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《人物誌》

 

BIOGRAPHIES

【 水鏡回天錄白話解 】

REFLECTIONS IN WATER AND MIRRORS REVERSING THE TIDE OF DESTINY

張雅軒
ZHANG YAXUAN

宣公上人講述於一九八八年二月二十日金山寺LECTURED BY THE VENERABLE MASTER ON 2/20/1986 AT GOLD MOUNTAIN MONASTERY
國際譯經學院記錄  Translated by the International Translation Institute

他父親睡醒一看,他兒子在那地方嘀嘀咕咕的,擺上香爐、蠟臺子在那兒叩頭,他就火了,說:「你這個東西,你現在這麼樣做,你想我快點死啊?」王恕忱這時候就和他爸爸說了,說:「不是!我在過去盡和您頂嘴的,我真對不起父親。我現在要痛改前非,我知道錯了;我完全是因為不孝順父母,才有這個病的,現在我要改過了。」他父親聽他這麼樣一說,也就哭起來,說:「喔!你還會知道你有過啊!」那麼父子兩人抱頭痛哭,就互相地悔過。

王恕忱本來不能走路的,這一改過,第二天自己就能走路了。於是乎有這種靈感,所以張雅軒對王善人特別生信心了,又同他朋友去見王善人。王善人就給他說了一說,說:「你這個病,你既然悔過,就會好了。」張雅軒看這個事情是一個奇蹟,於是乎就對王善人說:「我現在也要改過,我以前欠人家那麼多的孽錢,我現在該怎麼辦呢?」王善人就說:「你要儘量做善功德!現在婦女道德要緊,婦女能改造這個社會的風氣。家庭不好,都是因為婦女不好;婦女若好了,這社會國家都好了。你現在能以提倡女子義學,這是最要緊的。」張雅軒聽了就說:「好了!那你看我的了。」

那麼就這樣子回到家裡,把自己的房子賣了,另外的房子,就成立義學。成立義學,鄉下那時候有老虎,也沒有什麼學生來讀書,他就雇學生來讀書,每一個學生來,他就給多少錢,就這麼樣子湊了幾十個學生,就開始這個義學。

以後,他把所有的產業都變賣了,來辦義學,辦得這個老師也都沒有飯吃了,一切的開銷,也都沒有了。張雅軒就叫他的太太和他兒子回她娘家住去,說:「妳父母現在有病了,妳回去看一看。」結果他太太回娘家去。正在這個時候,張雅軒就用斧頭把他太太藏首飾、貴重西這個櫃給劈開了,把東西給收拾收拾,拿走了,到當舖當去。

拿走到當舖一當,當舖看這些個東西都是女人的,就認為這是來路不明,於是乎就報告警察,就把張雅軒抓住了,說你這些個東西都是從什麼地方來的?他在那地方就說,我這些個東西都是偷自己太太的。那麼這時候就問他,為什麼你要偷你太太的東西來當呢?張雅軒說他辦義務學校,沒有錢了,就把他太太的東西偷出去當了,變賣了,好辦一個學校。警察就要把他關到監獄裡,他說:「你把我關到監獄裡,我出去還是一樣辦學,怎麼樣子我都要辦學的!」就有這樣堅定的志願。於是乎就有高振武,又有很多人出來就同他一起辦學。

這是他遇到王善人,就能急流勇退,能以改過遷善、百折不撓、勇往直前辦義學,勇於改過。

那時候他辦道德會,五十四歲辦義務學校,結果累得腦溢血就死了,可以說是以身殉道。這樣子,精神永遠都存在世界的,所謂「精神不死」,很值得後人效法的。

贊曰:

近朱者赤 生不逢時
淪為騙徒 賭博無失
幸遇善人 喚醒良知
傾產興學 作眾人師

這個說的「近朱者赤」:人啊,近朱者赤,近墨者黑;染於青則青,染於黃則黃。他生在那個時代,都是互相欺騙的一個社會,所以他也就養成這種行為了。「生不逢時」:他生的不是一個好時候。「淪為騙徒」:他淪落作為一個馬販子來騙人。「賭博無失」:他若賭博也一定贏,沒有輸的時候。這個又是賭徒,又是騙徒。「幸遇善人」:他幸虧遇到王善人了,「喚醒良知」:把他良心給喚醒了,他又改過自新。「傾產興學」:他把自己的財產都不要了,來興辦義學。在東北幾省裡頭,熱河、吉林、黑龍江、遼寧這些個地方,還有關內、山東、河南、河北這些個地方,都辦了很多義務學校,大約有八百多處,這都是傾產興學所有的成績。「作眾人師」:他等於眾人師表一樣。

又說偈曰:

當機立斷性剛直 迷途覺悟善知識
大喜大捨任勞怨 能屈能伸應變多
立志興學培福慧 專心辦道建功德
鞠躬盡瘁護正法 死而後已又復活

「當機立斷性剛直」:他能當機立斷,好像他遇著王善人,他就急流勇退、改過自新。這是當機立斷,是他的特長。性剛直,他的性情也很剛強,也很直率的。「迷途覺悟善知識」:他可以說是一個迷途知返、迷途覺悟的善知識。

「大喜大捨任勞怨」:他能以大喜——他歡歡喜喜,就傾產興學。經過困苦艱難,百折不撓;他能以有這種的大無畏的精神,任勞任怨。「能屈能伸應變多」:能屈能伸是一個大丈夫;他能以應變來辦八百多處義學,是很不容易的。「立志興學培福慧」:他這種的傾產興學,他能以把自己的財產都不要了,興女子義學。培福慧,他培他的福和智慧。「專心辦道建功德」:他又能以造就很多人材,能建立這個功德,在辦道德會建立很多功勞。

「鞠躬盡瘁護正法」:他能鞠躬盡瘁,不怕一切困苦艱難。「死而後已又復活」:他經過種種的困苦艱難後,雖然他死了,但是他的精神是永遠活在人的心目中。

-全文完-

Presently, his father woke up and saw his son murmuring and bowing with candles and incense in front of him. He flared up and said, "You rascal! Are you praying for my death that you are doing this now!" Wang Shushen said to his father, "No! I always talked back to you in the past. I am really sorry, father. I have resolved to change and reform my previous wrong-doings. I realized that I was wrong. My illness is brought about entirely due to my being unfilial to you. So now I want to change." Hearing this, the father also wept and said, "Oh! So you recognize you have been at fault!" They held each other in their arms while crying and repenting to each other.

Originally, Wang Shushen could not walk. However, after his repentance, he could walk on his own the second day. Seeing this efficacious response, Zhang Yaxuan brought forth a special faith toward Good Man Wang. So he and his friend went back to see Good Man Wang again. Good Man Wang said, "Since you have repented, this illness of yours will be cured." Taking the whole thing as a miracle, Zhang said to Good Man Wang, "I want to change my faults too. I owe people great amounts of improperly earned money. What should I do?" Good Man Wang said, "You should try your best to do meritorious deeds. Presently women's virtue is the most imperative matter. Women can change and reform the trends of the society. When a family is not good, it's all because the woman of the family is not good. If women are wholesome, the society as well as the entire nation will be wholesome. It would be most important if you could promote free education for women." Upon hearing this, Zhang Yaxuan said, "Fine! Leave it to me."

Thereafter, he went home and sold his own house. And he used other houses he owned for schools. He thus established free schools. In the rural areas at the time, there were tigers, so not many students showed up. He then hired students to come and study. He would give each student a certain amount of money when they came to school. It was in this way that he started the free school with over a score of students.

Later, he sold all his properties and spent the money on schools. He ran the schools until he had no money left to pay for the teachers’ meals or for any other expenditures. He then bid his wife to go with their son to her mother's home. He said, "Your parents are ill. Why don't you pay them a visit?" After his wife left, he took an ax and broke the safe where his wife kept all her jewelry and other valuables. He wrapped up everything and went to a pawn shop. The pawn shop saw that all the jewelry were women's accessories and suspected their source. So the shop reported this to the police and Zhang Yaxuan was arrested. They asked him where he had gotten the jewelry. He said, "These were stolen from my wife." Then he was asked why he wanted to steal and pawn his wife's belongings. Zhang Yaxuan said that he was running schools and had run out of money. So he resolved to steal his wife's things to pawn so as to get some money for the schools. The police put him in jail. He said, "You can lock me up now, but when I get out I will still run schools. I will run schools no matter what!" Because of his firm resolve, many people, such as Gao Zhengwu, were moved to join him.

This tells how after meeting Good Man Wang he could quickly retreat from what he was doing and change from evil to good. And thereafter, he always moved forward with vigor and courage and was never daunted by any difficulty. He was courageous in changing his faults.

He set up Virtue Societies and ran free schools. At the age of 54, he died from a stroke which was caused by fatigue. We can say that he gave his life for the Way. Such a spirit as his will last forever. As it's said, "The spirit never dies." He is worthy to be a model for later generations.

A verse of praise says:
One becomes red when one draws near crimson.
Born not in a proper time,
He became a hustler
And he never lost in gambling.
Fortunately, he met a good advisor,
Who caused his conscience to wake up.
Devoting his entire wealth to schools,
He was worthy of being thepeople's teacher.

One becomes red when one draws near crimson. When people draw near crimson, they become red. When they get near ink, they turn black. They become blue when dyed blue; and yellow when dyed yellow. He was born in a time when cheating was the fashion. Therefore he also developed such behavior. Born not in a proper time, he became a hustler. He was not born in good times and thus he had fallen to become a horse dealer and cheat people of their money, a hustler. And he never lost in gambling. When he gambled, he was certain to win. He never lost money. He was a gambler as well as a hustler. Fortunately, he met a good advisor who caused his conscience to wake up. Fortunately he met Good Man Wang, who awakened his conscience. He then changed and reformed. Devoting his entire wealth to schools. He renounced his entire wealth to run schools. Throughout Manchuria and Shandong, Henan, and Hebei provinces he set up many schools-over 800. That was the result of his "devoting his entire wealth to schools." He was worthy of being the people's teacher. He was a good teacher for people.

Another verse says:
He was decisive and his nature was righteous.
He enlightened to his own confusion, thus becoming a good advisor.
With great joy and giving, he endured toil and hardship.
He was flexible and responded well to changes.
Establishing schools to nurture blessings and wisdom
was his resolve.
Single-mindedly he devoted himself to the Way and
did meritorious deeds.
Working so hard to protect the Proper Dharma, he died of fatigue.
Though he is dead, his spirit lives on.

He was decisive and his nature was righteous. He was decisive. For example, when he met Good Man Wang, he retreated from what he was doing and changed and reformed. That is being decisive. His strong point was that he had a righteous nature. His disposition was upright, very straightforward. He enlightened to his own confusion, thus becoming a good advisor. He became a good advisor himself, being able to realize his own confusion and leave it behind.

With great joy and giving, he endured toil and hardship. With great delight, he donated his entire wealth to schools. He was never daunted by difficulties and sufferings. It was with this kind of great fearless spirit that he endured toil and hardship. He was flexible and responded well to changes. He could endure temporary setbacks like a great hero. He managed over 800 schools, always able to respond to unexpected changes. This is not easy to do. Establishing schools to nurture blessings and wisdom was his resolve. He gave everything he owned away to set up free schools for women, thus amassing blessings and wisdom. Single-mindedly he devoted himself to the Way and did meritorious deeds. He produced many talented people, thereby establishing his merit and virtue. He amassed a lot of merit and virtue working in the Virtue Society.

Working so hard to protect the Proper Dharma, he died of fatigue. Though he is dead, his spirit lives on. He was not afraid of any toil or difficulty, and worked himself to death. Though he died after having undergone all kinds of hardships, his spirit lives in people's hearts forever.

-The end-

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