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萬佛城金剛菩提海 Vajra Bodhi Sea

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《上人法雨》

 

VENERABLE MASTER'S DHARMA RAIN

藥師琉璃光如來本願功德經淺釋
SUTRA OF THE MERIT AND VIRTUE OF THE PAST VOWS OF
MEDICINE MASTER VAIDURYA LIGHT TATHAGATA

宣化上人/講於一九八三年美國加州洛杉磯金輪聖寺Explained by the Venerable Master Hua in 1983 at Gold Wheel Monastery in Los Angeles

「那麼第二條呢?佛在世的時候,我們所有的比丘都以佛為師,佛入涅槃之後,我們又以誰為師呢?請佛指示。」

佛就說:「我入涅槃之後啊!你們所有的比丘都要以戒為師!波羅提木叉是汝等大師。你誰能持戒,誰就和我住世是一樣的。所以要以戒為師,要諸惡不作,眾善奉行。」那麼第二個問題解決了。

「第三條,我又請問佛,佛現在住世,我們依佛而住,我們跟著佛,常隨佛學。那麼佛入涅槃之後,我們所有的比丘又依誰而住呢?」佛答覆說:「我入涅槃之後,所有的比丘,依四念處而住。四念處,就是身念處、心念處、受念處、法念處,身、受、心、法這四念處。你們都依四念處而住。」第一要觀身不淨,觀看你這個身體是個不淨的東西,種子不淨,是四大和合而成的。這個身體是個假的,是四大和合而成的,這是第一觀身不淨。第二要觀受是苦,第三就觀心無常,第四就觀法無我,這是四念處。

「那麼第四條呢?就是請問佛,這惡性比丘,佛住世的時候,佛能調伏他,佛入涅槃後,這惡性比丘我們要怎麼辦呢?請佛指示。」佛就說:「將來遇到惡性比丘,就默而擯之。」默,就是不和他講話;擯,就是軟遷單。你誰也不睬他,誰也不和他鬥爭,那麼久而久之,他自己覺得沒有什麼意思了,他就好了。他惡性,你睬他,你和他鬥,那他就覺得他有了辦法了;你若不睬他,那麼他就沒有辦法,這是惡性比丘。怎麼叫惡性比丘呢?出家人不一定個個都是修道的,不一定個個都在那兒想修行。以前,在中國的出家人多,那個大的廟上,出家人什麼樣的都有。出家人裏頭,也有殺人的,也有放火的,也有去做土匪的。也有以前做土匪的,來出家改邪歸正的;也有做土匪的,就藉著出家人這個身份,來掩護他自己的這種行為,都有的。所以這叫龍蛇混雜,份子不齊。

我們中國是這樣子,將來我相信,天下烏鴉一樣黑,到處都是這樣。在中國講有「馬遛子」。這馬遛子,又另外有個名字,就叫「千手觀音」,因為他手多多的,看見人家什麼好,他歡喜了就偷。偷去就把它賣了;賣了,或者喝酒,或者打嗎啡,都不一定的。所以你不要那麼幼稚,以為出家人都是好的。我老實告訴你,包括我在內,不一定是好的。不過我願意往好的做,我以前呢,我也不知道我都做過什麼壞事,所以現在就想往好的修行。這是這個惡性。惡性,就是很惡很惡的,橫不講理,這叫惡性比丘。那麼惡性比丘你若和他鬥,你越鬥,他越覺得他越有生意做了,越有了事情幹了,他就想這樣子。那麼佛教我們默擯他,默擯就不和他講話,這是惡性比丘。

至於這個四念處,第一觀身不淨。說:「我這個身體,我天天把它收拾得很乾淨的,我也給它加上很多的莊嚴品,令它很美麗的。」不錯!你給它加上很多莊嚴品,戴上個金手錶,戴上最名貴的金筆,又戴上最名貴的帽子,又穿上最名貴的衣服,給這個身體修飾得很好的。可是這都是好像什麼呢?就好像用最美麗的、最值錢的七寶來莊嚴廁所一樣的。那個廁所你給它用珠寶鑲上它,用鑽石鑲上它,再好,都是臭的,都是臊的,都是不乾淨的!

待續

My second question is, when the Buddha is in the world, we Bhikshus take the Buddha as our teacher. Whom should we take as our teacher after the Buddha enters Nirvana?"

The Buddha said, "After I enter Nirvana, you Bhikshus should take the precepts as your teacher. The Pratimoksha is your great teacher. If you uphold the precepts, it will be the same as when I am in the world. You should avoid all evil and practice all good deeds."

"Now I'll ask the third question," continued Ananda. "When the Buddha is in the world, we dwell with the Buddha. We always live and study with the Buddha. After the Buddha enters Nirvana, with whom should the Bhikshus dwell?"

The Buddha answered, "After I enter Nirvana, all the Bhikshus should dwell in the Four Applications of Mindfulness."

The Four Applications of Mindfulness

1. Contemplate the body as impure.
2. Contemplate feelings as suffering.
3. Contemplate thoughts as impermanent.
4. Contemplate dharmas as being without self.

First, contemplate the body as impure. Consider how your body is impure, from its seed to its physical form, which is a combination of the four elements. It is formed of the four elements (earth, water, fire, and air) and is not real.

Second, contemplate feelings as suffering. Feelings refers to sensations that are taken in. No matter how enjoyable the sensation is, it is basically suffering! Happiness is the cause of suffering. Third, contemplate thoughts as impermanent. Thoughts arise in continuous succession, one after another; they do not last. Fourth, contemplate dharmas as being without self. These are the Four Applications of Mindfulness.

"Here is my fourth question," said Ananda. "When the Buddha is in the world, the Buddha can subdue the evil-natured Bhikshus. After the Buddha enters Nirvana, how should we deal with them?"

The Buddha said, "When you encounter an evil-natured Bhikshu, just ignore him--don't talk to him." To ignore him is a passive way of expelling him. If no one pays attention to him or argues with him, he will soon became bored with making trouble. If you pay attention to him or try to fight with him, he will think that he is getting somewhere. But if you ignore him, he won't be able to do anything! An "evil-natured Bhikshu" is a monk who doesn't practice. Not every left-home person wants to practice.

In the past, there were all kinds of left-home people in the great monasteries of China, including former murderers, arsonists, and robbers. Some of them reformed after they left the home-life. Others assumed the guise of monks in order to escape the authorities. There were both good and bad people in the Sangha in China, and I believe that this will be the case in other places as well.

Speaking of criminals, in China, vagrants are nicknamed "naughty monkeys" and also "Thousand-handed Guanyins," because they have so many hands. They'll steal whatever catches their fancy, and then sell it and use the money to buy alcohol or drugs. Don't be naive and think that all left-home people are good. Left-home people--and that includes myself--are not necessarily good people. However, I'm trying to be good. I don't know what bad deeds I did in the past, but now I want to become a better person.

Evil-natured Bhikshus are perverse and unreasonable. The more you argue with them, the more they enjoy it. That's why the Buddha instructed us to ignore them.

"But," you say, "I take a bath and keep my body clean every day, and I put on make-up and jewelry to make it beautiful." You may adorn your body with gold watches, use gold pens, top it off with an expensive hat and designer clothes, but it's just like decorating a toilet; no matter how beautiful the toilet looks, it will still stink!

to be continued

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