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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
The Flower Adornment Sutra with Commentary

【卷四 世主妙嚴品第一之四】

Roll Four, Chapter One: The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Part Four

宣化上人講於一九七三年十一月二十七日 Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua on November 27, 1973
國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute
修訂版 Revised Version

你譬如要問他們什麼事情,你想寫文章也可以的。就不要問他:「你家裡怎麼樣?你爸爸怎麼樣了?你媽媽怎麼樣 啊?」他根本不知道這個事了。以前誰和他談多久話,那不管;以後,因為現在他們正在緊張的期間;以前可以不管。今天果護去,大約是跟著他們喝點可口可樂, 所以他就不回來。這個法是因為今天立的;以前的不算。譬如你果舟在那兒,和他們三個鐘頭、五個鐘頭在一起,那不犯法的,以前因為沒立法。

我問問這個果佑,我想他會明白我的意思。(譬如工人)不做工了,就陪著人客講話;講話,這作老板的一定不願意 的。就好像佛剛剛有兩個誠心的弟子,這麼樣子去 work hard (努力做工);你到那兒去,他就休息停止了。這護法一看,他們也沒有工作了,就走了;這護法也跑了。他們再拜,又要很辛苦,很辛苦,很辛苦。這護法在那個 地方慢條斯理地,很懶惰的樣子,好像沒睡醒的樣子:「好啦! 再來看看你囉!」你看,連這個護法都懶惰了。這個怎麼可以呢?

有人說他們會感應到護法來護持他們嗎?你不要問感應到護法,感應不到護法;他們褲子壞了就有一了條好的褲子 來,有人用汽水的瓶子打他們的頭,那麼離頭一寸那麼遠就過去了。本來在車裡頭和他們的距離很近的,很容易就可以把他們的頭給打破了,但是就沒有打破。你怎 麼知道這不是護法給他這麼一擋的呢?這麼就打不上呢?所以由這種種的情形,他們是很有感應的。所以你不要破壞他們的感應,那現在懂了嗎?

我歡喜人去給他們送飯吃,但是不要時間太久了。尤其這麼長的路,來回要很久的時間,在那停留時間太久了也沒有 什麼大意思。

復次。普發迅流主河神。得普雨無邊法雨解脫門。

「復次」﹕在前面這個經義還沒有說完,所以再繼續來說它一次。「普發迅流主河神」﹕普發迅流是他的名字。這個 「迅」當快字講,當速字講,就是很迅速的,很快的;這個流水流得很快的。這個主河神叫這個名字。「得普雨無邊法雨解脫門」﹕他得到這個佛的法雨,所以謂之 「無邊」。這個無邊,上也無邊,下也無邊,東西南北都是無邊。前,就是過去無量劫以前。這個法雨雖然是現在雨的法雨,但是過去也得到這個法雨,未來也得到 這個法雨。所以,三際無邊,十方也無邊;這叫「普雨無邊法雨」,得到這種的解脫門。

普潔泉澗主河神。得普現一切眾生前。令永離煩惱解脫門。

「普潔泉澗」﹕泉,就是水泉;澗,就是山澗。這山澗和水泉,有的時候會不潔淨,很污濁的。這一位主河神,他能 令泉水也清淨,也就譬如一切眾生沒有煩惱了一樣。水若不清淨,這就是眾生有了煩惱;水若清淨,就是眾生離開煩惱了。所以這一位主河神,他把泉也清淨了,澗 也清淨了,所以令這個眾生的煩惱也清淨了。所以他說他得到「普現一切眾生前」﹕普遍地現於一切眾生的前邊。「令永離煩惱」﹕他使令所有的眾生都能把煩惱離 開;離開了煩惱,也就是離開了這個貪心,離開瞋心,離開癡心。貪心、瞋心、癡心都離開了,這就是永離煩惱。得到這個本體的清淨,生出一種大的智慧來。他得 到了這種的解脫門。

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有問題沒有?我今天給你們幾個受沙彌、沙彌尼戒的人,起出一個字。你們自己寫的。這個果默那個默字,應該加上 一個單立人邊。他的名字叫果默,有個單立人邊;叫他皈依證上給他加上一個單立人。這是一個人不願意講話;不一定不講話,講少一點。他的名字就叫恆緘,咸是 絲邊加一個咸。這個緘也就好像那個信,把口封上叫緘。

本來他應該回來的,像一千年這樣子很短的時間,他應該回來的。現在不知道怎麼這一條路改了,他現在要到幾萬年 或者才能回來。

果航法名叫恆空。空了的空,虛空的空。這個果鉅,叫恆斧,就是他那一把斧子的斧,紀念他那一把大斧子。

果玉叫恆祿,祿就是福祿壽的祿。這個果滿叫恆福;他又很有福的。自己記一記自己的名字。果璲叫恆珍;珍是珍寶 的珍,也是個玉字邊,珍珠的珍。

恆斧,這是果默嗎?他願意不說話;不一定要不說話,少說就對了。你一定不說話那就變成啞巴了。

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離塵淨眼主河神。得以大悲方便。普滌一切眾生諸惑塵垢解脫門。

「離塵淨眼主河神」:這一位主河神,他的名字叫離塵淨眼。什麼叫離塵?什麼叫淨眼?離塵是離開一切的塵勞、妄 想,這叫離塵。也可以說是離開一切的染污的念;這個染污的念若不離,就談不到離塵。外邊這個塵埃固然是應該離,你裡邊的染污心如果沒有離,這也是沒有離開 塵。染污心就是不乾淨的心;有不乾淨的心,你就不能得到淨眼。你心若乾淨了,這個眼也就淨了;心裡的染污心沒有淨,你也得不到淨眼。這個淨眼,是淨五眼; 淨五眼才能得五力。

淨五眼是什麼五眼?是佛眼、法眼、慧眼、天眼、肉眼。淨五眼也就是睜開五眼。你若能以把染污心離開了,才能開 這五眼。

五眼若詳細地說是無窮無盡的。現在我們把它總括起來說一說。

先說這個天眼。「天眼通非礙」:它沒有障礙;沒有障礙,它就觀一切皆空,空無障礙。

「肉眼礙非通」:這個肉眼是看有障礙的東西。那麼有障礙的東西,他能看見;沒有障礙的東西,他也能看見。所以 障和無障,他都能看得見,所以叫肉眼。這一個肉眼並不是我們一般人這兩個眼睛叫肉眼;這個肉眼,它是能看有形相的肉眼,也能看無形的:有形無形,他都能看 得見,所以這個肉眼和我們凡夫這個肉眼是不同的。

凡夫的肉眼,只能看有形的,不能看無形的;只能看有色的,不能看無色的。這個肉眼能看色與無色、形與無形,他 都可以看得見。什麼叫無形呢?好像鬼,你一般人的肉眼看不見。你若開了五眼的肉眼,你就能看得見。又能看見人,又能看見鬼,又能看見神,他都可以看得見。

「法眼唯觀俗」:這個法眼,就看一切世出世的法。世間法、出世法,他都看得清清楚楚的。這叫法眼唯觀俗。

「慧眼了真空」:這個慧眼,它能明瞭真空的道理,他能明白這個真空不空,不空而空,空而不空。這個道理他都 懂,能看得清楚,這是慧眼。

「佛眼如千日」:佛眼好像一千個太陽那麼光明,照異起分同;照他所看的是有分別,而他本體是一個;本體是一 個,這是佛眼。

開這五眼就得到五種的力量。五種力量是什麼呢?是信的力、進的力、念的力、定的力,慧的力。信、進、念、定、 慧,得這五種的力量;得這五種的力量就能增長菩提根。所以這一位主河神,他的名字叫「離塵淨眼主河神」。他得到以這個大悲心用種種的方便;種種的方便法, 不是一種。

「普滌一切眾生諸惑塵垢解脫門」﹕滌就是洗滌,普遍來洗滌所有的十方一切眾生。洗滌眾生的什麼呢?洗滌諸惑。 洗這灰塵,洗這塵垢,洗這個迷惑的塵垢,令一切眾生也都得到這個離塵淨眼這一種的解脫門。

待續


If you want to ask them about something, say for an article, that's fine. But don't ask them, “How's your family doing? How's your dad? And your mom?” They have no idea of such matters. I won't worry about how much anyone talked with them in the past, but in the future I will care, because they are now going through a time of great anxiety. I can ignore the past. This rule is being made today because when Guo Hu went today, he probably drank some Coca-Cola with them, and that's why he didn't return. What happened in the past doesn't count. For example, Guo Zhou, when you stayed with them for three or five hours, you weren't breaking the rule because the rule hadn't been made yet.

I want to ask Guo You about this, because I think he understands my intent. For example, if a worker stops his work and starts chatting with visitors, the boss will certainly be displeased. In this case, the Buddha just gained two sincere disciples who were working hard, but when you went there, they stopped and took a rest. When the Dharma protectors saw that they had no work to do there, they left. With the Dharma protectors gone, when they started bowing again, it would have been very hard, very difficult. The Dharma protectors took their time and were very lazy, as if they hadn't had enough sleep: “Alright, we'll come back and watch over you again.” See, even the Dharma protectors were being lazy. How can that be allowed?

Haven't people said that they have had the response of Dharma protectors coming to protect them? You don't have to ask whether the Dharma protectors have been moved or not. When one of them ripped his pants, he came across another good pair of pants. When people aimed soda bottles at their heads, the bottles missed hitting them by an inch. Those people were driving by very close to them and could easily have bashed their heads; how can you be sure it wasn't a Dharma protector who shielded them from the blow? From all these incidents, it is clear that they have had many responses. And so you should not ruin their chance to gain responses. Do you understand now?  

I like it when people deliver food to them, but you should not stay too long. It's already a long trip going and returning, and staying a long time is pretty meaningless.

Sutra:
Moreover, the River-Ruling Spirit Universally Issuing Swift Currents obtained the liberation door of universally raining boundless Dharma rain.

Commentary:
Moreover, because the meanings of the Sutra were not completely expounded above, the exposition shall continue. The River-Ruling Spirit named Universally Issuing Swift Currents obtained the liberation door of universally raining boundless Dharma rain. “Universally Issuing Swift Currents” is the name of this River-Ruling Spirit. “Swift currents” refers rapidly flowing water. He obtained the Buddha's Dharma rain, which is said to be boundless because there are no bounds above, no bounds below, and no bounds in the north, south, east, and west. Nor are there any bounds in front—that is, in the past. Although this Dharma rain is coming down now, those in the past and future also obtain it. Since it is boundless in the three periods of time, and boundless in the ten directions, the text says “universally raining boundless Dharma rain.” He obtained that kind of door to liberation.

Sutra:
The River-Ruling Spirit Universally Purifying Springs and Torrents obtained the liberation door of universally manifesting before all living beings and causing them to forever leave afflictions.

Commentary:
The next River-Ruling Spirit is named Universally Purifying Springs and Torrents. Sometimes springs and mountain torrents are rather turbid and not very clean. This River-Ruling Spirit purifies the spring waters, which is a metaphor for getting rid of all living beings' afflictions. Water that is unclean represents living beings with afflictions. Water that is clean symbolizes living beings who have left afflictions behind. This River-Ruling Spirit cleanses springs and torrents, which means he cleanses living beings of their afflictions. And so he says he obtained the liberation door of universally manifesting before all living beings and causing them to forever leave afflictions. He enables every living being to separate from afflictions. Separating from afflictions means separating from greed, hatred, and stupidity. Once greed, hatred, and stupidity are left behind, one is eternally free of afflictions. One obtains the inherent, essential purity and gives rise to a kind of great wisdom. He obtained this kind of door to liberation.

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Are there any questions? Today I will give Dharma names to those of you who have received the Shramanera (Shramanerika) precepts. You have to write it yourself. The “Mo” of Guo Mo (“Fruit of Silence”)'s name should have a standing person radical. You should add it to his Taking Refuge Certificate. This means he is someone who does not like to talk. It does not mean he does not talk at all, but he talks a little less. His other name will be Heng Jian (“Constantly Sealed”), where “Jian” has a silk radical. This character is also used to mean sealing a letter.

Originally he should have come back in a short time, such as a thousand years. But somehow his route has changed and now he may not be able to come back for several tens of thousands of years.

Guo Hang (“Fruit of Sailing”)'s Dharma name is Heng Kong (“Constantly Empty”), the emptiness being that of empty space. Guo Ju (“Fruit of Greatness”) will be called Heng Fu (“Constant Ax”) after the ax that he always holds. His name means “great ax” in memory of that ax of his.

Guo Yu (“Fruit of Jade”) will be called Heng Lu (“Constant Prosperity”) as in blessings, wealth, and longevity. Guo Man (“Fruit of Perfection”) will be Heng Fu (“Constant Blessings”) for he is very blessed. You should each remember your own name. Guo Sui will be called Heng Zhen (“Constantly Precious”); the character for “precious” also has a jade radical.

Guo Mo (“Fruit of Silence”) prefers not to talk. It does not mean he absolutely cannot talk, but he should speak less. If you don't speak at all, you'll turn into a mute.

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Sutra:
The River-Ruling Spirit Pure Eyes Apart from Dust obtained the liberation door of using expedients of great compassion to universally cleanse all living beings' filth of delusion.

Commentary:
The next River-Ruling Spirit is named Pure Eyes Apart from Dust. What is meant by “apart from dust” and by “pure eyes”? “Apart from dust” means one has left behind all mundane defilements and false thinking. It could also be explained as leaving all defiled thoughts. If one has not left defiled thoughts, one is not apart from dust. Even if one has separated from the external dust, if one has not left defiled thinking internally, then one is not apart from the dust. Defiled thoughts are impure thoughts. With impure thoughts, you cannot obtain pure eyes. If your mind is pure, your eyes will be pure. If your mind is not purified of defiled thoughts, you cannot obtain pure eyes. These pure eyes are the pure Five Eyes. Only when one has purified the Five Eyes can one obtain the Five Powers.

What are the pure Five Eyes? They are the Buddha Eye, the Dharma Eye, the Wisdom Eye, the Heavenly Eye, and the Flesh Eye. Purifying the Five Eyes just means opening them. If you can depart from defiled thoughts, then you can open the Five Eyes.

If we went into detail, we could discuss the Five Eyes endlessly. For now I will give a general overview.

I will first talk about the Heavenly Eye. “The Heavenly Eye penetrates without obstruction.” It is unimpeded, so it perceives everything as empty—unobstructed emptiness.

“The Flesh Eye perceives obstructions and does not penetrate.” The Flesh Eye can see objects that have material solidity. It can see both material and immaterial things. Whether objects are obstructed (solid) or not, it can see them. The Flesh Eye does not refer to the physical, flesh eyes of ordinary people. This eye can see things with shape and form, as well as things without shape and form. It can perceive both material and immaterial entities, so it is not the same as the eyes of ordinary people.

The physical eyes of ordinary people can only see material things that have color and form. It does not discern formless things. The Flesh Eye, on the other hand, can see things whether or not they have form and color. What kinds of things are formless? Ghosts are, for example, so most people cannot see them with their ordinary eyes. If you open the Flesh Eye, then you will be able to see them. You will be able to see people as well as ghosts and spirits.

“The Dharma Eye contemplates only the mundane.” The Dharma Eye can behold all mundane and transcendental dharmas with perfect clarity.

“The Wisdom Eye understands True Emptiness.” The Wisdom Eye comprehends the principle of True Emptiness. It understands that True Emptiness is not empty, yet is empty; is empty and yet is not empty. The Wisdom Eye has a very clear grasp of this doctrine.

“The Buddha Eye is like a thousand suns.” The Buddha Eye is as brilliant as a thousand suns. Although it perceives differences, its fundamental substance is one.

Upon opening the Five Eyes, one obtains five kinds of powers, namely, the power of faith, the power of vigor, the power of mindfulness, the power of samadhi, and the power of wisdom. With the Five Powers of faith, vigor, mindfulness, samadhi, and wisdom, one's Bodhi roots will grow and increase. So this River-Ruling Spirit named “Pure Eyes Apart from Dust” obtained the liberation door of using expedients of great compassion to universally cleanse all living beings' filth of delusion. His mind of great compassion employs various kinds of expedient methods, not just one kind. He universally cleanses all living beings of the ten directions. What does he cleanse them of? Of all delusions, of that dust and filth. He washes away the filth of confusion, enabling living beings to obtain pure eyes apart from dust—that kind of liberation door.

To be continued

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