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【 水鏡回天錄白話解 】

REFLECTIONS IN WATER AND MIRRORS REVERSING THE TIDE OF DESTINY

大勢至菩薩
Great Strength Bodhisattva

宣化上人講述於一九八七年一月三十一日金山聖寺 Composed by the Venerable Master Hua on January 31, 1987 at Gold Mountain Monastery
國際譯經學院記錄  Translated by the International Translation Institute

我們人拜佛念佛,求生極樂世界,人人都知道,在西方,阿彌陀佛是極樂世界的教主,有觀世音菩薩是阿彌陀佛的左輔,大勢至菩薩則是阿彌陀佛的右弼。輔弼阿彌陀佛,弘揚念佛法門。
今天所講的就是大勢至菩薩,為什麼他叫大勢至菩薩呢?因為他有大勢力。他這個勢力大到什麼程度上呢?他一舉手,一投足,這手一動彈,腳一動彈,就震動三千大千世界。

這三千大千世界,有數不完那麼多的世界。我們每一個世界,有一個須彌山,一個日月,及一個四大部洲,這叫一個世界。集聚一千個日月,一千個須彌山,一千個四大部洲,這叫一個小千世界。再集聚一千個小千世界,這叫中千世界。再集聚一千個中千世界,這叫大千世界。所以現在啊,太空到了某一個星球,這跟本是不出奇的。從這星球到另外一個星球去,這是三千大千世界其中的一小部份,談不到有什麼奇怪的、特別的,談不到的。

大勢至菩薩,他手腳一動,這三千大千世界就震動了,不單地球震動,就是所有的六欲諸天(魔王的宮殿)都粉碎了,都震動了,所以這一位菩薩,他不能走路,手也不能隨便那麼動,不會像我們人哪,手舞足蹈的。啊!他手腳一動,這三千大千世界都震動了。你說這位菩薩如果跳一跳舞呢,那三千大千世界都會毀滅了。可是他有定力,他也不動,常常在極樂世界那兒入定。

這位菩薩以前就是阿彌陀佛的眷屬,跟著阿彌陀佛出家修行,生生世世都跟著阿彌陀佛修道,所以阿彌陀佛成佛了,他也到那兒助佛揚化。

他精進念佛法門,得到念佛三昧。他因為修行功德圓滿了,所以蒙佛授記,佛就給他授記,說未來的時候他就是叫「善住功德寶王如來」,他的佛名號就叫「善住功德寶王佛」。這位菩薩他的智慧光明,普照一切,破一切眾生的黑暗、無明。

他修念佛法門,念佛法門:第一個,是「持名念佛」。持名念佛,怎麼叫持名呢?持是受持,受持這個佛的名號,就念「南無阿彌陀佛、南無阿彌陀佛……」,他不是今生成菩薩才念佛,他是生生世世,由無量劫以來,他就修念佛法門、念佛三昧。什麼叫三昧?三昧,就是正定,念佛的正定;正受,得到定力了,得到這個受用了,他念到一心不亂了。那麼念佛,只要持六字洪名,就念「南無阿彌陀佛」。

我們各位想一想,大勢至菩薩、觀世音菩薩,現在他們幹什麼呢?都在念佛;文殊菩薩、普賢菩薩,也都在念佛;地藏菩薩也都在念佛。這四大菩薩天天都在念佛。那麼菩薩到他的果位了,他尚且在念佛呢,我們這個凡夫的人,更應該念佛了,更應該受持佛的名號。

所以嘛,我們不要把念佛法門看得忽略了,不要說:「那是愚夫愚婦念的,我是一個有智慧的人,我是一個知識份子,我不需要念佛。」你有智慧的人,你能大過觀世音菩薩、大勢至菩薩、文殊菩薩、普賢菩薩、地藏菩薩嗎?你能大過這一些菩薩的智慧嗎?這一些菩薩都在念佛呢。你的辯才能勝過文殊菩薩、普賢菩薩、觀世音菩薩、地藏菩薩、大勢至菩薩,能以超過他們嗎?你的神通有他們那麼大嗎?你不要以為,這是做一個科學家,啊!造了一個什麼火箭,打到太空去,這就了不起了。這也就是,到這個時候人人都可以做得到的;時候到了,人人都有這種知識,這沒有什麼很特別的。可是觀世音菩薩、大勢至菩薩、文殊師利菩薩、普賢菩薩、地藏菩薩,他們這種的神通妙用,你根本想都想像不到的,作夢也夢不到的,他們都在念佛呢。所以念佛法門是無上、最高無上的。又省工、又省時間、又省錢、什麼也不需費,就是你念「南無阿彌陀佛、南無阿彌陀佛……」就好了,就可以成佛。

在末法時代,所有的經都沒有了,都滅了,只有《阿彌陀經》在世界上多住一百年,度人無量;等到《阿彌陀經》也沒有了,那時候就是剩「南無阿彌陀佛」六字洪名,又多住世一百年;等再過這一百年,這個世界上佛法都沒有了,只剩「阿彌陀佛」這四個字,在世界又多住世一百年;以後,佛法就都滅了,沒有人懂得佛法,沒有人知道了。所以念佛法門是最妙的。因為這樣,所以大勢至菩薩,一切菩薩摩訶薩,都在念佛。持名念佛,就是執持名號念佛,很方便、很容易的,又不費錢、又不費工、直截了當。

第二,「觀相念佛」。只觀阿彌陀佛三十二相、八十種隨形好,身體是金色的,佛相的莊嚴也是特別的。不要說旁的,就是他的白毫,能宛轉五須彌,有五個須彌山那麼大;阿彌陀佛的眼睛,就有四大海那麼大,想像得到嗎?有四大海那麼大的眼睛,你看見過沒有?那麼他的身體呢,更不容易形容,可以說有百千萬億那由他個世界星球那麼大。所以,你觀想阿彌陀佛這個相成了,然後得到念佛三昧。

你想要得到念佛三昧,也先要身口意這三業要清淨。你不能口念著佛,還去罵人去;你不能意裡想佛,你又去胡思亂想,想一些個邪念。你身還犯殺、盜、淫;口還犯綺語、妄言、惡口、兩舌,這四惡;你意念裡頭又有貪、瞋、癡,這都叫三業不清淨。三業若清淨呢?身,你不能有殺、盜、淫這個業;口,你不能有綺語、妄言、惡口、兩舌,這四惡;意念裡頭不能有貪、瞋、癡,這三毒,這叫身口意三業清淨。你能三業清淨了,念佛就好像清珠投於濁水,濁水也不得不清。念佛入於亂心,本來心裡很多妄想,在妄想心,你能念佛,那個妄想心就跟著你念佛的聲音,慢慢、慢慢把那妄想也都化過來,成一個佛念。所以說:

清珠投於濁水,濁水不得不清;
念佛入於亂心,亂心不得不佛。

「觀想念佛」。觀想,就是你在坐臥之中,在行住坐臥的時候,常常都是觀想佛,也是觀想佛的相好莊嚴。你觀相呢,就是對著一尊佛像來觀。

又有「實相念佛」。這實相,也就是參禪。參禪,實相無相的,實相沒有什麼相的,可是無所不相。你若說它什麼都沒有,但是它什麼都有;你說它什麼都有,它又什麼也沒有。你到這種境界了,你自然就明白實相的道理。實相,念到念而無念,無念而念,風也吹不透了,雨也打不漏了,你成了實相念佛的時候,你想不念,也不可以;你想要念,也不覺得;想要不念,也不覺得。他已在定裡頭了,在定中也能念佛。那麼能念到這個程度上,你就一定能往生到極樂世界,華開見佛。

娑婆世界的人,是胎生的;極樂世界的人呢,是化生的。我們學佛的人,要拿出點時間來學習佛法,不要似懂非懂的、似通不通的。或者我不懂了,我就不願意懂了;我不通嘛,我就不願意通了,這樣是中道自劃、裹足不前,這是自誤前途。我們一定要把它追究到「山窮水盡疑無路,柳暗花明又一村。」你念佛念得不念自念,念而無念,把念佛打成一片,仍已到一心不亂的程度,這一定能往生西方極樂世界,華開見佛。

現在講的是大勢至菩薩。大勢至菩薩他為什麼有那麼大的勢力?就因為他心裡「直」,他從一開始修行的時候就直心,「直心是道場」。因為他直心,他能影響其他人念佛,幫助其他人念佛,所以現在他做阿彌陀佛的護法。護法就是成就、擁護阿彌陀佛的願力,所以嘛,他還在念佛。他自己也念佛,跟你這也念佛,念佛和念佛念得成一個了,二而不二。那麼你念佛,他念佛,互相這麼念佛,就有感應道交。所以等你到功夫成熟了,願意往生極樂世界的時候,大勢至菩薩就來把你接到極樂世界去。為什麼他要來接你去?因為他的願力,他要擁護他的師父,他的師父發願:「我若成佛了,有人念我名號,他若不成佛,我也不成佛。」因此他就擁護他師父的這個願力,若有人念佛的時候,他發願一定要把你接到極樂世界去。這是自力他,彼此互相這個力量,就到極樂世界去。

贊曰:
其直如矢 其智如神 勢力廣大 入無礙門
震動三千 降伏波旬 眾生皈依 證妙法身

「其直如矢」:所以他的心是很直的,直心是道場。「其智如神」:他的智慧呢,就像神那麼不可思議。

「勢力廣大」:他這個勢力,是比哪一位菩薩的勢力都大。「入無礙門」:他到這圓通無礙的那種法門。

「震動三千」:他震動三千大千世界。「降伏波旬」:波旬,就是魔王,把所有的魔王他都能降伏了。

「眾生皈依」:眾生皈依他。「證妙法身」:都可以成佛。

又說偈曰:
阿彌陀佛無量光 勢至菩薩護法王
接引眾生歸淨土 普攝含靈入蓮邦
七寶池中九品現 八功德水萬行圓
信願修者持名念 同登無上妙覺船

「阿彌陀佛無量光」:阿彌陀是梵語,翻譯過來叫「無量光」,無量光佛,又名叫無量壽佛。「勢至菩薩護法王」:大勢至菩薩,他發願護持阿彌陀佛這法王的法。

「接引眾生歸淨土」:他發願要接引一切眾生,到極樂世界去。「普攝含靈入蓮邦」:他普遍攝受這一切的蠢動含靈,都到極樂世界去。

「七寶池內九品現」:蓮華有九品,有上上品,上中品,上下品、中上品、中中品,中下品、下上品、下中品、下下品,九品。九品呢,每一品又分出九種,所以九九八十一品的蓮華。寶池有蓮華現出來了。

「八功德水萬行圓」:在八功德水的水池裡,有八種功德:第一溫涼,第二潔淨,第三甘美,第四輕軟,第五潤澤,第六安和,第七除饑渴,第八長養諸根。萬行圓,萬行都圓滿了。

「信願修者持名念」:現在修行的人,就只持佛的名號來念佛。

「同登無上妙覺船」:這個時候,大家一起到阿彌陀佛無上的妙覺船。什麼是妙覺船?就是念佛法門;念佛法門,就是妙覺船。你能念佛,將來一定成佛的,所以這是妙覺船。

We bow to the Buddha and recite the Buddha's name in order to be reborn in the Land of Ultimate Bliss. Everyone knows that Amitabha Buddha is the host in the Western Land of Ultimate Bliss. Guanyin Bodhisattva is the figure to the left of Amitabha Buddha, and Great Strength Bodhisattva is the figure to his right. They both help Amitabha Buddha to propagate the Dharma-door of Buddha-recitation.
Today we are going to talk about Great Strength Bodhisattva. Why is he called Great Strength Bodhisattva? Because he has great strength. How great? When he raises his hands or takes a step he shakes the entire three thousand great thousand world system.

There are countless worlds in the three thousand great thousand world system. A sun, a moon, one Mount Sumeru, and one set of four continents together make up one world system. A thousand suns, a thousand moons, a thousand Mount Sumerus, and a thousand sets of four continents together make up one "small" thousand world system. A thousand small world systems make up a "middle-sized" world system. A thousand middle-sized world systems make up a "large" world system. Nowadays, sending a rocket to another planet isn't anything extraordinary. Moving from this planet to another planet is just a small step within the three thousand great thousand world system. It's nothing much to talk about.

Great Strength Bodhisattva moves his hands and feet and shakes the entire three thousand great thousand world. systemNot only does he shake the earth, but he smashes and shakes all the six desire heavens and the demon king's palace as well. So this Bodhisattva can't walk or gesture casually. He can't be like us and wave his arms or stamp his feet with joy. If he just moved his hands and feet slightly, the entire three thousand great thousand world system would vibrate. If this Bodhisattva danced around a bit, the whole three thousand great thousand world system would be destroyed. But because he has samadhi, he keeps unmoving and is always in samadhi in the Land of Ultimate Bliss.

This Bodhisattva belonged to the retinue of Amitabha Buddha. He followed Amitabha Buddha in leaving the home-life and in cultivating life after life. So when Amitabha became a Buddha, he accompanied him to help him propagate the Buddhadharma.

Because he vigorously cultivated the Dharma-door of recitation, he could achieve the samadhi of reciting the Buddha's name. Since he had perfected his cultivation of merit and virtue, he received a prediction from the Buddha. The Buddha predicted that in the future he would be named Skillfully Dwelling Merit and Virtue Treasury King Thus Come One. His title will be Skillfully Dwelling Merit and Virtue Treasury King Buddha. This Bodhisattva's wisdom light shines everywhere. It can break through the darkness and ignorance of all living beings.

Great Strength Bodhisattva cultivated the Dharma-door of Buddha-recitation. The first method of the Dharma door of Buddha-recitation is holding the name Buddha-recitation. How does one practice it? Holding the Buddha's name means reciting "Namo Amitabha Buddha, Namo Amitabha Buddha..." Great Strength Bodhisattva does not recite the Buddha's name only after having accomplished Buddhahood in this life. Throughout countless kalpas, in life after life, he has been cultivating the Dharma- door of Buddha-recitation, and the Buddha-recitation Samadhi. What does samadhi mean? Samadhi means proper concentration, which comes from Buddha-recitation. After proper reception, he obtained samadhi, and thus obtained the benefit that he could recite to the point of being mindful without confusion. So in the Buddha-recitation of holding the name, you need only recite the words "Namo Amitabha Buddha."

We should think it over, what are Great Strength Bodhisattva and Guanyin Bodhisattva doing? They are mindful of the Buddha, and so are Manjushri Bodhisattva and Universal Worthy Bodhisattva. Earth Store Bodhisattva is also reciting the Buddha's name. All day long these four great Bodhisattvas are mindful of the Buddha. Even as Bodhisattvas who have already obtained the fruition, they are still mindful of the Buddha, so how much the more should we ordinary people be so. We should hold and recite the Buddha's name.

So we should not take this Dharma-door of Buddha-recitation lightly. We shouldn't say, "Oh, that's just for silly old people; me, I'm smart and educated, I don't need to recite the Buddha's name." If you say you are wise, are you wiser than Guanyin Bodhisattva, Great Strength Bodhisattva, Manjushri Bodhisattva, Universal Worthy Bodhisattva, or Earth Store Bodhisattva? Is your wisdom greater than the wisdom of these Bodhisattvas? They are all reciting the Buddha's name. Is your eloquence greater than that of Manjushri Bodhisattva, Universal Bodhisattva, Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, Earth Store Bodhisattva, or Great Strength Bodhisattva? Can you surpass them? Are your spiritual penetrations greater than theirs? Don't think that the scientists putting together a rocket and sending it off to space is something very wonderful. This is happening because now everyone can manufacture these things. We have now reached the level where we have the knowledge and understanding to make this happen. There's nothing special to it. But the wonderful functioning of the spiritual penetrations of Guanyin Bodhisattva, Great Strength Bodhisattva, Manjushri Bodhisattva, Universal Worthy Bodhisattva, and Earth Store Bodhisattva are way beyond our imagination and conception, and they are all reciting the Buddha's name. So the Dharma-door of Buddha-recitation is unsurpassed, it is the most supreme one. It saves you energy, time, and money. You don't have to spend anything, all you have to do is recite "Namo Amitabha Buddha, Namo Amitabha Buddha...," and then you can become a Buddha.

In the Dharma-ending Age, all the Sutras will disappear and become extinct. Only the Amitabha  Sutra will still remain in this world for a hundred years, and it will take across countless people. When the Amitabha Sutra is extinct, only the six syllables of "Namo A-mi-to-fo" (Homage to Amitabha Buddha) will be left in this world, and they will remain for one hundred years. After a hundred years, there will be no Buddhadharma in this world, and only the four syllables "A-mi-to-fo" (Amitabha Buddha) will remain for another one hundred years. After this, the Buddh-dharma will disappear completely, and at that time no one will understand what the Buddhadharma is. Nobody will know anything about it. So the Dharma-door of Buddha-recitation is the most wonderful one. Because of this Great Strength Bodhisattva as well as the other Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas all recite the Buddha's name.

Holding the name Buddha-recitation means holding and reciting the Buddha's name, which is very convenient, very easy. It saves your money and your energy. It is the most direct method.

The second method of recitation is contemplating an image Buddha-recitation. You only need to contemplate Amitabha Buddha's thirty-two marks and eighty minor characteristics. Contemplate his golden-hued body and his adornment with the special marks of a Buddha. Not to mention his other marks, his white hair-mark light can shine around five Mount Sumerus, which means his white light is as high as five Mount Sumerus. Amitabha's eyes are as wide as the four great seas--can you imagine that? His eyes are as large as four great seas, have you ever seen that? And how big do you think his body is? It won't be easy to describe. You could say his body is as huge as a gathering of hundreds of thousands of millions of planets. If you can figure it out by contemplating Amitabha Buddha's image, you will attain the Buddha-recitation Samadhi.

If you wish to obtain the Buddha-recitation Samadhi, first you should purify your three karmas of body, mouth, and mind. You cannot recite the Buddha's name and scold people at the same time; you cannot be mindful of the Buddha and think about other things recklessly at the same time, or have any evil thoughts. If your body is involved in killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct; if your mouth is involved in loose speech, false speech, harsh speech, or double-tongued speech; and your mind is filled with greed, hatred, and stupidity, your three karmas are impure. Your three karmas being pure means that your body is without the karma of killing, stealing, or sexual misconduct; your mouth is free from the four evil karmas of loose speech, false speech, harsh speech, and double-tongued speech; and your mind has none of the three poisons of greed, hatred, and stupidity. Then the three karmas of body, mouth, and mind are pure. If you are able to purify your three karmas, reciting the Buddha's name is like throwing a pearl into muddy water so that the muddy water becomes clear. Recitation of the Buddha's name enters a confused mind--originally you have a lot of false thoughts--but if you can recite the Buddha's name in the middle of these false thoughts, the false thoughts will gradually merge with the sound of the Buddha-recitation and slowly they will become Buddha-recitation. So there is a saying:

When the water-clearing pearl is tossed in muddy water,
The muddy water will certainly become clear.
When the Buddha's name enters a confused mind,
The confused mind will certainly become a  Buddha.

Contemplating and thinking Buddha-recitation. Contemplation means that you contemplate and think about the Buddha, whether you are walking, standing, sitting, or lying down. This method also consists of the contemplation of the Buddha's wonderful and adorned marks. Contemplating an image means that you face the Buddha's image and contemplate it.

There is also real mark Buddha-recitation. Real mark also means investigating Chan. Investigating Chan, real mark, has no mark. Real mark has no mark and yet it contains all marks. If you say there's nothing there, it still contains everything; if you say there's something there, there is nothing. When you reach this kind of a state, you will naturally understand the principle of real mark. Real mark: reciting and yet not reciting, not reciting and yet reciting. The wind can't blow you about, the rain can't fall on you. When you reach the state of real mark Buddha-recitation, you can't help reciting. If you want to recite, you won't be aware of it; if you don't want to recite, you won't be aware of it, either. In this kind of samadhi, one can practice Buddha-recitation in samadhi. If you can attain this level, you will definitely be reborn in the Land of Ultimate Bliss and will see the Buddha when your lotus flower opens.

People in the Saha world are born from wombs; people in the Land of Ultimate Bliss are born transformationally. People who wish to learn from the Buddha should spend time studying the Buddhadharma. Don't settle for partial understanding or be unwilling to learn when you realize you don't understand something. Don't think that since you can't understand something thoroughly, you won't even try to understand. Don't have an attitude of setting up a restricted area for yourself, of not wanting to go forward. That is simply destroying your future. We must reach the ultimate point of:

Passing beyond the mountains and rivers, there seems to be no road ahead;
Beyond the bright flowers and dark willows lies another village.

If you can recite to the point of reciting and yet not reciting, not reciting and yet reciting, you unite with the Buddha-recitation. Being unconfused, you will certainly be reborn in the Land of Ultimate Bliss and see the Buddha when your lotus flower opens.

We are now discussing Great Strength Bodhisattva. How can he have such great strength? Because he has a straight mind. He had straight mind when he started to cultivate. "The straight mind is the Way-place." Because he had a straight mind, he could influence other people to recite the Buddha's name. Helping others to recite enabled him to become the Dharma protector of Amitabha Buddha. Being a Dharma protector means helping and protecting one's teacher's vow power to be accomplished. So Great Strength Bodhisattva still recites the Buddha's name. He recites and you also recite, and so his and your Buddha-recitation become one, two and yet not two. You recite and he recites,  both of you recite,  so there is a response with the Way.

When your skill fully ripens, Great Strength Bodhisattva will welcome you and take you to the Land of Ultimate Bliss as you wish. Why does he want to take you there? Because of his great vow power. He wants to protect his master, since his master has vowed, "After I have accomplished Buddhahood, if anyone who recites my name were to fail to become a Buddha, I won't become a Buddha in the first place." So he protects his master's vow power. If anyone recites the Buddha's name, Great Strength Bodhisattva has made the vow that he will take that person to the Land of Ultimate Bliss. Applying both self-power and other-power in this way, one can then attain to the Land of Ultimate Bliss.

A verse in praise says:
He is as straight as an arrow, his wisdom is god-like;
With vast and great strength he enters the door of nonobstruction.
Shaking the three thousand world system he subdues the demon kings;
Living beings take refuge with him and certify to the wonderful Dharma body.

He is as straight as an arrow: His mind is straightforward. The straight mind is the Way-place. His wisdom is god-like: His wisdom is as inconceivable as that of a god. Vast and great strength: His strength is much greater than that of any other Bodhisattva. He enters the door of nonobstruction: He attains the Dharma door of perfect nonobstruction. Shaking the three thousand worlds system: He shakes the three thousand great thousand worlds. He subdues the demon kings: He subdues all demon kings. Living being take refuge with him: All living beings take refuge with him. And certify to the wonderful Dharma body: All beings can become Buddhas.

Another verse says:
Amitabha Buddha's light is limitless;
Great Strength Bodhisattva protects this Dharma king.
He guides living beings to return to the Pure Land,
Universally gathering all sentient beings into the Lotus Land.
The nine grades of lotuses appear in the pools of seven jewels;
The myriad conducts are perfected in the water of eight virtues.
Cultivators with faith and vows uphold and recite the name,
And board the boat of wonderful enlightenment together.

Amitabha Buddha's light is limitless: Amitabha is a Sanskrit word which means limitless light. Amitabha, the Buddha of Limitless Light is also named Amitayus, the Buddha of Limitless Life. Great Strength Bodhisattva protects this Dharma king: Great Strength Bodhisattva has vowed to protect and uphold the Dharma of Amitabha Buddha, the Dharma king.

He guides living beings to return to the Pure Land: He gathers in living beings to get them to return to the Pure Land: He has vowed to gather in all living beings to the Land of Ultimate Bliss.

Universally gathering in all sentient beings into the Lotus Land: He universally gathers in all creatures to the Land of Ultimate Bliss.

The nine grades of lotuses appear in the pools of seven jewels: There are nine grades of lotus flowers. 1. superior superior 2. superior middle 3. superior inferior 4. middle superior 5. middle middle 6. middle inferior 7. inferior superior 8. inferior middle 9. inferior inferior. Each of the nine grades also has nine ranks, making eighty-one in all. So the lotuses appear in the seven-jeweled pool.

The myriad practices are perfected in the water of eight virtues: The water of eight meritorious virtues fills the pools. The eight meritorious virtues of this water are such that the water is 1. pure 2. tepid 3. sweet 4. soft 5. moistening 6. harmonizing 7. banishing hunger and thirst, and 8. nourishing all roots, and so perfects the myriad practices.

Cultivators with faith and vows uphold and recite the name: Cultivators of the present day only need to hold and recite the Buddha's name.

And board the boat of wonderful enlightenment together: At this time, all of us gather together to get on Amitabha Buddha's boat of unsurpassed, wonderful enlightenment. What is the boat of wonderful enlightenment? The Dharma door of Buddha-recitation. If you can recite the Buddha's name, in the future you will definitely become a Buddha--this is the boat of wonderful enlightenment.

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