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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
The Flower Adornment Sutra with Commentary

【卷四 世主妙嚴品第一之四】

Roll Four, Chapter One: The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Part Four

宣化上人講於一九七三年十一月十九日 Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua on November 19, 1973
國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute
修訂版 Revised version

「諸見愚癡為暗蓋,眾生迷惑常流轉。
 佛為開闡妙法門,此照方神能悟入。」

「諸見」:這諸見就是種種的邪見。邪見──有邪知而有邪見。你這個見解如果邪了就會愚癡,見解正就會有智慧。你有邪見了就愚癡。愚癡就是無明,就是黑暗,也就是這個蓋。蓋把你這個智慧光明都給遮蓋住,所以叫為暗蓋。「眾生迷惑常流轉」:我們眾生就因為有邪知邪見,所以從無量劫以來到現在還沒有脫出這個輪迴。邪知邪見把人都迷惑住了。迷惑住了就不能了生脫死,不能脫出這個六道輪迴,就在這個六道輪迴裡來流轉。忽然而天,忽然而地,忽然而餓鬼,忽然而畜牲,忽然而人,忽然而阿修羅,這一種的無明、愚癡的暗障,障住你就不能超出輪迴,而在這個輪迴裡頭轉來轉去。所以叫常流轉。「佛為開闡妙法門」:佛為這個愚癡眾生,開闡最微妙最不可思議的這種妙法門,叫人念佛往生西方極樂世界;叫人持咒即身成佛;叫人修種種的行門。所以說佛為開闡妙法門,妙法門就能了生脫死,超出輪迴去。「光照方神能悟入」:這是這個光照十方主火神,他能明白這一種的境界,入這一種的解脫門。

「願門廣大不思議,力度修治已清淨。
 如昔願心皆出現,此震音神之所了。」

「願門」:有信門,有行門。信願行這叫三資糧。你想要成佛,想要修行,想要了脫生死,你必需要先有信心。不是單單有信心就完了,那還要有願心,願就發願。譬如要生到西方極樂世界,要發願生西方極樂世界;要生東方淨琉璃世界,就發願生東方淨琉璃世界。所以這個願門是「廣大」的,「不」可「思議」的。

「力度修治已清淨」:力就十力;度就十度,這個佛的十力十度修治,就是都修行圓滿了。修行圓滿了所以叫清淨。「已清淨」:得到清淨的本體了。「如昔願心皆出現」:已經清淨了,在以前生生世世無量的大劫那時候所修行的,所發的願力「皆出現」,都顯現出來了。就好像看那個電影似的,那一幕一幕的都在那個銀幕上出現了。又好像聽那個錄音帶,一句一句的都聽見了。所以「如昔願心皆出現」:都顯現出來了。「此震音神之所了」:這是這個雷音聲主火神,他所明了的,他所入的這種的解脫門。

「復次,普興雲幢主水神,得平等利益一切眾生慈解脫門。」

「復次」:前邊所說的這個道理還沒有說完,所以再接續地來說一次。「普興雲幢主水神」:普興,普遍地興起來;雲幢,好像這個雲幢。主水神,這個神是管著水的。你看管著空,也有神;管著地,也有神;管著火,也有神;管著風,也有神。管著火、水都有神。主水神,就是管著水的。我們一般人以為這個水就是隨便來用,沒有什麼神管著。其實這個世間上一切一切,都有神在那兒管著。如果這個水沒有神管著的話,這洪水橫流,就會氾濫天下,到處都是水。因為有神管著,所以它也有一定的地方流動。這個水是向下邊流的,可是有的時候它也會向上流。不過這是非常的時候才這樣。

我記得我在東北的時候,在東井子村,這時候,就遇著水裡一些個魔王,牠到那兒想用水把我們五個人淹死。所以在這個時候這井裡頭的水就向上流,流到井口外邊有兩、三丈那麼高。天上下著雨,下得非常地大,就像用水桶往下倒水那麼多。在這一次把房子沖倒了有八百間。人淹死了三十多個。人站在炕上(北方人是炕,南方人是床)都被水淹死了,那個水就這麼深。但是我住那個房地方最低窪,用木頭做的籬笆,籬笆就是 fence,就這麼樣子做的。有很多的空的地方,可以流進水來。在當時,這個籬笆的外邊的水有一丈多深,在院子裡邊只有一兩尺深,所以我住的那個炕上就沒有水來。

這個水呢,也可以利益人,也可以害人;若大了就害人,小了就會利益人。所以老子說過幾句話,說:「上善」,就是最上的善人。「若水」,就好像水似的。「水善利萬物而不爭」,水它利益一切的眾生,它還不爭功。不說:「你這個眾生,幸虧我,你才生存。我對你是有功的!」它不爭。「處眾人之所惡」,它所住的地方誰也不願意,因為它在最低下的地方。人人都不願意住到最低下的地方,

這個水願意住到最低下的地方,所以處眾人之所惡。「故幾於道」:所以它合道。上等的善人也是這樣子。這一位主水神他也是得到能平等利益一切眾生的慈悲,他得到這一種的解脫門。

「海潮雲音主水神,得無邊法莊嚴解脫門。」

「海潮雲音主水神」:這是這位主水神的名字,他有一種的力量,猶如海潮雲音一樣。他得到的是無邊法莊嚴,就是所有一切的法門,來莊嚴這個佛道,得到這一種的解脫門。

「妙色輪髻主水神,得觀所應化方便 普攝解脫門。」

這一位主水神,他的名字叫妙色輪髻。他得到觀察一切眾生機。哪一個眾生是他所應該最先來教化的,他用種種的方便法門來攝受這個眾生,令這個眾生得到這一種覺悟,他得到這一種的解脫門。

* * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * *

明天是放假的日子。我們以後每逢放假的日子,中午也加一次講經,因為放假的日子誰都可以來聽經。明天還是在十二點半講到兩點半,我們每逢放假就加一次。因為這個華嚴經太長了,如果不加,不知道多少年講完?所以這個仁俊法師都替我們著急了,說:「講一次經只講四句偈頌,這要講多少年才能講完?」所以我們現在在這個科學時代就快一點。今天晚間已經講了三個水神了,明天又可以講三個,那麼一點一點地就講完了。我若要講錯了呢,你們去研究研究註解,這個註解就會告訴你們清清楚楚地,那是比我的那個註解的智慧,一定大得多。所以你們這個註解的法師,切記不要離了註解。

待續

Sutra:
All stupidity of views forms a covering of darkness.
Living beings, confused and deluded, constantly flow and turn.
The Buddha for their sake reveals doors of wondrous Dharma
Which the Spirit Illumining Directions awakens to and enters.

Commentary:
All stupidity of views forms a covering of darkness. "All views" indicates all sorts of deviant views. Deviant views are due to deviant knowledge. If your outlook and understanding are deviant, you will be stupid. If your outlook and understanding are proper, you will have wisdom. Therefore, when it says "all views," if you have deviant views, you will be stupid, and stupidity is ignorance, hence darkness. And it is a kind of covering. It covers over the light of your wisdom, hence is termed a covering of darkness. Living beings, confused and deluded, constantly flow and turn. Because we living beings have deviant knowledge and deviant views, as a result, from limitless eons up to now we have still not escaped from the revolving wheel of the six paths. All that is due to deviant knowledge and deviant views. Deviant knowledge and deviant views confuse and delude people. Confused and deluded, they are unable to end birth and death, to get out of the wheel of rebirth in the six paths. Instead, beings flow and turn in the cycle of rebirths in those paths: suddenly in the heavens, suddenly on earth, suddenly among hungry ghosts, suddenly becoming animals, suddenly being people, suddenly turning into asuras. That kind of lack of clarity, the obstruction of darkness of stupidity, blocks beings from transcending the six-path wheel. Beings turn round and round in that cycle, and so are said to "constantly flow and turn." The Buddha for their sake reveals doors of wondrous Dharma. The Buddha, for the sake of stupid living beings, reveals the doors of most subtle, wonderful and inconceivable Dharma. He tells people to recite the Buddha's name and be reborn in the Land of Ultimate Bliss. He instructs them on holding mantras and in this very body accomplishing Buddhahood. He encourages living beings to cultivate all kinds of doors of practice, and so the text says: The Buddha for their sake reveals doors of wondrous Dharma. "Doors of wondrous Dharma" can enable beings to end birth and death and transcend the cycle of rebirth, which the Spirit Illumining Directions awakens to and enters. The Fire-Ruling Spirit named Light Illumining the Ten Directions can understand this kind of state and enter this type of door to liberation.

Sutra:
His doors of vows are vast and great and inconceivable.
The Powers and Paramitas have been cultivated to purity.
According to his previous vows, all is now appearing.
This is what the Spirit Crashing Sound understands.

Commentary:
His doors of vows are vast and great and inconceivable. There are doors of vows, doors of faith and doors of practice. Faith, vows and practice are the Three Requisites. If you wish to become a Buddha, to cultivate, to put an end to birth and death, then you must start by having faith. However, it’s not sufficient simply to believe; you also neeed to make vows. For example, if you want to reborn in the Western Land of Ultimate Bliss, you must make the vow to attain rebirth in the Land of Ultimate Bliss. Should you wish to be reborn in the Eastern Pure Vaidurya World, you must vow to be reborn in the Eastern Pure Vaidurya World. Therefore, the doors of vows are vast and great and inconceivable.

The Powers and Paramitas have been cultivated to purity. The Powers are the Ten Powers, and Paramitas refers to the Ten Paramitas. The Ten Powers and Ten Paramitas of a Buddha have been cultivated to perfection, and so are said to have reached the point of purity. The fundamental pure substance has been attained. According to his previous vows, all is now appearing. Purity has already been achieved. In accordance with the vows that were made, what was cultivated life after life and time after time for limitlessly many aeons, “all is now appearing.” It’s something like watching a movie unfold, frame after frame manifesting on the screen; or like listening to an audio tape which is heard phrase after phrase. Hence, the text says: “According to his previous vows, all is now appearing.” It is being revealed. This is what the Spirit Crashing Sound understands. The Fire-Ruling Spirit named Sound of Crashing Thunder understands this and enters this door to liberation. 

Sutra:
Futhermore, the Water-Ruling Spirit named Universally Raised Cloud Banner obtained the liberation door of kindness of equally bestowing benefits on all living beings.

Commentary:
Furthermore indicates that the principles described before have not yet been completely presented and are continued here. Next comes the Water-Ruling Spirit named Universally Raised Cloud Banner. This Water-Ruling Spirit resembles a banner of clouds in his ability to flourish everywhere like banners of clouds universally raised. He is one of the guardian spirits of water. We have seen how space has guardian spirits, and so does earth. There are spirits watching over fire, and spirits control in control of wind. Both fire and water have spirits who preside over them. Water-Ruling Spirits are in charge of water. We human beings think we can use water as we please, and are unaware that there are spirits in control of it. Actually, everything in the world is watched by spirits. If there were no spirits in control of water, floods would spread out far and wide, inundating the entire world, and every place would be water. However, because there are spirits in control, the areas where water travels are clearly defined. Water flows downwards, although sometimes it flows upwards, which is very rare.

I remember that one time when I was in Manchuria, in the village of Eastern Well, I encountered a king of water-demons who came there with the express intention of using water to drown the group of five of us who were there. At that time, the water in the wells rose upwards, overflowing the mouths of the wells by twenty or thirty feet. There was extremely heavy rainfall from the sky, as if water were being poured down by the barrel. Eight hundred homes were washed away, and more than thirty people died. People were drowned while standing on their brick-beds. (In contrast with the South, Northerners have fire-heated brick beds.) The water was that deep. The house where I was staying was in the lowest hollow, surrounded by a wattle-fence of wood which left a lot of openings through which water could enter. On that occasion, the water was more than ten feet high outside the fence, but inside the yard it was only one or two feet deep. Hence no water reached the brick-beds where I was staying.

Consequently, water can benefit people, but it can also harm them. In excessive amounts it can be harmful, but in small quantities it is beneficial to people. Therefore Lao Zi said: “People of superior goodness,” people who are supremely good, “are like water. Water well benefits the myriad things but does not contend.” It doesn’t declare, “You living beings are lucky to have me to keep you alive. I am very beneficial to you!” It doesn’t contend. “It dwells in places people do not like.” The places where water stays are the very places people don’t want to stay in, because they are the lowest spots. No one wants to live in the most inferior locations, but water is willing to take the very lowest positions. That’s the meaning of: “It dwells in places people do not like, hence it accords with the Way.” For that reason, it is in harmony with the Way, and people of superior goodness are that way too.

This particular Water-Ruling Spirit obtained the liberation door of kindness of equally bestowing benefits on all living beings, kindness and compassion to aid all living beings whatsoever. He attained that kind of door to liberation.

Sutra:
The Water-Ruling Spirit named Sea-Tide Cloud Sound obtained the liberation door of boundless adornment with Dharma.

Commentary:
The next Water-Ruling Spirit is named Sea-Tide Cloud Sound. This Water-Ruling Spirit has a kind of power like that of the clouds and the sound of the ocean tide. He obtained the liberation door of boundless   adornment with Dharma, of all Dharma-doors whatsoever adorning the Path to Buddhahood. That is the kind of door to liberation which he attained.

Sutra:
The Water-Ruling Spirit named Wheel-like Cowl of Wondrous Colors obtained the liberation door of contemplating those to be taught and universally gathering them in with skill-in-means.

Commentary:
The next Water-Ruling Spirit is named Wheel-like Cowl of Colors . He obtained the liberation door of contemplating the potentials of all those living beings suited to be taught by him first, and universally gathering them in with skill-in-means. He adopts a great variety of expedient Dharma-doors to gather in and receive those living beings, enabling them to achieve a sort of enlightenment. That’s the door to liberation which he attained.

*          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *

Tomorrow is a holiday (Thanksgiving Day). From now on, whenever there is a holiday, we will add an extra Sutra lecture after lunch, because on holidays everyone can attend. Tomorrow (Thursday) the lecture will be at the usual (weekend) time: 12:30-2:30 p.m. We will have this supplementary lecture on each holday, because the Flower Adornment Sutra is so long: if we don’t add some lectures, it’s not known how many years it will take to complete the lecture series. That’s why Dharma Master Ren Jun was nervous for us and said, “Each lecture you just explain one gatha of four lines. At that rate, how many years will it take you to finish?” For that reason, and since we are in the scientific age, I’m going to speed up a bit. Tonight we’ve already discussed three Water-Ruling Spirits, and tomorrow we can discuss three more, and bit by bit we can finish. If I make mistakes while lecturing, you can investigate the commentaries. The commentaries will tell you very clearly; certainly they have greater wisdom than my commentary. Hence you “Commentary Dharma Masters” must be careful not to stray from your commentaries!

To be continued

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