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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
The Flower Adornment Sutra with Commentary

【 卷三 世主妙嚴品第一之三】

The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Roll 3, Chapter 1, Part 3

宣化上人講於一九七三年十一月二日 Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua on November 2, 1973
國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute
修訂版 Revised version

前期經文:爾時無礙光明主風神

一切諸佛法甚深 無礙方便普能入
所有世間常出現 無相無形無影像

這是無礙光明主風神說的這四句偈頌,他說「一切諸佛法甚深」:所有的十方三世一切諸佛的佛法,都是甚深微妙的,這佛法裏邊又生佛法,佛法裏邊又藏著佛法,所以一切諸佛這個法是不可思議的。「無礙方便普能入」:可是佛有一種無礙方便,遍入一切處,遍入微塵剎土,都由無礙方便這種的法。「所有世間常出現」:佛在這個有情世間上常常出現,出現來教化眾生。「無相無形無影像」:可是雖然常出現,也沒有一個相,沒有一個形,所以連影的像都沒有。既然無相無形,又怎麼會有影子呢?所以影像也沒有。佛所行所作,不像我們人就執著,有一種執著心,我做了什麼了,我怎麼樣地好!就沒有想到自己這不對的地方。這就變成有相有形了,也有影子了,有影就有像。佛是掃一切法,離一切相,雖說終日說法,也沒有說一句話;終日吃飯,也沒有吃到一粒米;終日穿衣服,也沒有穿一縷紗。佛所行所作,就是行所無事,那麼這種境界不是一般的人所能明白的。

汝觀如來於往昔 一念供養無邊佛
如是勇猛菩提行 此普現神能悟了

「汝觀如來於往昔」:汝觀,這是這位普現主風神說的話,說你看一看,你觀察觀察,如來往昔行,佛在往昔因地的時候所修行的那種的行門,啊!那太不可思議了。「一念供養無邊佛」:他就在一念之中,能普供養法界無量無邊這麼多的諸佛,「如是勇猛菩提行」:像這樣子這麼勇猛精進,時時他修這個菩提行,「此普現神能悟了」:這一位普現主風神明白這種的解脫門。

如來救世不思議 所有方便無空過
悉使眾生離諸苦 此雲幢神之解脫

如來,佛就是如來,如來就是佛,「如來救世不思議」:佛救度這有情世間,救度一切眾生,這種和柔忍辱的力量是不容易明白的,所以說「如來救世不思議」,眾生想不到的。「所有方便無空過」:所有的方便法門無空過,沒有不會用的。佛見到什麼眾生,就用什麼法門來度這一類的眾生,所以叫無空過。「悉使眾生離諸苦」:完成令所有的一切眾生,都離開世間這個煩惱障、所知障,這種業障、報障,都離開這種種的苦,離開一切的苦,所以說「悉使眾生離諸苦」。「此雲幢神之解脫」:這是雲幢主風神他明白這種的解脫門。

眾生無福受眾苦 重蓋密障常迷覆
一切皆令得解脫 此淨光神所了知

「眾生無福受眾苦」:眾生,就是眾緣和合而生,也是眾緣和合而死。那麼眾生無福,眾生為什麼無福呢?就因為他沒有種福。怎麼沒有種福呢?就因為沒有見到佛,沒有見法,沒有見僧。不見佛、不聞法、不睹僧,就沒有地方可以種福;沒有地方種福,所以就無福。好像那個沒有佛的地方,沒有法的地方,沒有僧的地方,這眾生福報完了,再就不能增加福了,因為沒有種福的地方。因為沒有福,所以就要受眾苦了。

眾苦,這個苦是很多的,有三苦、有八苦、有無量諸苦。三苦就是苦苦、壞苦、行苦。什麼叫苦苦呢?就是苦中之苦,苦上更苦。這是說的什麼呢?就說的這窮人。窮人本來很貧困的,就苦了,那麼又加上一種苦。好像住貧民區的那些個難民,那些個住木屋的––美國這房子都是木頭的,但是裏邊也油得很乾淨,外邊也油得很漂亮,這種木屋住得也不錯的––在巴西和香港那個木屋,那木頭也沒有把它用刨子刨光了,就那麼很粗的樣子,就釘上房子,裏邊也沒有油,外邊也沒有油,那老鼠和人在一個地方住。老鼠就住小房子,這人就住大房子,那麼都在一起,老鼠和這個人互相做鄰居,互相做朋友,這個樣不錯呀!也有一個朋友,這人有個老鼠的朋友,老鼠有個人的朋友,這個還不錯。可是你說怎麼樣啊?一打颶風,把這個木屋給吹倒了,老鼠也不管這個人了,人也不管這個老鼠了。老鼠自己找地方,另外要找新房子;這個人要等著徙置,要等著政府給找地方,你說這是不是苦上加苦呢!本來有個木屋住著,過得去,啊!打一場颶風,把木屋給吹沒有了;或者下雨下得大,把木屋也給沖跑了,那麼這是苦上加苦。

那麼什麼叫壞苦呢?壞苦不窮,有錢。錢很多,這是很快樂了,可是快樂不能常快樂,好景不常,或者有天災,或者有人禍,或者有什麼意外,好像被土匪綁票了,或者發生其他的意外,種種想像不到的這個事情,就把這富貴給壞了,這是壞苦。什麼叫行苦呢?行苦,既然沒有貧窮的困苦,又沒有富貴的壞苦,這是很好了,平平常常的。可是由少而壯,由壯而老,念念遷流,念念不停,由老而死,這一生,這叫行苦。

這三苦是人所共有的,這個共有不是說大家都有這個三苦,就是大家有的有,有的或者就沒有。但是沒有貧窮困苦的,就有富貴壞苦;沒有富貴壞苦的,就有這個行苦。所以說人所共有的,不是有這個,就是有那個。

又有八苦,這八苦就是生苦,生來的時候,就像那個生龜脫殼一樣。那活的烏龜,你把殼給揭開,牠很痛苦的,我們人生的時候也就那麼痛苦。生之後,又會老,老了,耳也聾了,眼睛也花了,牙也吃不動東西了,兩條腿也不幫忙行路了,啊!老態龍鍾,雞皮鶴髮的樣子,這是老苦。又有個病苦,你沒有病的時候,不知道有病的苦;到有病的時候,啊!那種痛苦啊,那是說不能盡的。頭無緣無故它就痛起來了,腳無緣無故它也又痛起來了,腿也痛起來,腰也痠了,啊!什麼病都來了,吃東西,本來餓也吃不下去東西了,喝水都喝不進去,這樣子呢,這是病苦。這還都不算,最大的就是死苦,這死就好像活牛扒皮一樣。那活的牛把皮給扒下來,你說痛苦不痛苦?這生老病死苦。

又有愛別離苦,啊!你越愛這個人,這個人他越要和你離開,分開了。或者有特別的情形,或者有什麼因緣要分離,這愛別離苦離不開,離不開也要離,愛別離苦。又有怨憎會苦,啊!覺得這個人真討厭,我做什麼也不願意看這個人,要和他分開。但是到另外一個地方,又遇到這樣一個人,和這個差不多,這叫怨憎會苦。又有求不得苦,這個貪心很大的,求富貴也不得富貴,求榮華也不得榮華,求子也不得子,求女也不得女,想找一個男朋友也得不到,想找個女朋友更沒有,這都叫求不得苦;總而言之,你所想的都是得不到,這就叫求不得苦。又有五陰熾盛苦,五陰就是色受想行識,這五陰像一個大火聚似的,沒有法子躲得開,所以叫五陰熾盛苦。

待續

AT THAT TIME THE WIND-RULING SPIRIT NAMED UNBSTRUCTED LIGHT .

Sutra:
The Dharma of all Buddhas is deep and profound.
Their unobstructed skill-in-means can enter every where.
In all worlds whatsoever they constantly appear,
Yet are markless, without form and without shape.

Commentary:
This four-line gatha is spoken by the Wind-Ruling Spirit named Unobstructed Light. He says: The Dharma of the Buddhas is deep and profound. The Dharma of all Buddhas of the ten directions and the three periods of time is deeply profound, subtle and wonderful.Within that Buddha-Dharma more Buddha-Dharmas are produced, and further Buddha-Dharmas are stored within those Buddha-Dharmas.  Therefore, the Dharma of all Buddhas is inconceivable. Their unobstructed skill-in-means can enter everywhere. The Buddhas have a kind of unimpeded cleverness with expedients to pervasively go to all places, universally entering kshetras as many as particles of dust--so all have that kind of Dharma of unobstructed skill-in-means. In all worlds whatsoever they constantly appear. The Buddhas are always manifesting in the world of sentient beings, in order to teach and transform living beings, yet are markless, without form and without shadow. Although they are constantly appearing, they don't have any characteristics. And since they have no form or shape, they don't even have the shadow of a reflection. In as much as they are markless, and formless, how could they have a shadow? Of course they don't. Buddhas don't do things in the attached way we people do. We retain such attachments of mind as, I've done such-and-such; I'm so good, never thinking of the places where we are wrong. That turns into having appearances and forms, and also shadows, images and reflections. The Buddhas sweep away all dharmas and are free from all appearances. They may speak Dharma every day, yet they haven't uttered a single sentence. They take their daily meal, but they haven't eaten a single grain of rice. Each day they put on clothes, but they haven't worn a single thread. The Buddhas do things as if they were not doing them. Such a state cannot be understood by ordinary people.

Sutra:
Observe how the Tathagata in the past.
In one thought worshipped boundlessly many Buddhas.
Such courageous practices for Bodhi.
Are what the spirit named Universally Manifesting awakens to.

Commentary:
The line observe how the Tathagata in the past is being spoken by the Wind-Ruling Spirit named Universally Manifesting. He says, Take a look. Regard what the Tathagata did before. See the kinds of doors of practice which the Buddha cultivated previously when he was on the causal ground. They were too inconceivable! See how he in one thought worshipped boundlessly many Buddhas. In a single instant of thought he was able to make offerings universally to limitless and boundlessly many Buddhas. Such courageous practices for Bodhi, such heroic deeds of vigor in at all times cultivating the Bodhi conduct, are what the spirit named Universally Manifesting awakens to. The Wind-Ruling Spirit named Universally Manifesting understands this kind of door to liberation.

Sutra:
The Tathagata's rescuing of the world is inconceivable. None of his expedients is employed in vain. He frees all beings entirely from all sufferings. This is the spirit named Cloud Banner's liberation.

Commentary:
The Tathagata--namely the Buddha, since Tathagata means the Buddha--saves the world of sentient beings. In other worlds, he rescues all living beings. It's impossible to fathom that kind of strength of patience and compliance, and so the text says: The Tathagata's rescuing of the world is inconceivable. Living beings could never imagine it. None of his expedients is employed in vain. All expedient Dharma-doors he uses are effective. Not one of them fails, the Buddha uses the type of Dharma-door suited to each particular type of living being--hence no Dharma-door is employed in vain. He frees all beings entirely from all sufferings. All living beings whatsoever are freed from the worlds obstructions of afflictions, obstructions of what is known, and obstructions of karma with its obstructing retribution. Beings leave all those various kinds of suffering behind. Since all sufferings are gone, the text says:He frees all beings entirely from all sufferings. This is the spirit named Cloud Banner's liberation. The Wind-Ruling Spirit named Cloud Banner understands this sort of door to liberation.

Sutra:
Living beings, lacking blessings, undergo the many sufferings,
Even shrouded and confused by weighty coverings and dense obstructions.
But he leads them all to achieve liberation.
The Spirit named Pure Light has this understanding.

Commentary:
Living beings, lacking blessings, undergo the many sufferings. Living beings--literally the multitude born are born from a multitude of conditions coming together, and die from a multitude of assembled factors. Living beings lack blessings. Why do they lack them? It's because they never planted blessings. What prevented them from doing so? The reason is: they never saw the Buddha, they never saw the Dharma, and they never saw the Sangha. Never having seen the Buddha, heard the Dharma, or encountered the Sangha, they had no place to plant blessings. Bereft of a locus for the fostering of blessings, they have no blessings. For example, in an area where there is no Buddha, no Dharma, and no Sangha, living beings reward of blessings has come to an end. They can no longer make their blessings grow, being in a region where blessings can't be planted. Because they lack blessings, they have to undergo the many sufferings. Many sufferingsndicates there are a great many of them. There are the Three Sufferings, the Eight Sufferings, and all the limitlessly many sufferings. The Three Sufferings are: the Suffering of Suffering, the Suffering of Decay, and the Suffering of Process. What is the Suffering of Suffering? It's suffering within suffering, woe added to woe. What does that mean? It refers to the situation of a poor person. To start with he is impoverished, which is suffering in itself. But another suffering is added to that. For instance, he might have a wooden shack in a poor refugee camp. Houses in America are made of wood, but they are painted very clean inside; and the outside paint is also very glossy and well-finished. Such houses are pleasant to live in, But in Brazil and Hong Kong, the shanties are of unfinished wood. They are very crude. The shacks are just nailed together, and neither the interior nor the exterior is painted. Rats live together with the people. The rats dwell in tiny houses, and the people live in big houses. They are crowded together, so rodents and humans are neighbors and friends. Actually, that's not so bad--at least they have another friend. The human has a rodent pal, and the rodent has a human buddy, which is still pretty good. But what happens next? A typhoon hits, and blows down the wooden shanty. The rat ignores the human, and the human doesn't need the rat. The rat looks for a new place to live on his own, but the human has to wait for resettlement, for the government to reassign him housing. Wouldn't you call that suffering on top of suffering? To begin with, he had a wooden shack to live in and could get by. But when one typhoon hits, his wooden shanty is blown apart. Or perhaps there is heavy rainfall and the wooden shack is washed away. That's suffering added to suffering.  

What is meant by the Suffering of Decay? In this case, the person is not poor. He has money, a lot of money--a very happy state of affairs.  But that happiness cannot last forever.  Good fortune is only temporary. There may be a man-made disaster or perhaps an accident. He may be kidnapped and held for ransom by bandits, or some other calamity may strike. All kinds of unexpected events destroy his wealth and honor.  That's the Suffering of Decay.

What is the Suffering of Process? It's when one has neither the tribulations of poverty nor the pain of loss of wealth and status. That might seem okay; there's nothing exceptional. And yet from being young, one matures; and once mature, one grows old. The process goes on and on non-stop. After being old, one dies. That life-process is called the Suffering of Process.

Everyone is subject to those three sufferings. That communality doesn't mean each person has all three. Some people may or may not experience all of them. However, if free from the trials of poverty, they have the pain of loss of wealth and honor. Or if they avoid decay of fame and fortune, they still face the suffering of the life-process. Hence those sufferings are said to be everybody's lot--if you don't have one, you have another.

There are also the Eight Sufferings, as follows. The Suffering of Birth refers to how, when a person is born, it’s as painful as for a live tortoise to have its shell ripped off-the agony is that excruciating.  When a human being is born, the pain is just that great. After being born, the person grows old. The old person’s hearing fails. His eyesight becomes dim. His teeth can’t chew things, and his legs don’t help him walk. He hobbles along, with chicken-like skin and crane-white hair.  That’s the Suffering of Old Age. There is also the Suffering of Sickness. Before you’re sick you don’t know about the suffering of illness. But once you fall ill, the sufferings are indescribable. For no apparent reason, your head starts to ache. You don’t know why, but your feet hurt, your legs hurt, your back aches. When you’re sick, even though you are hungry, you can’t get food down, or even drink water. That still doesn’t count as so terrible. The greatest suffering of all is the Suffering of Death.  The pain of dying is like that experienced by a cow being flayed alive. Just image how painful that is. Those are the sufferings of birth, old age, sickness, and death.

A further suffering is that of Being Separated from What One Loves. The more you love the person, the more that person wants to get away from you. Or there may be unusual circumstances or reasons why you have to be apart. However much you may want to be together, you have to separate. That's the Suffering of Being Separated from What One Loves. There is also the Suffering of Being Together with What One Hates. You can't stand someone. You detest the sight of him and would like to get away from him. But when you go somewhere else, you meet the same kind of person, approximately. That's the Suffering of Being Together with What One Hates. Another Suffering is that of Not Obtaining What One Seeks. In this case you have a lot of greed. You seek for wealth and honor, but you can't obtain them. You pursue glory, only to have it escape your grasp. You want to have a son but you can't have a son, or you want a daughter but you have no female offspring. You try to find a boyfriend, but you never get one.  Or you may want to find a girlfriend but there is none to be had. That's known as the Suffering of Not Obtaining What One Seeks. In general, whenever you cannot get what you want, that is the Suffering of Not Obtaining What One Seeks. There is also the Suffering of the Raging Blaze of the Five Skandhas. The Five Skandhas are: Form, Feeling, Thinking, Formations, and Consciousness.  Those Five Skandhas are like a huge bonfire which cannot be put out, which is called the Suffering of the Raging Blaze of the Five Skandhas.

To be continued

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