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《人物誌》

 

BIOGRAPHIES

【 水鏡回天錄白話解 】

REFLECTIONS IN WATER AND MIRRORS REVERSING THE TIDE OF DESTINY

清德宗
Emperor De Zong of the Qing dynasty

宣公上人/講述於一九八八年二月二十七金山聖寺by the Venerable Master on February 27th, 1988, at Gold Mountain Sagely Monastery
國際譯經學院/記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute

名戴湉,生於內憂外患,列強欲瓜分中國之局面。同治崩,無子,四歲入嗣繼帝位。慈安與慈禧,垂簾聽政。慈安太后對政治無興趣,慈禧則大權獨攬,視光緒如傀儡。帝成婚親政,甲午之戰,敗於日本,變法圖強,挽救國運,引用新人,實行君主立憲,不幸被袁世凱出賣,戊戌變法,只有百日,而告失敗。慈禧重臨朝,幽帝於瀛臺,終身不自由。慈禧一意孤行,恨洋人,利用義和團,引起八國聯軍攻北京,姦淫燒殺,百姓遭殃,慈禧挾帝避難於西安,李鴻章奉旨與聯軍和議,賠款四萬萬五千萬兩白銀,分期付款,為期三十年。次年,慈禧回京,全城面目皆非,國運式微,而有辛亥革命出現。

清朝最後一個皇帝叫宣統,在宣統以前的這個皇帝就是光緒。光緒他死了之後,諡為德宗。這位皇帝和崇禎差不多,崇禎是明朝最後一個皇帝,據說是上吊煤山。為什麼他貴為天子,富有四海,宗廟饗之,子孫不能保之呢?

據說崇禎以前是個沙彌,這沙彌很有道心,但是他修行為著就想要將來做皇帝,這皇帝夢沒有醒,等以後他就很早死了。死了,這個廟上的老和尚就叫人用馬栓到他的屍首上,用馬拖,什麼時候把這個屍首都拖得碎了,沒有了為止。可是他有兩個師兄弟就不忍這樣做,說他已經死了,對他這個屍首這麼樣子折磨,這是不人道的,於是乎偷偷地把他埋了。

實際上,這個老和尚為什麼要用馬拖他呢?就為了他要做皇帝,要把他這個屍首給拖得碎了,據說這樣子來生做皇帝也有道、也有福,就不會受苦了,不會在煤山上吊而死,這是有這麼一個傳說。

崇禎也是很好的一個皇帝,很有道的一個明君,也想把天下治理好了,可是辦不到啊!天下大亂,所以他就在煤山上吊去了。

那麼清朝這位光緒呢?也多少像崇禎這個樣子,他雖然想要把國家治理好,可是他所有的抱負沒有發展出來。這個光緒他做皇帝也可以說是撿來的,因為他並不是同治的親生兒子,是由旁邊的那麼硬拿過來要他做皇帝,根本就是慈禧要他當傀儡。

在咸豐死的時候,知道這個慈禧不安於位,很陰毒的。所以他就下一道詔書給這個慈安;慈安當時是東宮,慈禧是西宮。那麼這秘詔就給慈安說是:「慈禧這個人,是不守規矩的人,妳看著她。如果她要是行為不檢點的話,妳可以用我這個詔書殺了她;如果她守規矩,那就當沒有這一回事,就留著她了。」慈安就奉這個詔書了,咸豐死了之後,慈安就觀察慈禧。

慈禧這個人呢,是一個投機的人;慈安是個老實人,慈禧就是個狡猾的人。所以以後同治沒兒子,也很早就死了,那麼慈禧本來應該選擇一個人做這個同治的兒子,來做皇帝。可是她不過旁的兒子給同治,就把她妹妹的兒子硬拉來做皇帝。那麼這樣一來,同治的這個娘娘就不能做太后了,這個太后還是她,所以她又可以垂簾聽政。

那麼這個慈安和慈禧相處了幾十年,慈安覺得慈禧也沒什麼不守規矩的地方,於是乎很坦白就把咸豐這封詔書,這封秘詔拿出來給這個慈禧看,就告訴她,咸豐有這麼一道詔書叫她說她若不守規矩,那就叫她殺了她。那麼現在已經多年了她看見她也沒有什麼不守規矩的地方,所以這個詔書也沒有用了,就叫她看完了之後,當面把這個詔書燒了。

這一燒了之後,怎麼樣啊?慈禧就受不了了,「哦!妳這麼陰毒,這麼多年了,妳才拿出來給我看,我這一生呀,永遠都有把柄在妳手裡抓著,如果我有什麼事情對妳不好,那麼妳把這件事張揚出去,被大家一講,我還有什麼面子呢?」這麼一想,這個慈禧就下了毒手。慈安頭天才對她講,第二天慈安就七孔流血死了。妳看看!這個慈禧的這種心腸就這麼毒辣,所以她什麼事情也都幹得出來的。

光緒在做皇帝的時候,本來還是個小孩子,就由慈禧和慈安兩個人來垂簾聽政,可是慈安對政治沒有興趣;這個慈禧呢,就是得其所哉。得其所哉了,所以她在那兒大權獨攬,一呼百諾,所有的這一些個國王大臣都要向她來逢迎,來諂媚她。那麼這樣子,等到光緒年紀大了一點,結婚了,所以就還政於帝,把朝政就交給這個光緒了。

光緒力圖振興這個國運,來發憤圖強,勵精圖治,不幸就有甲午之戰,和日本人打仗也打敗了。那麼以後有戊戌變法,光緒力圖更新,也用一些個新人;在當時又有康有為、梁啟超,等等這一些個人要變法。

待續

His given name was Dai Tian, was born in China during a period of internal turmoil and external invasion. Strong nations wanted to divide and devour China. Tong Zhi died and left no sons. De Zong was crowned emperor when he was four years old. Cian and Cixi , the two queens, hung a curtain in court and governed the affairs of the nation behind that veil. Queen Cian was not interested in politics, so Queen Cixi grabbed power and ruled alone, using Guangxu (De Zong) as a puppet. After De Zong married, he tried to rule by himself. In the jiawu year (1894) China lost the war with Japan. He tried to bring about Reform to turn the fate of the nation, and, employing new people, he established a constitution, attempting to effect a semi-constitutional government.
Unfortunately he was sold out by Yuan Shikai, and the Wuxu (l900) Reform only lasted l00 days, ending in failure. Queen Cixi emerged once again as the governing power. She put De Zong under house arrest at YinTai, where he was deprived of his freedom for the rest of his life. Headstrong Cixi did just as she pleased. Hating Westerners, she encouraged the Boxer Rebellion which was quelled by a Union of Eight Western nations. In the confrontation, Beijing was ravaged; and countless innocent people suffered in the ensuing rampant rape, arson, and murder. Cixi avoided all that by taking the Emperor and escaping to Xian. She sent Prime Minister Li Hungzang to negotiate with the Union of Eight. The treaty resulted in China having to pay 450,000,000 ounces of silver in installments over a 30 year period. The following year Cixi returned to an unrecognizable Beijing. The original city had been entirely destroyed and the country was near it's demise. This outrageous incident brought on the Xinghai (l9ll) Revolution.

The last emperor of the Qing dynasty was named Xuan Tong. The emperor before Xuan Tong was named Guang Xu. After Guang Xu died, he was given the posthumous title De Zong. This emperor was a lot like Chong Zheng, who was the last emperor of the Ming dynasty. It is said that Ming emperor hung himself on Mei Mountain. How could it happen that his sons and grandsons had no way to protect their emperor who was endowed with massive blessings and who made sacrifices at the royal ancestral temple?

The story has it that previously Chong Zheng had been a Buddhist novice who possessed great resolve to cultivation the Way. But his aim in cultivation was to become an emperor in the future. He dreamed of being emperor and never did awake from the dream. After that, he died quite young and the Abbot of that monastery ordered that his corpse be drugged by a horse until it was completely ravaged. But the two monks assigned to the task couldn’t bear to do that. He’s already dead, they said. To do that to his corpse is inhumane. And so they secretly buried the corpse instead.

Actually, why did the Abbot want to use a horse to drag the corpse? It was because the monk wanted to be an emperor that the Abbot wanted to drag the corpse. Had that been done, then when he ascended the throne, he would have been an emperor who followed the Way and was endowed with blessings. He would not have had to undergo any suffering; he would not have had to hang himself on Mei Mountain. Anyway, that’s the legend of Chong Zheng.

Chong Zheng was a very good emperor. He was an outstanding intelligent individual who wanted to rectify the nation. But he was unable to do so. The empire ended up in turmoil and that is the reason he hung himself on Mei Mountain.

Now, Guang Xu of the Qing dynasty was a lot like Chong Zheng. Although he wanted to rule China well, he was never able to realize his ambitions.

You could say that Guang Xu accidently became an emperor because he was not a son born to Tong Zhi. There were those who insisted he be made the emperor. Basically it was the Empress Dowager Cixi who wanted him to act as a puppet.

When Xian Feng was dying, he knew that Cixi was treacherous and not the appropriate one to inherit the throne. And so he wrote an edict to Cian. Cian ruled the eastern court; Cixi ruled the western court. The emperor gave this secret edict to Cian, saying: “Cixi is treacherous. You watch her. If she doesn’t behave, you can use this edict of mine to have her killed. If she behaves herself, then you don’t have to use this method.” Cian kept the edict. After Xian Feng died, Cian watched Cixi.

Cixi was crafty and opportunistic; Cian was honest and reliable. When Tong Zhi died young without leaving a direct heir, Cixi should have selected an appropriate individual to become Tong Zhi’s son and heir to the throne. Instead, she insisted on choosing her own nephew, the son of her younger sister. In that way, even though Tong Zhi’s queen couldn’t be the Queen Mother.gone, she could still be the Empress Dowager. She could still direct the affairs of state.

Cian and Cixi worked together for several decades and Cian decided that Cixi was not treacherous after all, and so she told her quite frankly about the secret edict. She even brought it out for Cixi to read, telling her that Xuan Feng had prepared the secret edict so that in case Cixi didn’t behave herself, she could have her killed. By now, so many years had passed and she saw that Cixi wasn’t misbehaving and so she felt the edict no longer served any purpose. Then she burned while she watched.

Once it was burned what do you suppose happened? Cixi was furious. “Hummp! It is you who are treacherous! You’ve held that secret edict for all these years and only now do you bring it out for me to see. I’ll be in the palm of your hand for the rest of my life, and if I do anything you don’t like you could make that secret edict public knowledge and completely ruin my reputation.” With that thought in mind Cixi did her in. Today Cian told her and tomorrow Cian bled from all her orifices and died. Who killed her? Cixi poisoned her. Cixi was her assassin. See how treacherous Cixi was! She dared to do anything!

When Guang Xu ascended the throne he was still a child and so Queen Cixi and Queen Cian ruled the nation from behind a curtain. But Queen Cian was not interested in governing, which left Queen Cixi with exactly what she wanted: she grabbed power and ruled alone, commanding all the officials, who in turn catered to her wishes. It went on like that until Guang Xu grew up and married, when the emperorship and affairs of state were returned to his hands.

Attempting to bring about Reform in the tumultuous country, Guang Xu established a constitution, attempting to effect a semi-constitutional government. Unfortunately, not only did he lose the war with Japan in the jiawu year (l894), but also the Wuxu (l900) Reform. He tried to set up a constitution and brought in new people who were strong and capable of instigating the Reform, such as Liang Chichao and others.

to be continued

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