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《上人法雨》

 

VENERABLE MASTER'S DHARMA RAIN

藥師琉璃光如來本願功德經淺釋
SUTRA OF THE MERIT AND VIRTUE OF THE PAST VOWS OF
MEDICINE MASTER VAIDURYA LIGHT TATHAGATA

宣化上人/講於一九八三年美國加州洛杉磯金輪聖寺Explained by the Venerable Master Hua in 1983 at Gold Wheel Monastery in Los Angeles

「藥師琉璃光如來本願功德經」:單講這個字義,「藥」就是一種藥品;「師」,就是個醫生,言其這一位佛就是個大醫王,可以治世人一切的疾病。無論你是什麼治不好的絕症,如果這一位佛他來給你治這個病,一定會好的,什麼病都會好的,起死回生。沒有什麼病他治不好的,就是應該死的病,他都可以把你改變成活的。所以這一位大醫王,就是「藥師」。

「琉璃」,琉璃的本體是透明的,是玲瓏透體,裏邊可以看見外邊,外邊也可以看到裏邊,是琉璃體。琉璃也是他這個報土的名字,叫琉璃世界,他在這個琉璃世界做教主。這一位佛,他的身體也是琉璃體,內外瑩徹,內外光潔。那麼這一位佛,什麼藥品他都懂。

在中國有一位神農皇帝,這個「神農嚐百草」,也就是嚐所有的藥品。神農皇帝的身體就是琉璃體,他把藥品吃到肚裏頭,他自己會看見這個藥有什麼作用,都走到哪一經去。(編按:經是人體的脈絡)所以他嚐百草,把這個藥性的酸甜苦辣鹹,寒熱溫平,有毒沒有毒,他都能確定出來。

「光」:這一位佛的身體,不單內外瑩徹,而且還光潔,是個大光明藏。

「如來」,是佛的十號之一。如來、應供、正遍知、明行足、善逝世間解、無上士、調御丈夫、天人師、佛、世尊,這是佛的十號。本來每一位佛有十萬個名號,一位佛就有十萬個名號,因為十萬個名號,人記不住了,所以就把它縮短了。以後又有一萬;一萬還是長,那麼又縮到一千;一千還是長,又縮到一百;一百還是長,所以以後就縮到只有十個名號。

這十個名號,是每一位佛都有的,不是單單某一位佛有,某一位佛就沒有,這十個名號是佛的通稱,所以我們學佛的人要知道。我聽有的外道就說:「如來佛祖」,他不知道如來佛祖是哪一位佛?其實哪一位佛都叫如來佛。那麼如來,就是乘如實之道,他乘著如實之道來成正覺,這是「如來」兩個字的解釋。

「本願」,本願就是他以前所發的願,不是今生所發的願。佛有本事、本願、本生,本生就是今生,本願就是以前的,本事也是佛以前的事。

「功德」,這個「功德」和「經」,方才講過了。這一位佛是東方的,又叫阿門佛,又叫藥師琉璃光如來。東方是屬於金剛部,金剛部是注重降伏法,能降伏天魔,制諸外道,一切的天魔外道,見到這些金剛部的護法金剛就降伏了。好像〈楞嚴咒〉,你誰若念〈楞嚴咒〉,就有八萬四千金剛藏菩薩常常擁護你,常常保護著你;你要誠心念,不誠心念是不行的!這是一個大概的意思,這部經的名字,我簡單地解釋,就是這樣子。

待續

Now let us continue to explain the words of the title, "Sutra of the Merit and Virtue of the Past Vows of Medicine Master Vaidurya Light Tathagata." "Master" refers to the Buddha, who is a great king of physicians, one who can heal the sicknesses of all people. No matter what sort of incurable disease you have, the Buddha can certainly cure you. If you are meant to die, he can bring you back to life. Therefore, he is a "Medicine Master."

"Vaidurya" is a transparent, glass-like substance. It is also the name of Medicine Master Buddha's land of reward, where he is the teaching host. His body, which is made of Vaidurya, is pure and lustrous both inside and out. This Buddha thoroughly understands all the various kinds of medicines.

In ancient China, the Emperor Shen Nong [c. 2838 b.c.] was said to have tasted all the various medicinal herbs. That emperor's body was also as if transparent. When he ingested a medicine, he could observe its effects in his stomach and see what veins or arteries the medicine travelled to. He tasted all the medicinal herbs and classified them as sour, sweet, bitter, pungent, or salty; as cold, hot, warm, or neutral in nature; and as poisonous or nonpoisonous.

"Light": this Buddha's body has an inner and outer radiance and is a pure, bright storehouse of light.

"Tathagata" is one of the ten titles of a Buddha. The ten titles are: Tathagata (Thus Come One), Worthy of Offerings, One of Proper and Universal Knowledge, One Whose Understanding and Practice are Complete, Well Gone One Who Understands the World, Supreme Lord, Regulating Hero, Teacher of Gods and Humans, Buddha, and World Honored One. Originally, every Buddha had 100,000 titles, but that was too many for people to remember, so they were later condensed to 10,000. That was still too many, so they were reduced to 1000. But 1000 was still too numerous, so they were decreased to 100. One hundred titles were still too many, so they were reduced to only ten titles. These ten titles do not belong exclusively to any particular Buddha; every Buddha has them. All Buddhists should know these ten general designations for the Buddhas. Some people who know nothing about Buddhism think "Tathagata Buddha" is the name of a Buddha, but actually, every Buddha can be called Tathagata. Tathagata ("Thus Come One") means: "Following the Way which is Thus, he comes to realize right enlightenment."

"Past Vows" refers to vows that the Buddha made in past lives, not to vows made in the present life.

Medicine Master Vaidurya Light Tathagata of the Eastern Land is also known as "Akshobya Buddha." Medicine Master Buddha belongs to the Vajra Division in the East. The Vajra Division emphasizes the Dharmas of Subduing, which can overcome the heaven-demons and those of external sects. The demons and externalists become subdued as soon as they see the Vajra Dharma-protectors of the Vajra Division. If you sincerely recite the Shurangama Mantra, which is a Dharma of Subduing, you will have the constant protection of 84,000 Vajra Treasury Bodhisattvas.

To be continued

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