ears, but cannot hear. When mutes try to talk, their voice stays down in their throat and they are no louder than a mosquito. They are basically incapable of speech. How miserable it is to be blind, deaf, or mute! People undergo such retributions because, in the past, they doubted the Dharma and didn't like to listen to it. Since they came face to face with the Buddha and didn't recognize him, they became blind. They didn't listen when people tried to speak Dharma to them, so they became deaf. They stubbornly refused to study the Dharma, so they became mute.

Deformed, paralyzed, hunchbacked. People whose joints or limbs are deformed may not be able to extend them. Hunchbacks look as if a round-bottomed cooking-pot were stuck on their back, or as if they had the hump of a camel.

Or afflicted with skin disease. Skin disease disfigures people in various ways, perhaps covering their faces with patches of different colors. Those suffering from insanity include severely abused children, who may bite themselves or try to eat their own fingers. People undergo the retribution of skin disease, insanity, or various other sicknesses and sufferings because they slandered the Mahayana Sutras, such as the Shurangama Sutra, or disparaged the Buddha's teachings in the past.

Upon hearing my name, "Medicine Master Vaidurya Light Tathagata," they shall all become endowed with upright features, keen intelligence, and perfect faculties, and they shall be free of sickness and suffering. Ugly and dull people will become attractive and intelligent, and their eyes, ears, noses, tongues, bodies, and minds will become fully functional. All sickness and pain will disappear even though they haven't taken medicine or seen a doctor. Isn't this wonderful? All we have to do is hear the name of Medicine Master Buddha. See how much this Buddha wants to help us? He doesn't want us to suffer our karmic retributions, and he wishes to grant our wishes and make us truly happy.

Sutra:
"The seventh great vow: 'I vow that in a future life when I attain Bodhi, I shall cause sentient beings who are oppressed by many illnesses and who are without aid, without a place to turn, without a doctor, without medicine, without relatives, and without a family, who are poverty-stricken and filled with suffering to be cured of their sicknesses upon having my name pass by their ear, so they are peaceful and happy in body and mind. They will have a family and relatives, and acquire an abundance of property and wealth, and even realize unsurpassed Bodhi.'"

Commentary:
Many of the newcomers still don't know who Medicine Master Vaidurya Light Tathagata is. I shall tell you a little more about this Buddha. He is a great king of physicians who cures people without using medicine. Living beings only need to hear his name, and their illnesses will be cured.

Chinese physicians use the methods of looking, listening, asking, and feeling the pulse to diagnose a patient's condition. Physicians are classified as "spiritual," "sagely," "skillful," or "clever." The "spiritual" are the very best, while the "sagely" are not quite as good. "Skillful" refers to those who have to apply some skill and effort before they can know a person's condition. The "clever" can know in an ingenious way. In general, the "spiritual" know by looking; the "sagely" know by listening; the "skillful" know through asking; and the "clever" know through feeling the pulse. Ordinary doctors must use these four methods to diagnose sickness.

Medicine Master Buddha, however, doesn't use these methods. He can cure people as long as they sincerely recite his name. That's his special way of helping people. Such awesome spiritual power comes from the following vow.

The seventh great vow: I vow that in a future life when I attain Bodhi, I shall cause sentient beings who are oppressed by many illnesses, and who are without aid, without a place to turn, without a doctor, without medicine, without relatives, and without a family, who are poverty-stricken and filled with suffering. They have no one who can help them, and no safe place where they can take refuge. Being sick is the greatest suffering. They're poor and alone and beset by hardships.

To be cured of their sicknesses upon having my name pass by their ear. If they hear my name, "Medicine Master Buddha Who Quells Disasters and Lengthens Life," they will be cured of all disease, without having to take medication or get shots, X-rays, or CAT scans. There's no need for electrotherapy, acupuncture, or any other treatments or operations. However, this passage doesn't mean that doctors will be out of business, so doctors should not worry!

So they are peaceful and happy in body and mind. They will have a family and relatives, and acquire an abundance of property and wealth. They will fully regain physical and mental health. They will not be alone in the world, nor will they be poor.

And finally, they will even realize unsurpassed Bodhi. All living beings have the Buddha-nature and can become Buddhas. The Buddha didn't say, "I alone can become a Buddha, and no one else can." Buddhism is very democratic. The Buddha is just the same as us, except that he has great wisdom, so he doesn't say or do confused things. We study the Buddha's teachings in order to learn to live in harmony, be good people, and ultimately, become wise Buddhas. However, if we don't follow the rules, we will never become wise.

Sutra:
"The eighth great vow: 'I vow that in a future life when I attain Bodhi, if there are women who give rise to a deep loathing for their female body and wish to renounce it because they are oppressed and disturbed by the myriad sufferings of being female, upon hearing my name, they will be able to turn from women into men who are replete with the features of a hero, and ultimately realize unsurpassed Bodhi.'"

Commentary:
Why would women want to become men? Don't misunderstand and think that Buddhism considers women to be bad. Some members of the Women's Lib movement in America have accused Amitabha Buddha of being a male chauvinist, because his Land of Ultimate Bliss is "men only." Actually, Amitabha Buddha doesn't discriminate between "men" or "women."

To be continued

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