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《敎育專欄》

 

FOCUS ON EDUCATION

慈祥代天宣化 忠孝為國敎民

On behalf of Heaven,proclaim and transform with kindness. For the country,teach the people to be loyal and filial.

弟子規淺釋
AN EXPLANATION OF THE RULES FOR BEING A STUDENT

孫秀美 文 By Jennifer Li

尊  

cheng zun zhang  
wu hu ming
稱呼 尊貴的人 年長的人  
不要 名字
to address honored one elder  
do not to call out name
稱呼長官或長輩,不可直呼他們的名字。
In speaking to those who are older, use the proper terms of respect.

Dui
zun
zhang
 
wu
xian
neng
面對 尊貴的人 年長的人  
不要 賣弄 才能
to face honored one elder  
do not to show off ability
在長官或長輩前,不要賣弄自己的才能。
When facing our teachers and elders, do not show off or try to look smart.

長 

揖 

lu
yu
zhang 
 
ji
qu
yi
道路 遇見 長輩  
迅速地 快步向前 拱手作禮
road to meet elder quickly to go foward to bow
如果長輩沒有說話,要退一邊恭敬地站著。
If the elder does not speak to us, we should respectfully stand aside.

退

zhang wu yan  
tui gong li
長輩 沒有 說話  
退開一邊 恭敬地 站著
elder not speak  
to withdraw resoectfully to stand
如果在路上遇見長輩,要趕快上前去行禮。
If we meet an elder on the road, we should quickly approach him and bow.

蕭伯納是英國一位很有名的劇作家,他的劇本很受歡迎;可是因為他出身寒微,還是有一些貴族瞧不起他。有一次,他應邀去參加一個盛大的遊園會,一個穿著很講究的年輕人看見蕭伯納,就傲慢地冷笑著問:「聽說你爸爸是個裁縫,是不是?」蕭伯納微笑著回答:「不錯!一點也不錯!」年輕人又問:「那麼你為什麼不學你爸爸呢?」聽了這番蓄意侮辱的話,蕭伯納非但毫不生氣,反而對那傲慢的年輕人說:「聽說你父親是為很有禮貌的紳士,是不是?」年輕人一本正經地回答:「不錯!一點也不錯!」蕭伯納便反問他:「那麼,你為什麼不學你父親呢?」那傲慢的年輕人不懂敬老尊賢,結果是自取其辱。相反的,中國漢朝的張良,就因為敬老尊賢,才成就他的豐功偉業。有一天,張良路過一座橋,橋頭坐著的老人,就故意把鞋甩到橋下,叫他去撿;老人甩三次,張良也不厭其煩地撿三次,又替老人穿上鞋子,於是乎贏得了老人——黃石公的嘉許,答應授給他一部奇書。張良就憑著書上出神入化的知識,做了劉邦的軍師,而名列漢朝三大開國功臣之一。

從這兩個小故事,我們可以看得出:愈是有內涵的人,愈是敬老尊賢,也愈是得到成就;反之,愈是膚淺無識的人,愈是倨傲,也愈是會受到羞辱。所以對人對事常存敬慎心和慈悲心,其實是利人又利己的。我們若是年幼無知,固然應該敬老尊賢;我們若是已有相當成就,還是要謙虛退讓,絕對不可自恃賣弄。否則,小則個人受辱,大則就有毀身敗家,甚至於破國之虞了。這兒是一則小故事。一位藝術家坐小船渡河;他賣弄地問船夫:「你懂得美術嗎?」船夫搖搖頭。藝術家惋惜地說:「那麼,你的生命就減少三分之一了!」過了一會,藝術家又問船夫:「你懂得音樂嗎?」船夫漫不經心地回答:「不懂!」藝術家就說:「那麼,你的生命只剩下三分之一了!」不久,風浪洶湧,小船顛簸得很厲害;船夫問藝術家:「你懂得游泳嗎?」藝術家緊張地回答:「不懂!」船夫微笑著說:「那麼,你的生命就要減少三分之三了!」朋友!但望我們都不會像那個藝術家一樣幼稚啊!

* * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** *

很多人以為:現在的年輕人不知禮貌的居多;又說:西方人比東方人不懂敬老尊賢。那倒也未必然!因為各個種族、階層和年齡的人,都有善不善;何況禮儀是因地、因時而制宜的,豈能以不同種族、文化、習俗,而逕自分別?要之,人雖有東西、老少、貧富、貴賤;本性良善則一;吾人之所以有善不善之別,實是教育和環境影響所致。每個國家都有其純樸的古風和合適的禮儀;但因為科學的進步,把世界縮小了,各自的傳統禮儀,就有融和、改變得更接近些的必要。這種新國民生活禮儀的制定,在取捨之間,不應以哪個國強大、先進為標準,而是要合乎人情義理。人生轉眼就七十,人都會老;少時不敬老,老時誰敬汝?所以教育下一代,應以禮敬諸賢長老為先;這樣長幼有序,自然也就上下無爭了。

這段文所敘述的,是古代中國的禮節;時代、人事雖異,但禮的精神不可廢。我們路上遇見了長輩,一定要主動而有禮貌地上前招呼;在長輩沒有特別指示前,不要浮浮躁躁地,一副恨不得馬上一走了之的樣子。等長輩先行離去,我們雖不須等待他去了有百步之遠才走;但至少也要恭敬地目送,不能掉頭就走。若我們有急事待辦時,也須先行告退,才側身離去,絕不可大搖大擺的走開,這都是一種敬謹的表現。

徵求義務教師

近年來,上人為了徹底的整頓教育,同時重新喚起人們久已忘了的清廉操守。更不遺餘力,首先由聖城的各級學校成立「義務教師」制度。上人提到:「教師人人以身作則,清廉自許。把所懷的抱負和智慧交給下一代。不爭薪水、不罷工。」如此,便能全心全力地教學。因為唯有不為「錢」,不為「名」,自甘於淡泊的教師,才足以以其高超的志節,壯闊的襟懷,潛移默化學子,負擔起為生民立命,為萬世開太平的艱鉅責任。
詳情請洽:萬佛城 Talmage, CA 95481-0217 U.S.A.

Tel:(707)462-0939 信封上請註明「應徵義務教師」。

George Bernard Shaw was a famous British playwright whose plays are very popular. But because he was of low birth, there were members of the aristocratic class who looked down upon him. One time when he was invited to a big party, a well-dressed young man saw him and asked haughtily, "I heard your father is a tailor, is that so?" Shaw answered with a smile, "You're absolutely right."

The man said, "Why don't you learn from your father?"

Even though this was quite an insult to Shaw, he showed not the slightest trace of anger. Instead he asked the man, "I heard your father is a very well-mannered gentleman, is that so?"

"Absolutely," replied the young man.
"Then why don't you learn from your father?" asked Shaw. That arrogant young man had not known how to respect his elder, and so he ended up insulting himself.

In contrast, during the Han dynasty in China there was a man named Zhang Liang. This man was able to accomplish great deeds because he respected his elders. One day he happened to walk across a bridge. At one end of the bridge sat an old man. The old man deliberately threw his shoes under the bridge and told Zhang Liang to go pick them up. He repeated this three times, and Zhang Liang patiently retrieved the shoes three times and help the old man put them on. Thus he won the approval of the old man--the Huangshigong (Venerable Yellow Stone), and as a present the old man gave him a book. Zhang Liang used the esoteric principles in that book to help Liu Bang win his battles, and he became one of three men who helped found the Han dynasty.

From these two small anecdotes, we can see that the more virtuous and refined a person is, the more he will respect his elders and the more he is likely to succeed. Conversely, the more shallow and uneducated a person is, the more arrogant he is and the more he is likely to get insulted. If we are always cautious, respectful, and compassionate in how we treat people and handle matters, we are really benefitting others as well as ourselves. If we are young and don't understand much, we should of course respect our elders. If we have some accomplishments, we should still be very humble. We cannot show off our talents, for if the matter is small we might get insulted, and if it's big we might bring harm and embarrassment to our family. It could even be so serious as to bring the whole country to ruin.

Here is another anecdote. Once an artist was crossing a river on a small boat. He was showing off and asked the boatman, "Do you understand art?" The boatman shook his head. The artist said, "Then you've lost one-third of your life." Then he asked, "Do you understand music?"

The boatman said, "Nope."
The artist said, "Then you've lost another third of your life."

All of a sudden a storm came up, creating a lot of waves. The boat rocked dangerously. The boatman asked the artist, "Can you swim?" The artist nervously said no. The boatman smiled and said, "Then you've lost three-thirds of your life." Dear friends, I hope we are not as ignorant as this artist!

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Many people think that young people nowadays do not know their manners; or that Westerners are less respectful to elders than Easterners. But such ideas are not necessarily true. There are good and bad people in every race, every social class, and every age group. What is more, the rules of etiquette are set in accord with the time and situation. Why should we discriminate on the basis of differences of race, culture, and customs? Although there are differences of east and west, young and old, rich and poor, and noble and lowly, there is one thing that all people share in common--the basic goodness of the human nature. Whether a person develops a good or bad character depends upon his environment and education. Every country has its own age-old traditions and rules of etiquette which are suited to its people. But now that technology has advanced and the world has shrunk, the culture and traditions of every country must change a little so as to harmonize with those of other countries. In setting up new rules of etiquette, we should choose what is reasonable and proper, rather than taking the most "advanced" and powerful nations as a standard. Our life span passes in the blink of an eye. We will all age and get old. If we don't respect elders when we are young, who will respect us when we are old? In teaching the next generation, our first priority is to teach them to respect their elders. Then there will be order between young and old, and naturally there won't be fighting among people.

These lines of "The Rules for Being a Student" describe rules of etiquette from ancient China. Although the times have changed, the spirit of these rites cannot be discarded. If we meet an elder on the road, we should take the initiative and greet him first. Before he has dismissed us, we cannot act as if we are in a rush to leave. We ought to let our elder leave first. Although we don't have to wait until he has taken a hundred steps, we should at least respectfully see him off, not just turn around and leave right away. If we have urgent business and need to leave early, we have to excuse ourselves first; we can't just turn and leave without any explanation. This is also a sign of respect and cautiousness.

Volunteer Teachers

Recently, in order to reform education more thoroughly while reviving our long-forgotten integrity, the Master exhausted his efforts and bravely established the system of volunteer teaching at the schools at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. The Master described this ideal: "Every teacher should set an example with his own conduct. The teachers should be honest and self-respecting, and pass their wisdom and aspirations on to the next generation. They should not fight for salary raises or go on strike." In that way they can teach with full concentration and effort. Only teachers who do not seek for money and fame can influence students with their lofty aspirations and broad ideals, and thus succeed in  rectifying people's lives and developing long-lasting peace. For further information write or call: The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas, Talmage, Ca 95481-0217, U.S.A. Tel (707) 462-0939. Specify "Volunteer Teacher Application." [The Sagely City welcomes applications for all kinds of volunteers, regardless of level of education].

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