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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
The Flower Adornment Sutra with Commentary

【卷四 世主妙嚴品第一之四】

Roll Four, Chapter One: The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Part Four

宣化上人講於一九七三年十一月二十四日 Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua on November 24, 1973
國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute
修訂版 Revised version

如來境界無邊量 一切眾生不能了
妙音演說遍十方 此善漩神所行處

如來境界無邊量
The Thus Come One’s state has no bounds or measure.

「如來境界無邊量」:這是說佛的境界是不可以思議的;因為不可以思議,所以說無邊無量、無量無邊。「一切眾生不能了」:在眾生的份上沒有開佛的知見,入佛的知見,悟佛的知見;沒有開、示、悟、入佛之知見上,就不能明白佛的境界。佛「妙音演說遍十方」:佛出一種微妙之音,演說這種的妙法,不是在這個世界,而是遍於十方的世界。「此善漩神所行處」:這一種的境界,是這個善巧漩澓主水神他所修行的這個道理,他所修行的解脫門。

世尊光明無有盡
充遍法界不思議
說法教化度眾生
此淨香神所觀見

「世尊」:就是佛。佛現的光明是重重無盡的,因為這個光明是重重無盡,所以就說無有盡──沒有窮盡的時候。「充遍法界不思議」:佛這一種光明能盡虛空遍法界都充滿了,不可以心思、不可以言喻。「說法教化度眾生」:佛演說種種的妙法來教化度脫一切眾生,令一切眾生都離苦得樂。「此淨香神所觀見」:這種境界這是那個離垢香積主水神,他所親自看見的這種境界,他自己親自明白、親自證得這種境界。

如來清淨等虛空
無相無形遍十方
而令眾會靡不見
此福光神善觀察

「如來清淨等虛空」:如來的法身是清淨猶如虛空的;無在無而不在,所以說等虛空。「遍十方法界」:雖然遍十方法界,他是無相無形;雖然無相無形而可以遍滿十方法界。所以佛的境界就是這樣微妙,就是這樣地不可思議。「而令眾生靡不見」:雖然佛是無相無形,可是眾會道場的一切眾生「靡不見」;沒有一個不見著佛的。「此福光神善觀察」:這一種境界是福橋光音主水神,他所明白的這種境界。

佛昔修習大悲門
其心廣遍等眾生
是故如雲現於世
此解脫門知足了

「佛昔修習大悲門」:佛在以前修行大悲行門,又拔除眾生苦,給眾生樂,修這種的大悲門。「其心廣遍等眾生」:佛修大悲門的時候,心非常廣大,又周遍,等於眾生那麼多。有多少個眾生,佛就修多少大悲門,所以說等眾生。

「是故如雲現於世」:因為這個,所以說佛就好像是天上一塊雲彩似地,現在這個世界上,把世界所有的熱惱眾生都給照得清涼了,這是我們人信佛所應該知道的。佛好像雲現在世間,普蔭一切眾生,令一切眾生都得到清涼。這種的解脫門,是這個知足主水神他所明了的。

十方所有諸國土
悉見如來坐於座
朗然開悟大菩提
如是喜音之所入

「十方」:在十方所有諸國土裡邊;你們都知道,所有的諸國土你們都到過了。「悉見如來坐於座」:你們都看見了;但是看見時間久了又忘了。所有的眾生,都看見佛坐在蓮花座上,演說無上甚深微妙法。「朗然開悟大菩提」:你們應該覺悟了。你們都開悟了,時間久了又迷了。「如是」:是不是這樣子啊?是這樣子。所以「喜音之所入」:喜音主水神他也明白這種境界,那麼對你們大家來說一說。

(編按﹕以下是1973年11月23日,在三藩市金山寺,加州尋夢會員第一次會議的討論記錄。)

上人﹕我們昨天開了個會,現在我們繼續研討那個會議。每個人都得發表意見。

果遂﹕我認為會議不應該由一個人把持住。
上人﹕大家都有權力說話,但是說,要有個道理。譬如她說有問題提出來,你們誰都可以答覆她這個問題。你們哪一個人有什麼問題提出來,旁人可以答覆你這個問題,這互相交換個知識。我自己不懂的,問旁人;旁人懂,或者旁人不懂的,我懂,我也可以告訴旁人。這是我這個會的宗旨。(有人問翻譯用辭的問題,以下是討論。)

講這欲念應該斷不斷,這一段文是說,頓教法門裡頭,一定要斷;不斷,根本就和這個頓教不相合了。那麼一般人他怕,他不是怕這個斷的字,他怕這個頓教。因為他不願意那麼快就開悟成佛,所以他還要等一等。這是對某一種的機說某一種的法。他不對機的,你就那個字用得再好,他也不接受的;若對機,或者用得不好,他又開悟了。

這個對不對機的問題,在昨天先先地我說,我覺得若是講得太厲害了……,我知道我是這麼樣講,那麼果逸她也是這麼翻譯。這果潔一講的時候,我覺得如果在普通的地方不應該這麼講,所以我說這可以改。以後我聽說是那個「頓教法門」要改,這不應該改。她說一般人怕;一般人所怕的事情多,我們沒有法子令人完全不怕的。

昨天這個會開得很好,我們希望常有這種的會,大家來發揮自己的意見。這給你們大家一個機會來共同研究,共同辯論。這個辯論不是發脾氣地辯論,不是人我是非地辯論,是要研究真理。你看看你這個道理怎麼樣,然後我又看看我這個怎麼樣,我們大家互相來交換意見。不是說是辯論就是辯論,面也紅了,眼睛也紅了,耳朵也紅了,脖子也紅了,這變成紅臉的一個妖怪了:不是那樣。我們一定要大家用自己的智慧,想對方所說的這個道理怎麼樣子;要委屈婉轉,令人不要發脾氣,要這樣子來研究這個真理。

待續

 

十方所有諸國土,悉見如來坐於座
All the countries in the ten directions see the Tathagatha seated on his throne

Sutra:
The Thus Come One’s state has no bounds or measure.
There are no living beings who can fathom it.
His wondrous sound proclaims throughout the
ten directions.
This is the Spirit Whirlpools of Skills’ place of practice.

Commentary:
The Thus Come One’s state has no bounds or measure. This describes how the state of the Buddha is inconceivable. Due to its inconceivability, it is beyond bounds and measures, limitless and boundless. There are no living beings who can fathom it. From the vantage point of living beings who have not yet opened the Buddha's knowledge and vision, not yet entered the Buddha's knowledge and vision, so long as they have not yet opened, disclosed, awakened to, and entered the knowledge and vision of a Buddha, they are unable to understand the Buddha's state. As to the Buddha, his wondrous sound proclaims throughout the ten directions. The Buddha sends forth a single kind of subtle and wondrous sound, and that single wondrous sound is not just in this world-system; rather, it extends throughout the world-systems of the ten directions. This is the Spirit Whirlpools of Skills’ place of practice. This kind of state is a principle and the door to liberation which is cultivated be the Water-ruling Spirit named Whirlpools of Skillful Expedients.

Sutra:
The World Honored One’s radiance is unending.
It fills the Dharma Realm and is inconceivable.
He speaks Dharma to instruct and rescue living beings.
This is what the Spirit Immaculate Fragrance contemplates.

Commentary:
The World Honored One’s radiance is unending. The World Honored One is the Buddha, and the light emitted by the Buddha is multilayered and inexhaustible. That being the case, there is no time when it comes to an end. It fills the Dharma Realm and is inconceivable. A single kind of light of the Buddha’s can extend throughout empty space and pervade the Dharma Realm, filling it all. It cannot be conceptualized by thought or expressed in words. He speaks Dharma to instruct and rescue living beings. The Buddha proclaims all kinds of wonderful Dharmas to teach, transform, rescue, and liberate all beings, enabling them to leave suffering and attain bliss. This is what the Water-ruling Spirit named Immaculate Fragrance contemplates. This type of state is what the Water-ruling Spirit named Immaculate Accumulation of Fragrance observes himself; what he himself understands—the kind of state to which he himself certifies.

Sutra:
The Tathagata is pure, just like empty space,
Without marks and without shape, he pervades the ten directions,
Yet causes multitudes without exception all to see him.
The Spirit Light to Blessings contemplates this well.

Commentary:
The Tathagata is pure, just like empty space. The Tathagata’s Dharma-body is immaculate, the same as emptiness. It is not located anywhere, but there is no place where it is not present—which is why it is said to resemble empty space. Without marks and without space, he pervades the ten directions. Even though he extends throughout the Dharma Realms of the ten directions, nonetheless he has no characteristics and no form. And even though he is markless and formless, he is able to fill all the ten directions' Dharma Realms. The Buddha’s state is just that wonderful and inconceivable. Yet he causes the multitudes without exception all to see him. In spite of the fact that the Buddha has no characteristics and no appearance, he still can make himself visible to all living beings in the assemblies in the Way-places “without exception.” No one fails to see the Buddha. The Spirit Light to Blessings contemplates this well. The Water-ruling Spirit named Light-Sound Bridge to Blessings understands this kind of state.

Sutra:
In the past the Buddha practiced the door of great compassion,
His mind vast and pervasive, equal to living beings.
Therefore, like a cloud, he appears within the world.
This door to liberation is what Contentment understands.

Commentary:
In the past the Buddha practiced the door of great compassion. Previously, the Buddha cultivated the door of practice of great compassion, both pulling out living beings’ suffering and bestowing happiness upon them. That was the kind of gate to great compassion which he practiced, his mind vast and pervasive, equal to living beings. When the Buddha was cultivating the door of great compassion, his mind was especially vast and extensive, all-pervasive, equal in its amount to the number of living beings. That’s the meaning of being “equal to living beings.” For as many living beings as there are, the Buddha cultivated that many doors of great compassion, so there was an equal matching with living beings. Therefore, like a cloud, he appears in the world. For that reason, the Buddha is comparable to a cloud in the sky, appearing above the world, bringing refreshing coolness to over-heated living beings. This is something we who believe in the Buddha should know about. The Buddha resembles a cloud over our world, everywhere affording shade to living beings, so living beings can have coolness and refreshment. This kind of door to liberation is what the Water-ruling Spirit named Contentment understands.

Sutra:
All the countries in the ten directions
See the Tathagatha seated on his throne,
Radiant and enlightened to great Bodhi.
What is entered by Sound of Joy is that way.

Commentary:
All the countries in the ten directions / See the Tathagata seated on his throne. You all know what the directions are, you have been to all countries, and you have seen all this, radiant and enlightened to great Bodhi. You have all awakened. What is entered by Sound of Joy is that way. You have all been joyous—isn’t that the case? You have been to all the lands of the ten directions, and have come back from them. You have all seen the Tathagata seated on his throne, but then forgotten with the passage of time. You have all been enlightened, but have grown confused over time. Isn’t that the way it is? It is that way. The Water-ruling Spirit named Sound of Joy understands this state and declares it to all of you now in the great assembly.

[Historical note: What follows is a discussion of the first meeting with members of the California Dreamers at Gold Mountain Monastery, San Francisco, on November 23, 1973.]

Venerable Master: Yesterday we had a meeting, and now we will continue and investigate the meeting. All of you should bring up your opinions.

Guo Sui: I don’t think one person should be allowed to monopolize a meeting.
Venerable Master: Everyone has the right to speak, but what one says should be principled. For example, when she [Guo Jie, one of the California Dreamers] said she wanted to raise a question, any one of you could have answered her. Any other people could answer questions any of you might raise. This is mutual exchange of wisdom. If I don’t understand something, I ask someone else who does. If someone else doesn’t understand something, but I do, then I can tell the other person. That’s the intent of the meetings. Are there any other opinions? [People raise a translation question, and there is a discussion.]

As to the question of whether or not to “cut off” desire, the text in question was discussing the Dharma door of the Sudden Teaching. In the Sudden Teaching’s approach to Dharma, it must be cut off—otherwise one is fundamentally not in accord with the Sudden Teaching. What most people are afraid of is not the words “cutting off”. They fear the Sudden Teaching, because they don’t want to become enlightened and accomplish Buddhahood that fast, but would rather take their time. It’s a matter of speaking a certain kind of Dharma for a person with that kind of potential. If it’s not suited to the person’s potential, then no matter how well it’s phrased, the person won’t accept it. On the other hand, if it matches the person’s potential, then even if poorly stated, the person will still become enlightened. The problem lies with matching or not matching potentials.

Yesterday I was aware from the start that if I spoke too forcibly... I knew I had explained it that way, and that Guo Yi had translated it that way too. When Guo Jie took exception to it, I was aware that in most instances it shouldn’t be put like that, and so I said it could be changed. But afterwards, when I heard that it was talking about the Dharma door of the Sudden Teaching, then it shouldn’t be changed. As to her objection that it would make most people afraid, there are too many things which most people fear, and there’s no way we can alleviate their fears entirely.The meeting we held yesterday went very well. I hope that we will hold these kinds of meetings regularly, and that all of you will bring up your opinions. This gives you all the opportunity to investigate and debate topics together. Debates don’t have to be angry debates, debates over who is right or wrong. They should be the investigation of true principle. You look into what your principle is like, and afterwards I see what mine is like. We exchange opinions with each other. Debate doesn’t have to be heated argument, where your face gets red, your eyes blaze red, your ears become red, and you have a red neck, so you turn into a red-faced monster. That’s not the idea. Instead we need to use our own wisdom to present our point to the other person. We should be agreeable and persuasive, and try not to make people angry. That is how we should investigate.

To be continued

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