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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
The Flower Adornment Sutra with Commentary

【卷四 世主妙嚴品第一之四】

Roll Four, Chapter One: The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Part Four

宣化上人講於一九七三年十一月二十四日 Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua on November 24, 1973
國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute
修訂版 Revised version

昨天這個討論都是很好的,以後希望大家多一點人參加這個研究。我們這叫研究辯論會,不是吵架的會。為什麼叫你們每個人都有發言的權呢?你們大家不要儘依賴我,或者我將來又到了南美去了,或者又到了北美去了,或者又到了東美去了,或者我到西美去了,那麼我走了之後你們就好像沒有頭似的,不知道怎麼樣走路了。說是:「蛇無頭不走」--蛇沒有頭了就不會走路了。我希望你們這個蛇都會走路,不要沒有頭。那麼走來走去就可以變成龍,現在這個金山寺就是「龍蛇混雜」的地方--又有龍又有蛇。你修行好了,這個蛇也變成龍;修行不好呢,這個龍也變成蛇了。這一個不像那個 cut off (剪斷)那個字似的,是一定的;這個是可以變的。

如來所行無罣礙
遍往十方一切剎
處處示現大神通
普現威光已能悟

「如來所行無掛礙」:如來所行,就是他所做的事情。他所做的事情是無罣無礙的。「遍往十方一切剎」:他寂然不動於本座,感而遂通遍十方。寂然不動,他不離開本座。感而遂通遍十方,哪個眾生有所感,哪個眾生想要願意見佛、願意聞法,佛就有感自通;無求不應:誰求他誰就見到佛。所以他說:「處處示現大神通」:處處所有的十方法界微塵剎海,他都顯露他這個大神通。大神通就是大能容小、小能容大;大小互相容、互相攝。塵剎國土不出一粒微塵;一粒微塵能容納塵剎國土。一粒微塵是小,但是能容大;十方國土是大,但是也能納小。大中現小;小中現大,這個神通叫大神通。

「普現威光已能入」:你聽了好像很容易似的,但是這個道理不是很容易明白的。小的怎麼可以容大?大又怎麼可以納小?大納小是可以;小容大這是沒有這個道理的。但是在佛的份上,無大無小,無內外;也沒有大,也沒有小,也沒有內,也沒有外,互相圓融無礙的。這種境界只是普現威光主水神,他已能悟。已,就不是很久,就是方才他能明白的,太早還不太明白。所以已能了悟了,能明白這個道理。

修習無邊方便行
等眾生界悉充滿
神通玅用糜暫停
吼聲遍海斯能入

複次,出現寶光主海神,得以等心施一切眾生。福德海眾寶莊嚴身解脫門。不可壞金剛幢主海神,得巧方便守護一切眾生善根解脫門。不雜塵垢主海神,得能竭一切眾生煩惱海解脫門。恆住波浪主海,得令一切眾生離惡道解脫門。

「修習無邊方便行」:這是吼聲遍海主水神,他所明白佛的境界。他說:佛修習無邊方便行,種種的方便行門。「等眾生界悉充滿」:這種方便法門,有多少眾生,就有多少法門,所以叫等眾生界悉充滿這個法門。「神通妙用糜暫停」:佛的這個神通力,和不可思議這種妙用的境界糜暫停;他沒有暫時間停止的時候,時時刻刻佛都示現神通,用他的妙用來教化眾生。「吼聲遍海斯能入」:這吼聲遍海主水神,他能入這種解脫門。

「複次」;再來,前邊沒有說那個道理,再來說一說。「出現寶光主海神」:這一位主海神,就出現寶光;他能出現種種的寶光。「得以等心施一切眾生」:他得到佛這種境界,等無差別的心、平等的心,來布施一切眾生。甚麼呢?「福德海」:布施眾生福和德。「眾寶莊嚴身」:有這個眾寶,就是所有金、銀、琉璃、玻璃、硨磲、赤珠、瑪瑙之類的眾寶莊嚴身。「解脫門」:他得到這種的解脫門。

「不可壞金剛幢主海神」:不可壞金剛幢--這都是一種堅固的意思--主海神,「得」善「巧方便」來「守護一切眾生善根解脫門」。這一切眾生的善根,他不叫這善根壞了,來守保眾生,成就他的善根,所以叫不可壞金剛幢主海神。他以善巧方便來守護一切眾生的這個善根。他得到佛這種的境界,入這種的解脫門。

「不雜塵垢主海神」:這一位主海神是非常清淨的,沒有塵垢的染污,所以叫不雜塵垢主海神。他得到「能解一切眾生煩惱海解脫門」。他能令眾生煩惱海乾了。解就是沒有了;乾了叫解。甚麼乾了呢?煩惱海乾了;煩惱海沒有了,就得到智慧了。我們為甚麼沒有開智慧?就因為煩惱太重了,這煩惱海沒有乾。但這一位主海神呢?他不管我們;他要管我們,我們這煩惱海也就會乾了,他得到這種的解脫門。可是我們現在一聽見這華嚴經,這一位主海神,他一定就要叫我們這個煩惱海乾了。在這兒我們不要依賴這位主海神叫我們的煩惱海乾,我們應該乾自己的煩惱海,不要等這位主海神,給他添很多麻煩。我們自己要能想法子把這個煩惱海乾了,那麼這個主海神也就一定很歡喜,一定在這個解脫門裡不要出來了。

「恆住波浪主海神」:常常在這波浪裡頭住著,這也是個講法。又有一個講法說是他能令這個波浪止住了,常常令這個波浪沒有波浪了,這也是一個講法。總而言之,這兩個講法都可以講得通。恆住波浪,就是恆常止住這個波浪;又是恆常住在波浪裡頭,甚麼波浪他也不怕,他就在這個波浪裡頭來過生活。這一位主海神「得令一切眾生離惡道解脫門」。他得到的這種法門是甚麼呢?令一切眾生遠離三惡道,成就三善道。他得到這種解脫門。

吉祥寶月主海神,得普滅大癡暗解脫門。妙華龍髻主海神,得滅一切諸趣苦,與安樂解脫門。普持光味主海神,得淨一切眾生諸見愚癡性解脫門。

「吉祥寶月主海神」:吉祥寶月是這主海神的名字。他得到佛的境界,知道佛能普滅大癡暗。普滅,就是令這個癡暗沒有了;大癡暗滅了就會生出大光明。這一位主海神他得到這種的解脫門,明白佛這種的境界。

待續

眾生想要願意見佛、願意聞法,佛就有感自通;無求不應。
Wherever there is a being who evokes a response, a living being who wishes to see the Buddha and hear the Dharma, the Buddha naturally responds to that evocation, so no wishes are left unfulfilled.

Yesterday’s discussion was very good. I hope more people will take part in the investigation. These are meetings for investigation and debate, not for arguing. Why do I tell you that each of you have the right to speak? It’s because you shouldn’t just rely on me. In the future I might go to South America, or to North America, East America, or West America. When I’m gone, you would be like a snake without a head, unable to budge. There’s a saying that goes: “A snake without a head cannot go anywhere.” I hope all of you “snakes” can go places and not be headless. After you go around for awhile, you can turn into dragons. Right now Gold Mountain Monastery is a place where snakes and dragons commingle: There are snakes and there are dragons. If you cultivate well, the snakes will become dragons. If you don’t cultivate well, the dragons will turn into snakes. Unlike the words “cutting off,” which are fixed, this is something that can change.

Sutra:
What the Tathagata practices has no hindrances
or obstructions.
He pervades all kshetras in the ten directions.
In every place he manifests great spiritual penetrations.
Universally Manifesting Awesome Light has awakened
to this.

Commentary:
What the Tathagata practices has no hindrances or obstructions. “What the Tathagata practices” means the things he does, none of which is blocked or obstructed. He pervades all kshetras in the ten directions. He is able to remain seated in stillness where he is, yet respond through penetrations throughout the ten directions. Still and unmoving, without leaving where he is sitting, his responses accordingly extend through the ten directions. Wherever there is a being who evokes a response, a living being who wishes to see the Buddha and hear the Dharma, the Buddha naturally responds to that evocation, so no wishes are left unfulfilled. Whoever wishes to do so will see the Buddha. Therefore the text goes on to say: In every place he manifests great spiritual penetrations. “In every place” means everywhere in the seas of kshetras as many as fine motes of dust in the Dharma Realms of the ten directions. In each and every location he reveals his enormous spiritual penetrations. Those great spiritual penetrations are such that the great can include the small, and the small can include the great. The great and small can include each other and encompass each other. Kshetra-lands as many as fine motes of dust are not outside a single mote of dust. A single dust mote can include kshetra lands many as motes of dust. Although a particle of dust is small, it can encompass the great. And even though the countries of the ten directions are great, they can also include and contain the small. The small appears within the great, and within the great appears the small. That is why they are called great spiritual penetrations.

Universally Manifesting Awesome Light has awakened to this. When you hear this described, it seems very simple. Nonetheless, this principle is not all that easy to understand. How can something small contain something huge? And how can something huge further hold something small? It’s possible for the great to contain the small, but it doesn’t make sense for the small to contain the great. However, from the vantage point of the Buddha, there is no great and no small, no inside and no outside. There isn’t anything huge or anything tiny. There isn’t any inside or and any outside. Everything interpenetrates without obstruction. This kind of state is what the Water-Ruling Spirit named Universally Manifesting Awesome Light has awakened to. “Has” indicates it just happened not very long ago. Just now he has understood this, whereas earlier he didn’t understand it very well. Therefore, he has just awakened to and understood this principle.

Sutra:
He cultivates boundlessly many expedient practices,
Equal to living beings’ realms, which are completely filled.
His spiritual penetrations and wondrous functionings
are never interrupted.
Roaring Sound Pervading Seas can enter into this.

Furthermore, the Ocean-Ruling Spirit named Manifesting Jeweled Lights obtained the liberation door of using an equal mind to bestow seas of blessings and virtues on all living beings, and having a body adorned with the multitudes of jewels. The Ocean-Ruling Spirit named Indestructible Vajra Banner obtained the liberation door of using clever expedients to guard and protect all living beings’ good roots. The Ocean-Ruling Spirit named Not Mixed with Defilement obtained the liberation door of draining the seas of all living beings’ afflictions. The Ocean-Ruling Spirit named Ever-Dwelling in Waves obtained the liberation door of freeing all living beings from the evil paths.

Commentary:
He cultivates boundlessly many expedient practices. The Water-Ruling Spirit named Roaring Sound Pervading Seas has an understanding of the Buddha’s state, and so he says: “The Buddha cultivates boundlessly many expedient practices,” all kinds of doors of practice of skill-in-means. They are equal to living beings’ realms which are completely filled. These Dharma-doors of expedient means are such that, for however many living beings there are, the Dharma-doors are just that many. That is why it says they are equal to the realms of living beings, “which are completely filled,” totally filled with the Dharma-doors. His spiritual penetrations and wondrous functionings are never interrupted. The Buddha’s powers of spiritual penetrations along with his inconceivable states of wondrous functionings are never halted. They don’t stop even momentarily. Rather, at all times the Buddha is manifesting spiritual penetrations and wondrous functionings to teach and transform living beings. Roaring Sound Pervading Seas can enter into this. The Water-Ruling Spirit named Roaring Sound Pervading Seas can enter into this kind of door to liberation.

Furthermore indicates that the principles being presented previously were not completely stated, and something more is to be said. The Ocean-Ruling Spirit to be discussed now is named Manifesting Jeweled Lights, because he can make all kinds of gem-like radiance appear. He obtained the liberation door of using an equal mind to bestow seas of blessings and virtues on all living beings. The kind of state of the Buddha which he arrived at was that of using an equable mind without discriminations, an attitude of level equality, to give all living beings what? To bestow seas of blessings and virtues upon them, and having a body adorned with multitudes of jewels such as gold, silver, vaidurya, crystal, mother-of pearl, red pearls and carnelian. He attained that kind of door to liberation.

The next Ocean-Ruling Spirit is named Indestructible Vajra Banner, “indestructible vajra banner” conveying the meaning of solidity. This Ocean-Ruling Spirit obtained the liberation door of using clever expedients, skill-in-means, to guard and protect all living beings’ good roots. He doesn’t allow living beings’ good roots to be destroyed. Instead, he protects them and helps living beings to accomplish their good roots—hence his name, “Indestructible Vajra Banner.” His preventing living beings’ good roots from being destroyed led to his being the Ocean-Ruling Spirit named Indestructible Vajra Banner. He employs clever and expedient means to keep guard over the roots of goodness of all living beings. That is the kind of state of the Buddha which he achieved, and the type of door to liberation which he entered.

The next Ocean-Ruling Spirit is named Not Mixed with Defilement. This Ocean-Ruling Spirit is extremely pure, without a speck of filth, and so is known as the Ocean-Ruling Spirit Not Mixed with Defilement. He obtained the liberation door of draining the seas of all living beings’ afflictions. He can dry up the oceans of the afflictions of living beings. “Draining” means getting rid of them, drying them up. What is being dried? The seas of living beings’ afflictions are dried up, so afflictions are gone and beings’ wisdom opens up. Why haven’t we opened our wisdom? Because our afflictions are too heavy. Our seas of afflictions have not dried up. Probably this Ocean-Ruling Spirit isn’t paying any attention to us. If he were, then the seas of our afflictions would also have dried up, and we would have achieved this kind of liberation door. However, now that we have listened to the Flower Adornment Sutra, this Ocean-Ruling Spirit is sure to drain the oceans of our afflictions dry. But still, we should not rely on him to dry up our oceans of afflictions. We ourselves should drain our own seas of afflictions, and not wait for this Ocean-Ruling Spirit to have to do a lot of work, or give him a lot of trouble. We should find a way ourselves to dry up our own oceans of afflictions. That is certain to make this Ocean-Ruling Spirit very happy, so he will definitely never want to go out of this liberation door.

The next Ocean-Ruling Spirit is named Ever-Dwelling in Waves. He always dwells in the breakers—that’s one explanation. Another interpretation is that he can cause the waves to dwell, that is, subside, so there are never any waves. In any case, either explanation makes sense. “Ever Making Waves Dwell” would be the interpretation emphasizing his always stopping the waves. On the other hand, “Ever-Dwelling in Waves” stresses his not fearing any wave whatsoever, to the point that he passes his life in the breakers. This Ocean-Ruling Spirit obtained the liberation door of freeing all living beings from the evil paths. What kind of Dharma-door did he achieve? It was that of helping living beings get far away from the three evil paths and accomplish the three good paths. He obtained that type of door to liberation.

Sutra:
The Ocean-Ruling Spirit named Auspicious Jeweled Moon obtained the liberation door of universally eradicating the great darkness of stupidity. The Ocean-Ruling Spirit named Wondrous Floral Dragon Cowl obtained the liberation door of eradicating all destinies’ sufferings and bestowing happiness. The Ocean-Ruling Spirit named Universally Maintaining Flavor and Light obtained the liberation door of purifying and regulating the nature of all living beings’ stupidity of views.

Commentary:
The next Ocean-Ruling Spirit is named Auspicious Jeweled Moon. He obtained the liberation door, the state of the Buddha, which is that of knowing about the Buddha’s universally eradicating the great darkness of stupidity. “Universally eradicating” means totally getting rid of all the darkness of stupidity. When the obscurity of foolishness is gone, the light of clarity will come forth. Once the great darkness of stupidity has been dispelled, great radiance is produced. This Ocean-Ruling Spirit attained that kind of door to liberation, understanding that type of state of the Buddha.

to be continued

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