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《上人法雨》

 

VENERABLE MASTER'S DHARMA RAIN

藥師琉璃光如來本願功德經淺釋
Sutra of the Merit and Virtue of the Past Vows of
Medicine Master Vaidurya Light Tathagata with Commentary

宣化上人/講於一九八三年美國加州洛杉磯金輪聖寺Explained by the Venerable Master Hua in 1983 at Gold Wheel Monastery in Los Angeles

前期提示:薄伽梵是佛的一個別名。「薄伽梵」,是六種成就中的「主成就」。

上人:薄伽梵的六個意思,你記得不記得?

弟子:記得四個。

上人:講出來給大家聽聽,那兩個教旁人講。

弟子:有自在,就是佛陀在每一個地方是很舒服,沒有煩惱。

上人:像不像你?

弟子:完全是相反。

上人:啊!怎麼搞的?那你怎麼不自在了?跑到什麼地方去了?

弟子:常常向外馳求。

上人:Okay.(好了。)第二個什麼?

弟子:還有名稱,就是每個人都知道佛陀的名字,他的功德,他的清淨行願,他的慈悲,大家都知道。

第三是端嚴,就是端正,就是一點都不邪,沒有妄想,都很莊嚴,很正的。最後第四種就是熾盛,就是他的功德很莊嚴的、很圓滿的,好像火那麼樣放光,很美麗的,很好,人人都要看火的光明。

上人:你們有沒有人知道他是講得對啊?是講得錯了?這四個名稱,在這個薄伽梵六義裏邊,有沒有這麼四個名稱?有人知道他講錯了?就快點說;講對了,也快點說!那麼剩那兩個,我不需要叫你們名字,你們誰知道,誰就趕快講一講。如果沒有人講,那就是你們都忘了,不記得了。他講的那四個對不對?果惠知不知道?(果惠:吉祥。)還有什麼?果雅知不知道?(果雅:尊貴。)他前面講的那四個對不對?(果雅:莊嚴,他說端正。)

吉祥,中國人都歡喜吉祥,尤其廣東人,一到過年了就說:「如意吉祥!如意吉祥!」怎麼樣啊?他要如意吉祥,他不念佛,去打麻將去!再不就跳舞去!那麼要這個如意吉祥,你要念佛,你要規規矩矩地守規矩才可以。打麻將!你看那怎麼會吉祥?一定會輸!就輸!輸!輸!輸得把褲子都輸光了!你看怎麼吉祥了?

尊貴,這個尊貴,佛是最尊最貴的。所以我們要想尊貴,先要找一個榜樣,來學佛這個榜樣,最尊最貴最完整的,沒有一切的習氣毛病,沒有一切的妄想雜念,這超過阿羅漢的境界了。

那個阿羅漢,在《法華經》上,一開始說:「如是我聞,一時佛住王舍城耆闍崛山中,與大比丘眾萬二千人俱,皆是阿羅漢。」這都是阿羅漢,怎麼樣是阿羅漢呢?阿羅漢是「諸漏已盡」。在證得阿羅漢的境界,就什麼毛病也沒有了。什麼習氣也沒有了。也沒有什麼妄想了,他的生死已經了了。「所作已辦」,所應該做的事情都做了了。得一萬事畢,他得到一了,所以他不向外馳求了;不向外馳求,所以就諸漏已盡了,什麼漏都沒有了。

這個漏,你好說話也是漏;好看東西也是漏;好聽聲音也是漏。說:「那這完囉!我不聽?我眼睛不看也不行!耳朵不聽也不行!那我學佛學得也不可以看東西,也不可以聽東西,我怎麼受得了啊?」所以你就到現在還沒有成佛嘛!就因為你受不了,所以總往外跑,不回來,不迴光返照。

這個諸漏已盡,任何的毛病都沒有了,就不貪、不爭、不求、不自私、不自利了。你若貪,也是有毛病;你爭,也是有毛病;你有所求,還是有毛病;你若自私,那更是有毛病;你若自利,那是大毛病。情愛,這都是毛病,最大的毛病就是那個欲念。這個諸漏已盡,就是沒有欲念,一切淫欲的念、狂心妄想,什麼念頭也都沒有了,所以叫諸漏已盡。

「無復煩惱」,他沒有什麼煩惱,什麼煩惱都了了。「逮得己利」,他們才是真正地得到自己固有的智慧,真正地得到智慧,真正得到佛教的好處了。所以我對你們講,你們各位要知道,什麼叫佛?佛就是一個大智慧的人,你誰有真正的智慧了,不顛倒了,誰就可以成佛。你還是在那兒顛倒,貪而無厭,總也不滿足,又和任何人都爭,也自私,也自利,那就談不到得到利益了。他這個得到真正利益,絕對不貪外物,什麼叫金銀珠寶啊?什麼叫色、聲、香、味、觸啊?什麼也都觸不動了,不被這一些個境界所轉,這叫逮得己利。

「盡諸有結」,他們把這一切的餘習,這一些個解不開的,這一些個纏縛不脫的東西都沒有了,這得到真正的自由了。「心得自在」,這個樣子的時候,這個心才能得自在。那麼佛呢?佛更超過這個,所以他是最尊最貴的。

那麼我們要是想學佛,先要學不爭、不貪、不求、不自私、不自利。這不是說就這麼講一講。啊!我明明想要去打劫去,還說:「我不爭、不貪、不求、不自私、不自利。」嘿!那真是騙人騙己啊!你真若不爭了,一切事情都聽其自然地發展;不貪,也是聽其自然地發展;無所求,「到無求處便無憂」,你有所求,才有憂愁;你若無所求了,什麼也不憂愁了。你再不自私,這個世界的麻煩為什麼生出來的?就因為人人都自私。那個自私從什麼地方開始?就從人的欲念那兒開始。所以不自私不是說:「我就是那麼普普通通不自私。」這個不自私就包括這個無所求,就不執著這個情愛了。不自利,也不想我得到什麼好,這個環境對我有什麼好的感覺,或者如何如何的。就是這一種的毛病,都沒有了。都沒有了,所以這才成佛呢!

待續

From last issue: “The Bhagavan” is another name for the Buddha. This word fulfills the Realization of a Host, one of the Six Realizations found at the beginning of every Sutra.

Ven. Master: Do you remember the six meanings of "Bhagavan"?

Disciple: I remember four of them.

Ven. Master: Tell everyone what they are. Someone else can say the last two.

Disciple: There is "Comfortable," which means that the Buddha is always comfortable and free of afflictions wherever he is.

Ven. Master: Is that like you?

Disciple: Completely the opposite.

Ven. Master: Oh, so what's the matter? Why aren't you comfortable? Where do you run off to?

Disciple: I'm always seeking outside.

Ven. Master: Okay, what's the second meaning?

Disciple: There is "Renowned," because everyone has heard of the Buddha's name, his merit and virtue, his pure conduct and vows, and his kindness and compassion.

The third meaning is “handsome”, which means he isn't the least bit improper, and he doesn't have any false thinking. He's very adorned and proper. The fourth is "Resplendent," for his merit and virtue are very adorned and perfect that he appears to give off light, like a fire. It's a fine and beautiful sight, and everyone likes to see the fiery light.

Ven. Master: Does anyone know whether his answer is right or not? Does the word “Bhagavan” have these four meanings? If someone knows that his answer is wrong, quickly speak up.  If you know his answer is right, speak up right away as well. As for the two remaining meanings, don’t wait for me to call your names. Quickly say what they are. If no one says anything, it must mean you have all forgotten. Are the four meanings he said right? Does Guo Hui know? [Guo Hui: Auspicious.] What else? Does Guo Ya know? [Guo Ya: Honored.] What about the four meanings he gave? Are they correct? [Guo Ya: It should be Adorned, but he said “Handsome.”]

"Auspicious:" Chinese people like auspiciousness, especially the Cantonese. At New Year's, they always say, "Good luck! May your wishes come true!" Although they like to have good luck, they spend their time playing mahjong and dancing. If you want things to be lucky and according to your wishes, you have to recite the Buddha's name. You also have to be good and follow the rules. If you play mahjong, you might even lose the shirt off your back! Now, would you call that lucky?

"Honored:" The Buddha is the most honored one. If we wish to be honored, we should learn from the Buddha, the most venerable and perfect being, who is free of bad habits, faults, delusion, and scattered thoughts. The Buddha's state is much higher than that of an Arhat. The Dharma Flower Sutra begins, "Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha dwelt on Mount Gridhrakuta, near the city of the House of Kings [Rajagriha], together with a gathering of great Bhikshus, twelve thousand in all. All were Arhats..." Why were they Arhats? They "had exhausted all outflows." One who attains the state of an Arhat no longer has any faults, bad habits, or idle thoughts. He has put an end to birth and death. They "had done what they had to do." They had done everything they were supposed to do. When the One is attained, all things are finished. They had attained the One, so they didn't seek outside anymore. Since they didn't seek outside, they had no more outflows.

If you like to talk, that's an outflow, as is liking to look at things or listen to sounds."But I can't keep my eyes from seeing and my ears from hearing," you say.That's why you haven't become a Buddha yet. You're always running outside and forgetting to return. You aren't able to turn the light around and shine it within.

Exhausting all outflows means having no faults whatsoever--you aren't greedy, you don't contend, you don't seek anything, you aren't selfish, and you don't pursue personal advantages. Affection and love are also faults, and thoughts of desire are the worst faults of all. To have exhausted all outflows means to have no thoughts of desire, thoughts of lust, or wild and deluded thoughts.

"And had no further afflictions": The Arhats no longer had any afflictions. "Having attained self-benefit": They had truly regained their inherent wisdom and gained the advantages of the Buddha's teaching. As I have said to you, "Who is the Buddha? The Buddha is a person of great wisdom. Whoever has true wisdom and is not deluded can become a Buddha." If you are still deluded and insatiably greedy, always seeking for more, fighting with everyone, being selfish and pursuing personal gain, then you haven't gained any benefit from the Dharma. Those who have attained genuine benefit do not crave external things. Gold, silver, and riches mean nothing to them. They do not know what forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and objects of touch are. Nothing can distract them. That is what is meant by "having attained self-benefit."

"They had exhausted the bonds of all existence." They had eradicated all residual habits and had escaped from all the entanglements that used to bind them. They were truly free. "And their hearts had attained self-mastery." Their hearts were carefree and at ease. However, the Buddha's state is much more advanced. That's why the Buddha is considered the most honored and venerable.

If we want to be like the Buddha, first we should learn not to contend, not to be greedy, not to seek, not to be selfish, and not to pursue personal advantage. But that doesn't mean saying you won't do these things, while at the same time planning to commit a robbery. Then you're only cheating yourself and others! Genuine noncontention means letting things follow their natural course. If you are not greedy, you will also let things happen naturally. As for seeking nothing, it is said, "When one reaches the state of seeking nothing, one has no worries." Worries come from seeking things. You should also be unselfish. All the troubles in the world come from selfishness and desire. Being unselfish means seeking nothing and having no emotional attachments. Not pursuing personal advantage means not thinking about your own benefit, pleasure, or comfort. Cast out all these faults, and then you can become a Buddha!

To be continued

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