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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
The Flower Adornment Sutra with Commentary

【 卷三 世主妙嚴品第一之三】

The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Roll 3, Chapter 1, Part 3

宣化上人講於一九七三年十一月二日 Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua on November 2, 1973
國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute
修訂版 Revised version

前期經文:如是大願心.普現能觀察。

復次。無礙光明主風神。得普入佛法及一切世間解脫門。

各位不懂佛法的人,就不知道有主晝神、主夜神、主空神、主風神,不知道有這樣多的神。研究佛法的人,才知道有這麼多的神。主風神,也不是一個主風神,而是有無量無邊那麼多的主風神。現在經文上不過提出來十位主風神的名字,沒有提出來的呢,那還不知道有多少?所以現在說「復次」:復次是在前面的意思還沒有說完,同時讚歎佛的人、讚歎佛的神呢?不單單就主空神、主晝神、主夜神,現在所說的是同時讚歎佛的主風神。

這位主風神,名字叫無礙光明。無所障礙,他的光明是遍照一切處的,所以叫無礙光明主風神。風,風也有很多種,所以神的名字也有很多的名字。風,在我們人身裡邊也有風,所以身的外邊也有。我們的身體就是四大假合––地、水、火、風,合和而成。所以四大假合的關係,我們身體裡邊也有風。風,也有神管著它的。這個主啊,就是管著風的,風也不是隨便可以願意怎麼樣子颳,就怎麼樣子颳,也有神來管著它的。 我們在風裡邊,但看不見風;魚在水裡頭,看不見水是一樣的。我們在風裡邊,沒有風就不會活著,魚若沒有水也不會活著。你把魚拿到水的外邊來,沒有幾天它就會死了。我們人要是沒有空氣,也不需要幾天也就會死的。你把人放到一個不透空氣的裡邊,不需要多久,他就會死了,因為沒有風了。所以風與我們每一個人都有關係,每一個人若離了風就不會生存在這個世界。所以這一位主風神,他就得到什麼?得普入佛法的三昧,他普遍而悟入一切的佛法。佛法就是出世法––出世間的一種佛法。還「及一切世間」:世間就是世間法。所以六祖大師才說:「佛法在世間,不離世間覺,離世覓菩提,猶如求兔角」,佛法叫即世法而出世法,不是離開世間法,另外找一個出世法。就在這個世間法,就有出世法。所以說及一切世間「解脫門」:解脫門前面講了很多,就是得到這種的解脫門了。

普現勇業主風神。得無量國土佛出現。咸廣大供養解脫門。

普現,是普遍現出來。勇業,什麼是勇業?就是精進的業-精進菩提、精進梵行、精進修行、精進供養,精進恭敬三寶。這叫普現勇業。他對一切的佛法都是精進不懈怠,所以叫普現勇業主風神。這一位主風神得到什麼呢?得到無量國土,就是無量無邊諸佛國土,佛出現,所有的佛出現於世。「咸廣大供養解脫門」:咸,當一個「全」字。就是完全他來修這種精進的廣大供養。供養,所有的佛出現於世他來供養。也就是以這個法界的心量,以法界的心量來供養法界的諸佛。供養過去的佛,供養現在的佛,供養未來的佛。他得到這種的解脫門。

告訴你們,以後我們研究問題,你們誰都要答覆。譬如有一個人問,不要等著我來答覆。他不錯,問我。問我,看看你們有沒有人能答覆這個問題。我先你們來,不要把你們都蓋住了。這一個師父的帽子把你們都壓到地下了,誰的智慧辯才也發展不出來了。是不是這樣?現在由你們自己的本有的智慧辯才,可以答覆所有的人的問題。現在有我呢,你答覆錯了,譬如這一方不佩服,他可以再提出來研究。沒有對,說答覆得我不滿意,那麼以滿意為止。你答覆得他不滿意,又找那一個;那個答覆得不滿意,又找那一個。你們都不能答覆了,然後我再來答覆。你看這樣子,如果你們能答覆了,那就免得我來動腦筋了,我就不過睡覺就好了。

飄擊雲幢主風神。得以香風普滅一切眾生病解脫門。

「飄擊雲幢」:這是這位主風神的名字。什麼叫飄呢?飄就是飄搖不定,飄來飄去,似風吹的樣子,這風的行動的樣子。飄擊,擊,是撞擊。雲幢,人好像一個寶幢似的。這位主風神得到一種的解脫門叫什麼呢?叫得以香風。香風,這種風可以解除眾生一切的病。香風也就是香氣,他颳的這一種風,有一股香氣在這風裡邊。這種香氣是無上的一種藥品,他能普遍消滅一切眾生的貪病、瞋病、癡病,能把眾生貪瞋癡的病,給消滅了。先消滅貪瞋癡的病,就增長戒定慧的德行。這一位主風神,他就得到這種的解脫門。

淨光莊嚴主風神。得普生一切眾生善根。令摧滅重障山解脫門。

淨光莊嚴主風神是主風神的名字。他以清淨的光明來莊嚴其身,所以有這個名字。他得到一種的解脫門是什麼呢?能普生一切眾生善根,他令所有的眾生都發菩提心、生大善根,令一切眾生都改惡向善、改邪歸正,「諸惡不作,眾善奉行」。所以叫普生一切眾生的善根。

「令摧滅重障山」:善根增長,惡業就消滅了。所以他令一切眾生摧滅重障山。什麼是重障山?就是我們貢高我慢、貪瞋癡、罪孽過,這都是重障山。這種重障猶如須彌山一樣,所以叫做重障山。最厲害的就是我執和法執,有我法二執猶如一個山一樣,他能摧滅我、法二執,能把重障山也平了,得到這一種的解脫門。

力能竭水主風神。得能破無邊惡魔眾解脫門。

這一位主風神呢,真是名實相符了。怎麼樣呢?他能力、能竭水,他的力量能把水給吹乾了。他風若一過,把所有的溼性都給吹跑了,所以叫力能竭水主風神。他得到什麼解脫門呢?他得到能破無邊惡魔眾。惡魔也就是最厲害的魔,最厲害的魔莫如無明煩惱,煩惱魔是最厲害的。我們人修道,常常要迴光返照,返照什麼呢?你看看你自己自性裡邊有沒有煩惱了。人對你不好,你生不生煩惱?有人說你不對,你生不生煩惱?有人對你不客氣,你生不生煩惱?有人來罵你,你生不生煩惱?有人來打你,你生不生煩惱?你若不生煩惱了,這就把無邊的惡魔眾都給破了。你若是生煩惱,這一切的惡魔眾就沒有破。天天要迴光返照:修道的人為什麼要有脾氣?修道的人怎麼可以發脾氣?我們人要是沒有煩惱了,這個人就出貴了,就高尚了。你若有很大的脾氣––無明、煩惱,這個人就沒有價值了、就不出貴了、也不清高了。清高的修道的人就要沒有煩惱。你們誰能沒有煩惱,誰就會早證果、早開悟;誰有煩惱,誰就晚證果、晚開悟。

現在(一九七三年),在這個國家,佛法剛開始。我們一定要找多一點人證果,找多一點人來開悟。我們要找聖賢、菩薩、阿羅漢、初果的聖人、二果的聖人、三果的聖人、四果的聖人。我們要找聖人,不是找剩下的人。什麼是剩下的人?就是人家都不要了,你找他來。我們在這個國家,人人都不要錯過你應該得的機會。你應該證果聖人,你一發脾氣就沒有分了,就沒有你的份了。你看哪個聖人,他會有很大的無明、煩惱、脾氣?他沒有的。因為他證到人空、法空了,人也空了、法也空了。到人空、法空了,證得人空、法空的境界,他自然就沒有無明、煩惱了。你們每一個人要尊重自己,不要看不起自己。要想法子快點證果,不要落於人後。你想證果,先要把惡魔破了。惡魔就是你的煩惱。

待續

Reminder of Sutra text from last issue: This type of mind of great vows  is what Universally Manifesting can contemplate

Sutra:
Furthermore, the Wind-Ruling Spirit named Unobstructed Light obtained the liberation door of universally entering the Buddhas' Dharmas and all that is worldly.

Commentary:
People who don't understand the Buddhadharma fail to recognize that there are so many Spirits, such as Day-Ruling Spirits, Night-Ruling Spirits, Emptiness-Ruling Spirits, and Wind-Ruling Spirits. But those who do investigate the Buddhadharma find out that there are all those many Spirits. As the Wind-Ruling Spirits, there isn't just one Spirit ruling the wind; there are limitlessly and boundlessly many Wind-Ruling Spirits. Right now the Sutra text only mentions the names of ten Wind-Ruling Spirits, but there are far more than one can know who are not mentioned. Hence the text says: Furthermore, indicating that in what went before, not everything was entirely said yet. Among the Spirits who were simultaneously praising the Buddha there weren't just Emptiness-Ruling Spirits, Day-Ruling Spirits, and Night-Ruling Spirits. Now we hear about the Wind-Ruling Spirits who were delivering their praises of the Buddha at the same time too.

The Wind-Ruling Spirit listed first is named Unobstructed Light. Because nothing blocks it, his light pervasively shines on all places--hence his name. He is a Wind-Ruling Spirit. There are many different kinds of winds, and so there are Wind-Ruling Spirits of many different names. Concerning wind, we people have wind, or air, in our bodies, and there is wind and air outside our bodies too. Our bodies are false conglomerations of the four elements: earth, water, fire, and wind and air. That being the case, there is wind and air within our bodies, and the wind and air is governed by spirits. That they are rulers means they watch  over wind and air. Winds cannot just blow as they please. There are Spirits overseeing them. We ourselves are inside wind and air, but we don't see it, in the same way as fish are in water but don't see the water. We people couldn't survive unless we had that air to live in, just as fish perish if they don't have water. If you take the fish out of the water, before a few days have passed, the fish will be dead. And if we people are deprived of air, we will die from suffocation in a short time. Consequently, wind/air is important to each of us. Not one of us could survive in this world without it.

What did this particular Wind-Ruling Spirit achieve? He obtained the liberation door of the samadhi of universally entering the Buddhas' Dharmas. He had a universally pervasive awakening and entry to all Dharmas of the Buddhas. Buddhadharmas are world-transcending Dharmas, the aspects of the Buddhadharma which transcend the mundane; and all that is worldly. "Worldly" here refers to worldly dharmas. The Sixth Patriarch said:

The Buddhadharma is in the world
Enlightenment is not apart from the world.
To seek Enlightenment apart from the world is like looking for a hare with horns.

Buddhadharma here means that worldly dharmas are themselves world-transcending dharmas. It's not the case that there are some other world-transcending dharmas to be found apart from worldly dharmas. Rather, it is right within worldly dharmas that there are world-transcending dharmas. That's why the text says, "and all that is worldly." "Liberation door" has been discussed a lot already. This was the kind of door to liberation which he attained.

Sutra:
The Wind-Ruling Spirit named Universally Manifesting Courageous Karma obtained the liberation door of the Buddhas manifesting in limitlessly many lands, and vastly making offerings to them all.

Commentary:
The next Wind-Ruling Spirit is named Universally Manifesting Courageous Karma. "Universally manifesting" means appearing everywhere. What is courageous karma? It is vigorous karma: vigorous Bodhi, vigorous Brahma conduct, vigorous cultivation, vigorous making of offerings, and vigorous reverence for the Triple Jewel. That is called universally manifesting courageous karma. Because this Wind-Ruling Spirit is vigorous with regard to all Buddhadharmas, and never lax, therefore he is named Universally Manifesting Courageous Karma.

What did this Wind-Ruling Spirit achieve? He obtained the liberation door of the Buddhas manifesting in limitlessly many lands, all Buddhas appearing in the world in limitless  and boundlessly many countries, and vastly making offerings to them all. "To them all" is similar to "totally," indicating how he cultivates this vast, great vigorous making of offerings in a total way. His presenting of offerings is such that he makes offerings to each and every Buddhas who is appearing in any world. He uses that kind of measure of mind which is equal to the Dharma Realm to make offerings to all Buddhas throughout the Dharma Realm making offerings to the Buddhas of the past, the Buddhas of the present, and the Buddhas of the future. He obtained that kind of door to liberation.

After this, during the question and answer period, all of you should answer. For example, if someone asks a question, don't wait for me to respond. It's true the person's question is directed at me, but even so, I'll wait to see if one of you can answer first. I don't want to push you out of the picture, using my rank as  Teacher to keep you down, preventing you from developing your wisdom and eloquence. Isn't that so?  Now all of you have your own inherent wisdom and eloquence and can answer people's questions. I am here at present, so if you answer incorrectly,  or if the person asking doesn't accept  what you say, he or she can reopen the matter for investigation by saying, that's not right, or I am not satisfied with that answer. We'll use whether the person is satisfied or not as the criterion. If he or she isn’t satisfied with your reply, then we’ll find someone else.  Should that answer also prove unsatisfactory, we'll get another person.  If none of you can answer, I will speak at the end. We'll see how it goes. If you reply, then I won't have to exert my brains, and can take a little nap. 

Sutra:
The Wind-Ruling Spirit named Drifting and Striking Cloud Banner obtained the liberation door of using fragrant wind to eradicate all living beings illnesses everywhere.

Commentary:
The next Wind-Ruling Spirit is named Drifting and Striking Cloud Banner. Drifting means roaming about with no fixed place, drifting back and forth. This is describing the movement of the wind. Striking refers to hitting together. Cloud banner suggests clouds in the shape of a jewelled banner. What type of door to liberation did this Wind-Ruling Spirit achieve? He obtained the liberation door of using fragrant wind to eradicate all living beings illnesses everywhere. The kind of wind or air involved can dispell all of living beings sicknesses. Fragrant wind is fragrant atmosphere. The type of wind he sets in motion has a perfumed energy within it. The fragrant energy is an unsurpassed medicine that can universally put an end to living beings sickness of greed, sickness of anger, and sickness of stupidity. It first eradicates their illnesses of greed, anger, and stupidity, and then increases their virtuous practices of precepts, samadhi and wisdom. That's the kind of door to liberation which this Wind-Ruling Spirit obtained. 

Sutra:
The Wind-Ruling Spirit named Adornment with Pure Light obtained the liberation door of universally producing all living beings good roots and toppling their heavy mountain of obstructions.

Commentary:
The next Wind-Ruling Spirit is named Adornment with Pure Light. He uses pristine radiance to adorn his body--hence his name. What kind of door to liberation did he achieve? He obtained the liberation door of universally producing all living beings good roots. He enables all living beings to bring forth the resolve for Bodhi, creating great good roots. He influences all living beings to change from evil to good, to turn away from the deviant and return to what is proper, so they do no evil but offer up all good conduct instead. That is what is meant by universally producing all living beings good roots, and toppling their heavy mountain of obstructions. As their good roots increase, their bad karma is eradicated. Therefore he helps all living beings to destroy their heavy mountain of obstructions. What is the heavy mountain of obstructions? It's our conceit and arrogance, our greed, anger and stupidity, our offenses and transgressions. All of those constitute a ponderous mountain of obstacles. Such weighty obstacles are like Mount-Sumeru- -hence the reference to a heavy mountain of obstructions. The most formidable are the attachment to self and the attachment to dharmas. The dual attachment to self and dharmas is like a mountain. But he can demolish attachments to self and to dharmas, and level that heavy mountain of obstructions.  He obtained that kind of door to liberation.

Sutra:
The Wind-Ruling Spirit named Power to Dry Up Water obtained the liberation door of breaking through the boundlessly many hordes of evil demons

Commentary:
The next Wind-Ruling Spirit is named Power to Dry Up Water, which is truly a case of the name matching the reality. What do I mean? He has the strength to absorb water, which is to say he has the power to drink the water dry. When his wind blows through some region, it dries up all the moisture--hence his name. What door to liberation did he achieve? He obtained the liberation door of breaking through the boundlessly many hordes of evil demons. Evil demons are the most ferocious ones, the worst of which are those of ignorance and afflictions. The demons of afflictions are incredibly overpowering. We cultivators of the Way constantly need to introspect to see whether or not our own natures have afflictions within. If someone treats you badly, do you become afflicted? Perhaps people say you are wrong--do you get upset? In cases where people are rude to you, are you bothered by it? Suppose someone scolds you--do you become perturbed? What if you are beaten--are you outraged? If you remain unafflicted, then you have broken through the boundlessly many hordes of evil demons. But if you do get afflicted, you have not broken free from evil demons.

We should look within ourselves each day and ask, "Why should a cultivator have a temper? How can a cultivator get angry?" Anyone who can manage not to have afflictions achieves nobility and loftiness. But if you have a huge temper, ignorance and afflictions, you become worthless, ignoble, not pure and lofty. Pure and lofty cultivators must be free from afflictions. People who can free themselves from afflictions will certify to the fruitions. People who can free themselves from afflictions will certify to the fruitions sooner, and will become enlightened sooner. Those who still have afflictions will certify to the fruitions later and become enlightened later.

Buddhism is just starting to take hold in this country (note: this was spoken in 1973), and we absolutely need to find more people to certify to the fruitions and become enlightened. We have to look for Sages and Worthies, Bodhisattvas, Arhats--Sages of the First Fruition, Sages of the Second Fruition, Sages of the Third Fruition, and Sages of the Fourth Fruition. We must locate Sages, not discards (note: the two words have the same sound in Chinese). What are discards? They are people whom no one wants, but you get them to come.   None of you in this country should miss the opportunity now open to you. You ought to certify to the fruitions and become Sages. But as soon as you get angry, you lose your chance. Take a look at Sages. Could they have ignorance, afflictions or tempers on a big scale? No, because they have certified to the emptiness and people and the emptiness of dharmas. For them, both people and dharmas are empty. They have reached the state of both people and dharmas being empty, and so very naturally they have no ignorance or afflictions. Each one of you should have self-respect. Don't look down on yourselves. You should find a way to certify to the fruitions quickly. Don't lag behind. And if you want to certify to the fruitions, you must start by breaking free from evil demons--evil demons being your afflictions.

To be continued

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