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《上人法雨》

 

VENERABLE MASTER'S DHARMA RAIN

歐洲弘法記
DHARMA TALKS IN EUROPE

宣化上人講於一九九○年歐洲Explained by the Venerable Master Hua in 1990 Europe

佛教與世界和平

「南無薩怛多。蘇伽多耶。阿羅訶帝。三藐三菩陀寫」(三遍)

國際間各位宗教領袖,國際間各位善知識,國際間各位大德慈愍。今天我們來共同研究佛教與世界的和平。佛教就是和平;和平就是佛教,沒有衝突的。學佛的人,就是學和平;不學佛的人,就是不和平。為甚麼這麼說呢?因為學佛的人,都要學無爭三昧。無爭,就是沒有任何的爭執。無爭就是人不要的,我們要;人家要的,我們不要,這就是和平。人為甚麼爭呢?「爭」字是從甚麼地方來的呢?是從人的心裏來的。你一爭,就沒有和平;你不爭,就是和平。和平就是沒有一切的鬥爭,不和平就是鬥爭。

在佛住世的時候,是正法堅固的時期,佛入涅槃之後,是像法堅固的時候,到了末法時代,則是鬥爭堅固的時候。所以才說:

爭是勝負心,與道相違背。
便生四相心,由何得三昧。

「爭是勝負心,與道相違背。」你一爭就和道相違背。「便生四相心」,你一爭就有我相,有我相,就有人相;有了人相,就有了眾生相;有了眾生相,就有了壽者相,所以說便生四相心。「由何得三昧」,你一生四相心,怎麼會得正定正受呢?

我們學佛法,或學其他的宗教,學任何的法門,一旦有了爭心--爭強論勝之心,這就是不和平,也就是鬥爭心。所以說:

爭是勝負心,與道相違背,
便生四相心,由何得三昧?

你有了爭心,怎麼會得到宗教的利益呢?不但沒有利益,反成害處,因為對人生出一種危害心,對人的生命有危險,這就是不和平,所以我們要世界和平,就先要從不爭做起。

四相、第一個就是「我相」。我相怎麼樣來的?也有幾句話是形容我相的,可是還沒有說得明白。怎麼樣說的呢?

「未曾生我誰是我?生我之時我是誰?
 長大成人方是我,合眼朦朧又是誰?」

這幾句話就是研究這個「我」。這是說我們身體未生之前,我們在甚麼地方?我是誰?我到底是誰?「生我之時我是誰?」生了之後做小孩子了,也不知道我是誰?這是疑問。「長大成人方是我」,長成大人了,這時覺得有「我」了。

我們這個身體上,四肢百骸,頭有頭的名字;腳有腳的名字;手有手的名字;胳臂有胳臂的名字;眼睛有眼睛的名字;耳朵有耳朵的名字;口有口的名字;牙有牙的名字;舌有舌的名字;身有身的名字,可是那個地方叫「我」呢?全身四肢百骸找不出一個「我」來。知道有「我」還找不著「我」,究竟甚麼叫「我」?「合眼朦朧又是誰?」等到一閉眼睛死了,我又是誰呢?這個「我」是個很糊塗不清的「我」,名實不相符,也不知道怎麼就叫個「我」?也不知道怎麼叫個「人」?也不知道怎麼叫「眾生」?也不知道怎麼叫「壽者」?可是雖然不知道,人都還願意活著,不願意死;願意吃,不願意餓著;願意穿衣服。不願意凍著;願意睡覺,不願意疲倦,這是甚麼道理?甚至於願意做壞事,不願意做好事;願意不孝順父母,不願意孝順父母。誰教得這個樣子?既然是「我」,為甚麼眼睛花了,「我」也做不得主;甚至於生病要死的時候,「我」更是做不得主。你說這個「我」不是假名是甚麼?豈不是糊塗,不明白?

佛就是明白,世界為甚麼不和平,就因為人都愚癡,想要世界和平,就要大家都有智慧,都不爭,都能讓。好像中國歷史上堯傳舜,舜傳禹,這麼一代一代地傳下來都是相依續,都是互相禮讓的。以「天下」這樣的財富來讓給其他的人。所以那時候就是和平盛世,讓而不爭。

古來的人能把一國的基業也讓給人,看一切的身外物像一隻破鞋那麼不值錢,看國家領土也像破鞋那麼沒有價值。可是他要保護他那個破鞋,要保護自己的領土,而要找著可託付的人,所以帝堯訪天下的賢人,要把國家的基業託給賢人,於是乎就到處找這個不貪的人。

在當時就有巢父和許由是不貪的人。巢父沒有房子住,他住在樹上,就像小鳥,住在巢裏,他在樹上搭一個小窩,所以叫巢父。許由是個放牛的,自己養自己的牛,一天喝點牛奶就算了。巢父連個缽也沒有,有人送給他一個葫蘆瓢,可以拿來喝水用,可是風一颳,這個葫蘆瓢在樹上就砰砰作響,他就不要了,情願用手掬水喝,他生活就這麼簡單--不貪。許由則天天就吃點野菜,喝點牛奶就夠了,所以也不貪。

帝堯聽說有這麼兩個不爭、不貪的人,就要把天下讓給他們,於是乎就去找巢父,對巢父說要把天下讓給他,把國家領土都讓給他去做皇帝。巢父一聽,掉頭就跑,跑到河裏頭去洗耳朵。為甚麼要洗耳朵?就因為帝堯要把天下傳給他,對他說了這句話,他覺得把他耳朵都給弄骯髒,弄污染了,於是乎他要把他這種不乾淨的語言給洗掉。

待續

Buddhism and World Peace

Na mo sa dan tuo. Su qie duo ye. E la he di. San miao san pu tuo xie (3x)

Religious leaders, good and wise advisors, and greatly virtuous ones from all nations, I ask for your compassion today as we gather together to investigate the relationship between Buddhism and world peace. Buddhism is peace, and peace is just Buddhism. There is no conflict between them. People who study the Buddha's teachings are actually studying peace. Those who do not study the Buddha's teachings cannot be peaceful. Why do I say this? People who study Buddhism have to learn the samadhi of noncontention. Noncontention means the absence of all conflict and argument whatsoever. It means that whatever other people don't want, we'll take; whatever others want, we don't want. Just that is peace.

Why do people contend? Where does the contention come from? It begins in people's minds. As soon as you contend, you have no peace. If you don't contend, there is peace. Peace is the absence of all contention. The lack of peace means there is contention.

When the Buddha was in the world, the Proper Dharma prevailed. After the Buddha entered Nirvana, the Dharma Image Age prevailed. Now we are in the Dharma Ending Age, in which contention prevails. There's a verse which goes,

Contention involves victory and defeat;
It is contrary to the Way.
When the mind of the four marks arises,
How can you obtain samadhi?

As soon as you start contending, you are going against the Way. As soon as you contend, you have the mark of self. With the mark of self, there is the mark of others as well. Once you have the mark of others, the mark of living beings arises, and with that comes the mark of a life span. And when the mind of the four marks arises, how can you achieve proper concentration?

In studying Buddhism or other religions, in learning any kind of practice, as soon as we have thoughts of fighting and competing, peace is lost. That's why I said,

Contention involves victory and defeat;
It is contrary to the Way.
When the mind of the four marks arises,
How can you obtain samadhi?

If your mind is intent on contending, how can you derive any benefit from religion? Not only is there no benefit, there is actually harm, because your contending hurts people and endangers their lives. This is not peace. If we want peace in the world, we have to start by not contending.

The first of the four marks is the mark of self. How does the "self" come into being? There are a few lines describing the "self" which go:

Before I was born, who was I?
After being born, who was I?
When I grow up and become an adult, that is me.
But when I shut my eyes and everything grows dim, who am I then?

These lines of verse investigate the question of self. Before I was born into this body, where was I? Who was I, ultimately? After I was born, as a child I still didn't know who I was. However, having grown up and become an adult, I do feel that there is an "I."

On our body with its four limbs and hundreds of bones, the head, feet, hands, arms, eyes, ears, mouth, teeth, tongue, and body each have their own names, but which of them is called the "self"? You can look over the entire body, but you won't find the "self" there. You know there is a "self," but you can't find it. Just exactly what is the self? When you close your eyes and die, who are you then? The "self" is a vague, indistinct thing. The name and the reality don't match. You don't know what is meant by self, others, living beings, or a life span. But even though people don't know, they still want to live and don't want to die. They want to eat and not go hungry. They want to wear clothes and not feel cold. They want to sleep and not feel tired. Why is this? They even want to do bad things and avoid doing good things. They want to be naughty and not be filial to their parents. Who taught them to be that way? If there is an "I," then why can't  "I" keep my eyes from growing dim, my ears from growing deaf, or my teeth from falling out? When I get sick and am about to die, why can't "I" do anything about it? If the "I" isn't a false name, what is it? Isn't this confusion and lack of understanding? Buddhahood is true understanding.

The reason the world is not at peace is that people are stupid and ignorant. If there is to be peace in the world, people have to have wisdom and be able to yield to others instead of contending. In the history of China, for example, Emperor Yao passed the throne to Shun, and Shun passed it to Yu. One emperor voluntarily yielded the throne to the next. Those emperors were willing to give their kingdom to others. Because there was yielding instead of contention, theirs was a time of peace and prosperity.

The ancients were able to yield the entire nation to others, because they regarded all external possessions such as land as being worth no more than a pair of tattered shoes. Yet they wanted to take care of that pair of old shoes, and they wanted to protect their country, so they wanted to search for someone worthy of the gift. Emperor Yao searched the entire land looking for a virtuous person, one who had no greed, to whom he could entrust the kingdom.

At that time in China there lived two sages, Chaofu and Xuyou, who had no greed. Chaofu didn't have a house to live in. He lived in a tree, just like a bird living in a nest. He built a nest in a tree. That's why he was called Chaofu, "Man of the Nest." Xuyou was a cowherd. He raised his own cow and drank a little bit of milk every day to sustain himself.

Chaofu didn't even have a bowl. Someone gave him a gourd shell that could be used for drinking, but when the wind blew the gourd which he had hung from his tree, it scraped against the tree and made such a racket that he didn't want it anymore. He preferred to use his hands to scoop up water. That's how frugally he lived. He had no greed. Xuyou would eat some wild vegetables and drink a bit of milk every day, and that was enough. He wasn't greedy either.

When Emperor Yao heard about these two people who were not greedy and did not contend with others, he wished to give the kingdom to them. And so he went to look for Chaofu and told him that he wanted to hand the kingdom over to him and let him be the emperor. Hearing that, Chaofu turned around and ran to the river to wash his ears. Why? He felt that the Emperor's proposition to give the country to him had defiled his ears, and he wanted to wash those filthy words away.

To be continued

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