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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
The Flower Adornment Sutra with Commentary

【 卷三 世主妙嚴品第一之三】

The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Roll 3, Chapter 1, Part 3

宣化上人講於一九七三年十一月二日 Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua on November 2, 1973
國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute
修訂版 Revised version

前期經文:力能竭水主風神

我講《普門品》的時候,不是說過?「千日打柴一火焚」,你打了一千天的柴,一根火柴就把它燒了。一千天的柴,一個鐘頭也沒用就都燒完了。你做了一千天的功,修了一千天的德行,也就被你的無明火、老虎神一來,把功德都燒了。

這一位主風神,他能破惡魔。惡魔他也能破你道業,他看你修行有點功德了,惡魔在旁邊就等著機會,看看你什麼時候發脾氣,什麼時候有無明煩惱,那個魔在這兒就鑽進來,令你道心也沒有了。本來想要修行嘛,啊!現在一天到晚就想什麼?一一想還俗。想怎麼樣可以不修行,這就是魔生坐殿了,受魔王的支配了。你想本來向西方極樂世界走,魔王說:「不要去!那個地方很多麻煩的,你到東方那個地方不錯的。」他就是想種種的方法來同你講道理。把你講得,哦!西方是麻煩,那我到東方試一試啦!於是乎,就離不開娑婆世界了。

大聲遍吼主風神。得永滅一切眾生怖解脫門。

「大聲遍吼主風神」:這一位主風神叫「大聲遍吼」,這一定是這位主風神善於颳大風,這風聲音也大。遍吼,遍虛空都有他這種吼的聲。他「得永滅一切眾生怖」:一切眾生有所怖畏的時候,這一位主風神能施無畏於眾生,他布施無畏給一切的眾生,滅一切眾生的恐怖;他得到佛的這種境界,這種的「解脫門」。

樹杪垂髻主風神。得入一切諸法實相辯才海解脫門。

樹杪,也就是樹梢,樹的最末梢的地方。垂髻,垂就是垂向。這位主風神,他叫「樹杪垂髻主風神」。他得到這個境界,明白佛的境界,是「得入一切諸法實相辯才海解脫門」:入,是明白了悟了,了悟一切諸法實相,也就是諸法的本體。諸法的本體是什麼樣子呢?說:「諸法從本來,常自寂滅相,不可以言宣」,不可說的,諸法實相是不可說、不可說。「那不可說,怎麼又有辯才了呢?」就因為不可說,所以就有辯才了,入了辯才海。這種辯才是以諸法實相的本體來發揮它的妙用,這個道理說出來是無窮無盡的,你怎麼樣講都合理,都有道理,所以說叫辯才海;它不是一個道理所能說完的,所以說沒有定法。你講經說法,各有所見,各有所悟,講出來的經不會都一樣的。你要是都講一樣的,你也這麼樣講,他也這麼樣講,那就叫講一個死經,沒有把經的義明白了,也就是沒有入到諸法實相的本體;沒有明白,所以講出來的道理就是很死板的。

這諸法實相,你若明白了,那就入辯才海了,辯才無礙,誰怎麼講也講不過你,怎麼說,你都是勝利的。不會被人一說,把眼睛睜開,就沒有話講了,不會這樣子,這就沒有得辯才海。這一位樹杪垂髻主風神得到這種的解脫門。

普行無礙主風神。得調伏一切眾生方便藏解脫門。

「普行無礙主風神」:這一位主風神的風是周遍十方法界,所以叫普行無礙;他的風所到的地方,沒有可以障礙的。「得調伏一切眾生方便藏解脫門」:他得到的解脫門叫什麼呢?叫調伏一切眾生方便藏。他能令剛強的眾生不剛強,惡的眾生不惡,壞的眾生不壞了,能把眾生調伏得柔和、忍辱、精進,能令眾生改惡向善,捨邪歸正,棄暗投明。所以這都是調伏。調伏一切眾生,不是調伏一個眾生。用什麼來調伏呢?用方便藏,用方便的法門;這方便的法門是無量無邊的,所以叫藏。方便藏,遇到剛強的眾生,他就以柔和忍辱來調伏;遇到惡的眾生,他就以善法來調伏;遇到壞的眾生,他就以好的方法去調伏,那麼用種種的方便法門,來調伏一切眾生,所以他入這個解脫門。

種種宮殿主風神。得入寂靜禪定門。滅極重愚癡暗解脫門。

這一位主風神的名字叫種種宮殿。「宮殿」,有一種莊嚴的意思;這一位主風神用種種的行門來莊嚴,所以叫「種種宮殿主風神」。「得入寂靜禪定門」:寂靜就是不動,不動就是禪定;入寂靜禪定門。他能「滅極重愚癡暗」:滅極重愚癡暗,怎麼樣滅的呢?就因為入禪定門,由戒生定,由定發出一種智慧來;因為有了智慧,所以就把一切極重的、最厲害的、最難滅的都滅除了。什麼呢?愚癡闇。很蠢的、很愚癡的,愚也就是癡,癡也就是愚,愚癡就是這個人很糊塗的,沒有智慧,沒有光明。暗也就是糊塗,就是不明白。那麼因為入禪定了,有智慧光明,所以把這個極重的愚癡暗滅除,就得到解脫門了。

大光普照主風神。得隨順一切眾生行無礙力解脫門。

「大光普照主風神」:這一位主風神叫大光普照。他有大智慧光,普照一切眾生,這是他的名字。那麼他得到佛的這種境界是什麼呢?「得隨順一切眾生行無礙力解脫門」:他得到能隨順一切眾生行,眾生所願意做的事情,他就隨順,所謂恆順眾生,令眾生歡喜,令眾生得到解脫,不令眾生生煩惱、發脾氣,這就叫無礙力;能令眾生生一種歡喜心,這就叫無礙力。你若令眾生生了煩惱,那就有了礙,有了障礙了。他得到這種的解脫門。

爾時無礙光明主風神。承佛威力。普觀一切主風神眾。而說頌言。

「爾時」:就在釋迦牟尼佛說這個大華嚴的時候,有無量菩薩來集道場,無量諸天王來集道場,無量天龍八部來集道場,又有主晝神、主夜神、主空神、主風神、主方神等等,這個神都來集道場。這時候,這「無礙光明主風神」他又有話講了,講什麼呢?他要說偈讚佛。那麼他能不能說偈呢?能說偈,但是不太圓融。那麼現在他「承佛威力」:藉著釋迦牟尼佛這個大威德神通之力,「普觀一切主風神眾」:他普遍觀察這一切主風的神,「而說頌言」:他又說出四句偈頌來。

待續

Reminder of Sutra text from last issue:ThisWind-Ruling Spirit named  Power to Dry Up Water.

When I lectured on the Universal Door Chapter, didn't I tell you, "Firewood gathered for a thousand days totally burns up in a single blaze"? A woodpile that took 1000 days to make can be consumed by fire in less than an hour's time. You may do a thousand days' worth of merit and virtue, cultivating virtuous practices for a thousand days, only to have all that merit and virtue completely burned up when your fire of ignorance and tiger-like spirit appear on the scene.

This particular Wind-Ruling Spirit is able to break through evil demons. Malicious ogres can destroy your work in the Way. They see you have a little merit and virtue from cultivation, and so they wait on the sidelines for an opening, such as when you get angry and have ignorance and afflictions. That's when the demons drill their way in. Once they've bored in, they destroy your resolve for the Way. To start with you wanted to cultivate, but now what happens? From morning to night you think of returning to lay life and how to get out of cultivating. That's the demon king being seated in the hall-you're controlled by a demon monarch. Originally you were on your way to the Western Land of Ultimate Bliss, but the demon king tells you, "Don't go there! That place is a lot of trouble. Go eat, which is a lot better territory." The demon thinks of all kinds of ways to dissuade you, so in the end you say, "The West is trouble-I'll go try the East." From that point on, you're stuck in the Saha World. Demons have taent that enormous. If you really want to cultivate the Way, and leave the suffering of the turning wheel, then don't believe what demons say.
Sutra:
The Wind-Ruling Spirit named Pervasively Howling Great Sound obtained the liberation door of permanently eradicating all living beings' fears.

Commentary:
The next Wind-Ruling Spirit is named Pervasively Howling Great Sound. This Wind-Ruling Spirit must like to stir up great winds which howl at top volume. The sound of their uproar extends throughout all of empty space. He obtained the liberation door of permanently eradicating all living beings' fears. Whenever living beings are afraid, this Wind-Ruling Spirit bestows fearlessness upon them, dispelling all living beings' terror and fear. That's the type of state of the Buddhas, the door to liberation which he obtained.

Sutra:
The Wind-Ruling Spirit named Tree-Tip Trailing Cowl obtained the liberation door of entry to the sea of eloquence concerning the real mark of all dharmas.

Commentary:
The next Wind-Ruling Spirit is named Tree-Tip Trailing Cowl. "Tree-tip" refers to the very end of a branch or the top-most point of a tree, and "trailing" means hanging down. The state which he obtained, the liberation door or state of the Buddhas which he understood, was that of entry to the sea of eloquence concerning the real mark of all dharmas. "Entry" means understanding and awakening to. He awakened to the characteristic of reality of all dharmas, namely all dharmas' fundamental substance. And what is the fundamental substance of all dharmas? As it is said: "All dharmas from their origin are constantly characterized by still quiescence and cannot be expressed in words." They are inexpressible. The characteristic of reality of all dharmas is ineffably ineffable.

You may ask, "Well, if this is ineffable, then how can there be eloquence?" Just because it's ineffable there is eloquence. He entered the sea of eloquence. This kind of eloquence is the wonderful functioning which issues forth from the fundamental substance of the real mark of all dharmas. The principle, when expressed, is infinite and unending. Any way you discuss it makes sense, and all interpretations are valid, which is why this is called the sea of eloquence. It cannot be summed up in a single principle, and so there are said to be no fixed dharmas. When you lecture on Sutras and speak Dharma, each has his or her own point of view and individual awakening, and so no lecture on a Sutra will be the same. If everyone who lectured gave an identical explanation, then the Sutra lecture would be dead, and the meaning of the Sutra would not be made clear. That would be failure to enter the basic substance of the real mark of all dharmas. It would be lack of understanding, and the principles expressed would be rigid and dead. However, if you do understand the characteristic of reality of all dharmas, then you enter the sea of eloquence. You will have unobstructed eloquence, and no one would be able to outtalk you. Whatever you say, you will be victorious. You would never be left staring speechless by something someone says, which would be not attaining the sea of eloquence. This Wind-Ruling Spirit named Tree-Tip Trailing Cowl obtained that kind of door to liberation.

Sutra:
The Wind-Ruling Spirit named Travelling Everywhere without Obstruction obtained the liberation door of the treasury of expedients to tame and subdue all living beings.

Commentary:
The next Wind-Ruling Spirit is named Travelling Everywhere without Obstruction. This Wind-Ruling Spirit goes throughout the Dharma Realms of the ten directions, which is the reference of "travelling everywhere without obstruction." Nothing can block his wind from going anywhere. What door to liberation did he attain? He obtained the liberation door of the treasury of expedients to tame and subdue all living beings. He can get stubborn living beings not to be stubborn, make evil beings stop being evil, and inspire corrupt beings to reform their rotten ways. He mollifies living beings and makes them mellow, patient, and vigorous. He influences beings to change from evil to good, discard what is deviant and return to what is proper, cast aside darkness and go towards the light--all of which are aspects of taming and subduing. He tames and subdues all living beings--not just one, but all whatsoever.

What does he use to do that? He employs the treasury of skill-in-means, Dharma doors of expedients. Those expedient Dharma doors are limitless and boundless, and so are termed a treasury--the treasury of expedients. Upon encountering stubborn living beings, he softens them with harmoniousness and patience. If he meets evil beings, he wins them over using wholesome Dharmas. In dealing with corrupt living beings, he tames and subdues them with methods of goodness. He employs all types of Dharma doors of expedients to moderate living beings, and there enters this door to liberation.

Sutra:
The Wind-Ruling Spirit named Manifold Palaces obtained the liberation door of entering the door of still dhyana-samadhi, and eradicating the darkness of extremely heavy stupidity.

Commentary:
The Wind-Ruling Spirit is named Manifold Palaces. "Palaces" conveys the idea of adornments. This particular Wind-Ruling Spirit uses all kinds of doors of practice as ornaments--hence his name. He obtained the liberation door of entering the door of still dhyana-samadhi. "Stillness" means not moving, and not to move is itself dhyana-samadhi. He entered the door to still dhyana-samadhi and of eradicating the darkness of extremely heavy stupidity. How does he eradicate it? It's through entering the door of dhyana-samadhi. Based on precepts, samadhi arises; and from samadhi, wisdom comes forth. Since he has wisdom, he can eliminate all the heaviest, fiercest, and hardest-to-eradicate darkness of stupidity, of being very dense and muddled. Someone obtuse and bewildered lacks wisdom and has no clarity. But from entering dhyana-samadhi, this Wind-Ruling Spirit has the light of wisdom, and so he can dispel this intensely heavy darkness of stupidity--darkness standing for befuddlement and lack of understanding. That is the door to liberation which he obtained.

Sutra:
The Wind-Ruling Spirit named Great Light Universally Shining obtained the liberation door of power of non-obstruction to follow in accord with all living beings' actions.

Commentary:
The next Wind-Ruling Spirit is named Great Light Universally Shining. He has great light of wisdom which universally shines on all living beings--hence his name. What state of the Buddha did he achieve? He obtained the liberation door of power of non-obstruction to follow in accord with all living beings' actions. He attained the ability to accord with living beings' practices. He adapts to whatever living beings like to do, which is to constantly accord with living beings, making them happy so they achieve liberation. He doesn't make living beings upset, afflicted, or angry, and so this is called power of non-obstruction. To create pleased and happy attitudes in living beings is power of non-obstruction. If you make living beings upset, then there is obstruction and blockage. That's the kind of door to liberation which he obtained.                    

Sutra:
At that time the Wind-Ruling Spirit named Unobstructed Light received the Buddha's awesome might, universally contemplated all the multitudes of Wind-Ruling Spirits, and spoke the following verses.

Commentary:
At that time refers to when Shakyamuni Buddha was speaking the Great Flower Adornment. Limitlessly many Bodhisattvas had assembled together in the Way-place, along with limitlessly many Heavenly Kings, Heavenly Dragons, and others of the Eightfold Division. There were also Day-Ruling Spirits, Night-Ruling Spirits, Emptiness-Ruling Spirits, Wind-Ruling Spirits, Direction-Ruling Spirits, and so forth who had all assembled in the Bodhimanda. Right then the Wind-Ruling Spirit named Unobstructed Light had something more to say. What was it? He wanted to speak lines of verse in praise of the Buddha. Was he able to speak in verse? Yes, but not all that perfectly. But at that time he received the Buddha's awesome might. He availed himself of Shakyamuni Buddha's great awesome power of spiritual penetrations, universally contemplated all the multitudes of Wind-Ruling Spirits, and spoke the following verses. He observed all the many Wind-Ruling Spirits everywhere, and expressed himself in a four-line gatha.

To be continued

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