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大智度論

EXCERPTS FROM THE SHASTRA ON THE PERFECTION OF GREAT WISDOM

四種悉壇(續)
The Four Siddhantas,continued

龍樹菩薩著
姚秦三藏法師鳩摩羅什譯
Written by Bodhisattva Nagarjuna Translated into Chinese by Tripitaka Master Kumarajiva of the Yaoqin dynasty
English translation © 1996 Dharmamitra reprinted with permission of Kalavinka (http://www.teleport.com/-dh-mitra/)

外道出家人法,五熱中一腳立,拔髮等,尼犍子輩以為妙慧,餘人說此為癡法。如是等種種外道出家、白衣婆羅門法,各各自以為好,餘皆妄語。是佛法中亦有犢子比丘說:如四大和合有眼法,如是五眾和合有人法。犢子阿毗曇中說:五眾不離人,人不離五眾,不可說五眾是人,離五眾是人,人是第五不可說法藏中所攝。說一切有道人輩言:神人、一切種、一切時、一切法門中求不可得;譬如兔角龜毛常無。復次,十八界,十二入,五眾實有自性,而人此中不攝。更有佛法中方廣道人言:一切法不生不滅,空無所有,譬如兔角龜毛常無。如是等一切論議師輩,自守其法,不受餘法,此是實,餘者妄語。若自受其法,自法供養,自法修行,他法不受、不供養為作過失。若以是為清淨德第一義利者,則一切無非清淨。何以故?彼一切自受法故。

問曰:若諸見皆有過失者,第一義悉檀何者是?

答曰:一切語言道斷,心行處滅,遍無所依,不示諸法,無初、無中、無後,不盡、不壞,是名第一義悉檀。如摩訶衍義偈中說:

語言盡竟,心行亦訖;
不生不滅,法如涅槃。
說諸行處,名世界法;
說不行處,名第一義。
一切實一切非實,及一切實亦非實,
一切非實非不實,是名諸法之實相。

如是等處處經中說第一義悉檀。是義甚深難見難解,佛欲說是義故,說摩訶般若波羅蜜經 。

以上四種悉壇完
大智度論待續

It is the dharma of [certain] non-Buddhist renunciates to stand on one foot in five kinds of hot [substances], to pull out one's hair, and so forth. The followers of Nirgranthaputra are of the opinion that this constitutes refined wisdom. Other people say that this is deluded dharma. All manner of other such dharmas of the non-Buddhist renunciates, laypeople, and Brahmans are each regarded by themselves as good while other [dharmas] are considered to be false discourse.

Within this Dharma of the Buddha there are also the Vatsiputriiya who say, “Just as the four great elements unite to constitute the dharma of the eye, so too the five aggregates unite to constitute the dharma of the person.” In the Vatsiiputriiya abhidharma, it states, “The five aggregates are not separate from the person. The person is not separate from the five aggregates. One cannot say that the five aggregates are the person or that apart from the five aggregates there is a person. ‘Persons’ belong to a fifth ‘ineffable’ repository of Dharma.”

The cultivators of the Way are followers of the Sarvastivada [lineage] say, “The spiritual ‘person’ cannot be found in any category, at any time, or via any dharmic method. It is like the horns of a hare or the fur of a turtle which are eternally nonexistent. Moreover, [although] the eighteen realms, the twelve sense bases and the five aggregates possess an actual existence, no person exists herein.“

Then again, within the Dharma of the Buddha, the cultivators of the Way who belong to the Vaipulya lineage declare, “All dharmas are neither produced nor destroyed. They are empty and devoid of that which exists. They are like the horns of a hare or the fur of a turtle which are eternally nonexistent.”

All of the dialectical masters such as these each defend their own dharma and refuse to accept other dharmas, [maintaining], “This is true and everything else is false discourse.” If one accepts [only] one's own dharmas, honors [only] one's own dharma, and cultivates [only] one's own dharma, while refusing to accept or honor another's dharma, and while maintaining that [other's dharmas] are faulty, if one maintains that this is pure and has attained the benefit of the supreme meaning, then among all of them, there are none which are impure. How is this so? Because they all [exclusively] love their own dharma.

Question: If all views possess faults, then what is [the status] of the supreme-meaning siddhanta?

Reply: It goes beyond the path of all discourse. The locus of thought activity is extinct in it. Nowhere is there anything upon which it relies. It does not proclaim any dharma. The actual characteristic of all dharmas has no beginning, has no middle and has no end. It is inexhaustible and indestructible. This is what is meant by the “supreme-meaning siddhanta.” This is as described in the Verse on the Meaning of the Mahayana:

Discourse is entirely ended.
Activity of thought also ceases.
Neither produced nor destroyed,
The dharmas are like nirvana.
Every place where speaking functions
Is known as worldly dharma.
The place where speaking does not function
Is known as the supreme meaning.
“Everything is actual,” “everything is non-actual,”
As well as “Everything is both actual and non-actual,”
And “Everything is neither actual nor non-actual.”
These refer to the actual characteristic of all dharmas.

{Explanations] such as these are spoken forth in many places in the Sutra. The meaning of the supreme-meaning siddhanta is extremely deep, difficult to perceive and difficult to understand. It was because the Buddha wished to set forth this meaning that he spoke the Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra.

                                                           end of Four Siddhantas series
to be continued

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