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《人物誌》

 

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【 水鏡回天錄白話解 】

REFLECTIONS IN WATER AND MIRRORS REVERSING THE TIDE OF DESTINY

孫陀羅難陀尊者
The Venerable Sundarananda

宣化上人講述於一九八六年九月二十四日金山聖寺 Composed by the Venerable Master Hua on September 24, 1986 at Gold Mountain Monastery
國際譯經學院記錄  Translated by the International Translation Institute

前期提示:佛在眾目睽睽下強迫難陀尊者落髮,使他沒機會還俗...

有一天,佛和弟子都出去應供,臨走的時候,佛對孫陀羅難陀說:「你今天要做工,把祇桓精舍的地,都要掃乾淨,等我們回來,好大家吃飯。」他就答應了佛,說:「好!我把它掃乾淨。」可是在那兒掃地,怎麼樣呢?把垃圾都掃到一堆,來一陣風,颳得滿精舍地都是灰塵,都邋遢了。他又掃在一起,又來一陣風,又給颳開了,他就「啊!這個風真是討厭!」於是他把窗也都關上了。窗關上了,再掃到一起,窗戶又被風給吹開了,總是做不完的工,掃不乾淨的地。他一看,這時間差不多了,想:「佛快回來了,我現在要三十六招,走為上招;我現在如果不跑,那就沒有機會了。」就覺得佛一定快回來了,他就趕快跑回王宮去。在路上走,「我會不會碰到佛呢?要是碰到佛,這可糟糕,又跑不了了,怎麼辦?」他想:「佛走路從來都是走大路的,他不走小路,我今天走小路,走捷徑,一定不會碰到佛。」於是乎就從小路上跑。

想不到正是出他意料之外,佛今天這麼奇怪,就從小路上回來了。在路上,他看見佛來了,就趕快躲到大樹的後邊。可是佛早就看見他了,佛還沒有到路上,就知道他是要從這一條路逃跑,所以佛到這兒就叫:「阿難,你在那兒幹什麼的?孫陀羅難陀!難陀!你在那兒做什麼的?」佛一叫他,他也沒法子躲了,就出來,說:「佛啊!我看您總也不回來,我來碰一碰您,我來接一接您,我來迎接您,恐怕您走得很累的,我要幫您拿缽。」佛說:「那好啊!你就幫我拿著缽。」佛把缽交給他,他又乖乖地跟著佛回祇桓精舍了。

孫陀羅難陀回祇桓精舍,總是想太太,也吃不下飯,睡不著覺,所謂「茶不思,飯不想」,真是得了相思病了。這時候,佛也就憐愍他,說:「好了!你這麼不快樂,我帶你出去 holiday,出去旅行
,vacation(度假),散散你的悶。」孫陀羅難陀說:「到什麼地方去?」佛說:「我帶你到山上去換換新鮮空氣。」他一想:「到山上樹林很多,到樹林子鑽樹林就跑回去了,啊!這還是有機會的。」於是乎就說:「好!」跟佛上山去了。

到山上一看,在那個地方有很多猴子,一幫一幫的,偏偏又有一隻猴子,眼睛也不太好,是一個眼睛矇矇的一隻母猴子。佛就問孫陀羅難陀:「你覺得這隻猴子怎麼樣?」他說:「這隻猴子很好玩的,很好啊!」佛說:「你覺得牠好玩,你覺得牠美不美啊?」孫陀羅難陀說:「很美啊,這猴子長得很漂亮。」「這猴子這麼漂亮,若比你的太太孫陀羅,怎麼樣啊?」喔!孫陀羅難陀,即刻就把面子七八家子都搬到一起,眉頭一皺說:「這隻猴子這麼醜,我的孫陀羅那麼美麗,那怎麼能可以在一起比呢?」佛說:「啊!牠不能比,是嗎?不能比,那我們走了,不要看猴子,回去了!」

第二天,佛說:「我再帶你到天上去看一看。」孫陀羅難陀說:「喔!到天上,天上是什麼樣子?我還沒去過。好!我到天上看一看。」到天上看,每一個天宮的宮殿裡頭,都有五百個天女在那兒服侍著天王,這五百個天女,都是美貌如花的,再美貌沒有了,簡直就沒有看過這麼美貌的天女。佛又問他,說:「你的孫陀羅和天女比較,誰生得美麗啊?」孫陀羅難陀就說:「孫陀羅如果和天女來比較,我那孫陀羅就像那猴子一樣,天女當然比孫陀羅漂亮得多了。」

他到另外一個宮殿裡頭,這宮殿沒有主人,可是也有五百個天女,在那個地方收拾,看著那個地方,孫陀羅難陀問:「佛!這個宮殿裡頭這麼多天女,他們的主人怎麼不在這兒呢?他們的主人是誰呢?」佛說:「他們的主人啊?你去問問那個天女,他們的主人是誰啊?」他就問天女說:「你們在這兒忙得這麼厲害,收拾這麼漂亮,這麼好,到底你們主人是誰啊?」天女就說:「我們的主人,是現在在娑婆世界釋迦牟尼佛的弟弟,他叫孫陀羅難陀,他是我們的主人。他現在跟著佛出家了,可是他還是情欲心不斷,他修天福,等到他死了之後,就升天做我們的主人。我們這五百個天女,都是陪伴他的。」啊!孫陀羅難陀聽了就很高興,這回不要孫陀羅,要移情別戀了,看著天女比孫陀羅那是好得多了。於是乎,他就為著要升天,要得到這五百個天女來侍候他,所以就跟著佛回去了,就修行了。

修行了,佛一看,這還不是辦法,又對他說:「孫陀羅難陀!我帶你到地獄去看看,去旅行一下。」他說:「地獄都是很不好的,很難看的。」佛說:「你去看一看嘛!看一看那個情形。」孫陀羅難陀就跟著佛去了,到那兒一看,地獄裡,這個地獄有油鍋,那裡有刀山;預備那些刑具,都有人在那兒受罪。唯獨有兩個鬼在看著一個油鍋,這兩個鬼,一個老鬼,一個小鬼。老鬼啊,牙都掉了;小鬼呢,牙還沒長出來,所以叫小鬼。你要說有多小嗎?就是牙還沒長出來那麼個小鬼。那個多老呢?就牙已經掉了。這兩個,一個老鬼、一個小鬼,在那兒看著油鍋,盡在那兒睡覺。那個油鍋底下的火嘛,幾幾乎乎要熄滅的樣子。

他看了這個就覺得很奇怪:「啊!這兩個鬼燒油鍋,怎麼一點也不努力,油也燒不滾,這麼奇怪?」他就問佛,說是:「怎麼這兩個鬼在這燒這油鍋,他們一點也不好好的工作,在這兒睡覺呢?」佛說:「你可以問問他們去?」他就去問這鬼,說:「你們究竟在這兒燒這油鍋幹什麼?」這兩個鬼說:「你想要問嗎?我告訴你,在娑婆世界,釋迦牟尼佛有個弟弟,他現在出家了,因為他不要孫陀羅,不要他太太了。他想到天上去享受這五百個天女的快樂,所以他現在修行。可是他升到天上之後,天福享盡的時候,他就得墮地獄裡來。所以我們這個油鍋,就是給孫陀羅難陀預備的。」他這回一聽,如夢驚醒,「喔!原來我到天上還要墮地獄?」對釋迦牟尼佛就說:「佛哥哥!佛哥哥!我不看了,不看了!要回去了!」,回去自己就想囉:「喔!升到天上,享完了天福,又墮地獄,在油鍋裡炸,又不知炸到幾百個劫,在這個地方,這不行的。」於是乎,就發心真正修行,不求這種天堂、地獄這種苦樂的果報,所以就修行了。

出家修道要去欲斷愛,所以他一修行,就證四果阿羅漢,證得無學位。初果、二果、三果,這都叫有學位,四果是無學位,所謂「生死已盡,梵行已立;所作已辦,不受後有。」生死已盡,就是他沒有生死,生死已盡了。梵行已立,他所修行的清淨行,也就建立起來了。所作已辦,他應該所作的事情都已經辦好;這個就是因為專心致志,有堅、誠、恆,有這種的志願,所以就專一了。專一則靈,他應該做的事情,已經都辦好,所以不受後有,就是再沒有來生的生死。

他雖然是二乘,最初「觀三界如牢獄,視生死如冤家」,可是他這種人也都是現身說法,給我們大家來做一個榜樣––「你看!孫陀羅難陀情欲那麼重,和太太如魚得水,分別不開,然後也都出家修行了。」孫陀羅難陀是個男的,那麼女人也應該看成這樣子。夫妻恩恩愛愛,這不過都是有冤有怨也有緣,所以在家庭裡頭、社會上、國家,都這麼煩煩惱惱、爭爭吵吵的。無論你就是富可敵國,比皇帝都尊貴,可是到生死的時候,還是什麼都沒有。古人說得好:「萬里長城今還在,誰見當年秦始皇?」所以我們人哪,要早早的醒悟啊!早早的把這一切一切都看破了、放下。我們活著,這也受不了,那也受不了了,這也不能忍,那也不能忍,我們一旦死了,兩手空空,死了之後,什麼都忘了,什麼也都沒有了,何必這麼認真呢?何必這麼迷呢?

今天講孫陀羅難陀,這給恩愛的夫妻一個最好的寫照。你們夫妻之間,有恩愛的,應該趕快的醒悟;夫婦之間,不和的,有煩惱的,也應該趕快醒悟,不要再留連忘返了。今天這一段水鏡回天錄,你們看了是不是能回天,回心轉意,能把災難挽回了,這要看你們個人去領會了。

贊曰:
有情著染 無欲清淨 返本還原 寂光大定
猴子美人 難堪比併 天堂地獄 苦樂是境

「有情著染」:有情的人哪,就是染污,「無欲清淨」:沒有欲了,才能得到清淨。你若能明白「返本還原」:人本來是沒有什麼情欲的,本來和佛是無二別的,不過我們人都把本來的面目忘了,所以就流浪生死、長沉苦海了。你若能以返本還原,「寂光大定」:到常寂光裡邊,你能得到寂光大定。

「猴子美人」:你們看看,孫陀羅難陀說,猴子不能和他太太比,可是他太太和天女一比,又變成猴子了,所以「難堪比併」:猴子本來不能比美人的,但是美人比到天女呢?又變成猴子了。孫陀羅難陀也就移情別戀了。孫陀羅若知道這情形,一頭就撞到牆上撞死了(眾笑……);可是孫陀羅也很聰明的,以後也修行。「天堂地獄,苦樂是境」:天堂、地獄,苦、樂,這都是境界,一切唯心造。心到天堂就天堂,心到地獄就地獄。心裡怎麼叫天堂呢?心裡你歡喜,就在天堂上;心裡你煩惱,就在地獄了嘛!

又說偈曰:

為佛眷屬貌堂堂 一念不覺溫柔鄉
流連忘返何時了 善巧誘入此道場
念念不忘回家路 行行偏遇法中王
無處可逃歸精舍 觀鼻發光度癡郎

「為佛眷屬貌堂堂」:這言其孫陀羅難陀,相貌生得很圓滿,有三十相。「一念不覺溫柔鄉」:一念不覺就是一念迷,就因為他迷了,墮到溫柔鄉裡,和他太太拉不斷、扯不斷的。「留連忘返何時了」:他在那個地方和他太太恩恩愛愛的,沒有了的時候,所以「善巧誘入此道場」:佛用善巧方便,用佛的大威神力,把他攝到祇桓精舍去。

「念念不忘回家路」:他心心念念總想還俗,總想要跑回王宮裡頭去,「行行偏遇法中王」:他偷著跑,要還俗了,回家那條路,以為佛不走小路,偏偏在小路上遇到佛,「無處可逃歸精舍」:就無路可逃,這就又回祇桓精舍,所以佛教他「觀鼻發光度癡郎」:觀鼻也就是專一,你致之一處,無所不辦,你把你這個心,要沒有其他的狂心野性、雜念、妄想,那一定會成道的。所以《楞嚴經》才說:「狂心若歇,歇即菩提。」

- -完- -

青蛙跳

一日三千佛懺的法會,維那師為了不耽誤午供時間,故將拜佛的速度調的比平常快些。事後,午齋開示中,一位剛由美國回台的美籍法師很不解地說:「沒想到台灣的拜佛速度,竟快的像青蛙跳!」

原來,這位美籍法師是僧團中身高最長的,當他才拜完第一拜時,我們這些短小的個子,已經拜第二拜了。

 

From last issue:  In front of everyone, the Buddha “forced” Sundarananda to leave the home-life, and Sundarananda had no way to return home.

One day, the Buddha and all of his disciples were invited to a vegetarian meal offering. Before he left, the Buddha said to Sundarananda, "You have work to do today. Sweep the floors of the monastery so that we can eat together when we come back." Sundarananda promised, "Okay, I'll do that."

As soon as he swept the dust into a pile, a gust of wind blew in and scattered the dust all over the floor. And so he set about sweeping it back together. But just as he finished, the wind blew it away again. "Oh, this wind is disgusting!" he exclaimed. He closed all the windows and started sweeping again. However, the wind soon blew the windows open again. There was no way he could finish his job, and it was almost time for the Buddha to come back.

Sundarananda thought, "The Buddha is about to return. I'd better get out of here. If I don't escape now, I'll never have another chance." Feeling certain the Buddha would return soon, he quickly left the monastery and ran toward the palace. On the way, he thought, "If I run into the Buddha, I'll be trapped. What should I do? Well, the Buddha always takes the main road. I can avoid meeting the Buddha if I take a by-path."

Strangely enough, the Buddha decided to take the by-path on his return. When Sundarananda saw the Buddha coming toward him, he quickly hid behind a big tree. However, the Buddha had already seen him. Actually, the Buddha knew he would escape along this route. "Nanda," the Buddha called out, "What are you doing here? What are you up to?"

Since the Buddha was calling him, he couldn't keep hiding. He came out and said, "Oh, it's you, Buddha. I waited and waited, but you didn't come back, so I thought I'd come out to meet you and welcome you home. You must be tired from all that walking. Let me help you carry your bowl."

"Fine," said the Buddha, "you may help me with my bowl." Nanda took the bowl from the Buddha and obediently followed the Buddha back to the monastery.

However, back at the Jeta Grove, Nanda continued to miss his wife. He was so lovesick that he couldn't eat or sleep. The Buddha took pity on him and said, "How unhappy you are! Let me take you on a holiday."

"Where are we going?" asked Sundarananda.

The Buddha said, "I'll take you into the mountains where you can get some fresh air." Sundarananda thought to himself, "There are many forests in the mountains. When I get there, I'll just plunge into the forests and run home. Ah! There is still a chance." So he agreed and went with the Buddha to the mountains.

Walking into the mountains, they saw many groups of monkeys. There was a female monkey that was slightly blind in one eye. The Buddha asked Sundarananda, "What do you think of this monkey?"

"It looks fun to play with," replied Sundarananada. 

"Do you think it's pretty?"

"Well, it's not bad-looking," said Sundarananda.

"How does it compare with your wife Sundari?" asked the Buddha.

Sundarananda made a face and said, "How can this ugly monkey possibly compare to my beautiful Sundari?"

"Oh, so they can't be compared?" asked the Buddha. "Okay, let's go then. We've seen enough monkeys for today."

The following day, the Buddha said, "Let me take you to the heavens to have a look."

Sundarananda said, "Wow! What are the heavens like? I've never been there. Great, let's go." When they arrived in the heavens, in each heavenly palace they saw five hundred heavenly maidens attending upon a heavenly lord. Every maiden was as lovely as a flower. They were the prettiest sights Sundarananada had ever seen.

"Who's prettier," asked the Buddha, "Sundari or these heavenly maidens?"

"Compared to these maidens, Sundari is as ugly as that monkey we saw before," Sundarananda replied. "Without a doubt, these maidens are prettier by far."

Then they came to empty palace. There was no heavenly lord there, but there were five hundred maidens cleaning the place. Sundarananda asked the Buddha, "Who is the master of all these heavenly maidens, and why isn't he here?"

"Why don't you ask the maidens?" the Buddha suggested.

Sundarananda turned to the maidens, "Why are you all so busily tidying up this place and making it nice and pretty? Who is your master?"

"Our master lives in the Saha world," the maidens told him. "His name is Sundarananda, and he is the Buddha's brother. He has left the home-life with the Buddha, but has not renounced his emotional attachments. He is cultivating heavenly blessings, and when he dies he will ascend to the heavens and be our master. We will all be his attendants."

Sundarananda was overjoyed. The sight of those beautiful heavenly maidens made him forget all about Sundari. He no longer wanted her. Determined to attain heavenly blessings so he could be served by five hundred maidens, he went back with the Buddha and began cultivating in earnest.

Seeing that it wouldn't do for him to cultivate for a heavenly reward, the Buddha asked him, "Sundarananda, how would you like to take a tour of the hells?"

"The hells are no fun; in fact, they're terrible places," said Sundarananda.

"Let's just go and see what they're like," urged the Buddha.

And so Sundarananda went with the Buddha to the hells, where they saw people undergoing punishment in cauldrons of boiling oil, on mountains of knives, and with other implements of torture. They noticed one oil cauldron guarded by a young ghost and an old ghost. Both ghosts were toothless--the old one because his teeth had fallen out, and the young one because his hadn't grown in yet. Their age could be determined by their teeth. The two toothless ghosts who were supposed to be watching the cauldron of oil had both dozed off, and the fire beneath the cauldron had almost died out.

"Why aren't these two ghosts doing their job?" Sundarananda wondered. "The oil isn't even boiling." When he asked the Buddha why the ghosts were sleeping, the Buddha said, "Why don't you ask them?" He went over and asked the ghosts, "What exactly are you guarding this cauldron of oil for?"

"You want to know?" asked the ghosts. "Well, in the Saha world, Shakyamuni Buddha has a brother who renounced his wife Sundari and left the home-life. He is cultivating because he wants to be born in the heavens, where he will be served by five hundred heavenly maidens. After heavenly blessings are exhausted, he will fall into the hells. This cauldron of oil is prepared for him."

Hearing this, Sundarananda was startled into wakefulness. "Oh, so after going to the heavens, I still have to fall into the hells." Turning to the Buddha, he said, "Brother Buddha, I've seen enough! Let's go back!" After he returned, he thought to himself, "I certainly don't want to fall into the hells to be deep fried in boiling oil for who knows how many kalpas after I use up my heavenly blessings." And so he decided to truly cultivate and not seek the blissful reward of the heavens, knowing it would be followed by suffering in the hells.

People who leave the home-life to cultivate the Way must renounce desires and cut off emotional love. When Sundarananda started cultivating, he immediately realized the fourth fruition of Arhatship, the Position beyond Study. The first, second, and third fruitions are called Positions of Studying. The fourth fruition is called the Position beyond Study. At that time, one has ended birth and death, has accomplished pure conduct, has done what needed to be done, and has transcended existence. This is possible due to a concentrated mind and a sincere resolve. With a firm, sincere, and persevering mind, one can concentrate and accomplish things with efficacy. Having finished everything one set out to do, one transcends conditioned existence and no longer undergoes birth and death.

Although Sundarananda was a follower of the Two Vehicles, who are said to "contemplate the Triple Realms as hell and regard birth and death as an enemy," he and others like him manifested only to speak the Dharma and to serve as models for us. He had been so in love with his wife that he couldn't bear to part with her, and yet he left the home-life and cultivated. Although Sundarananda was a man, women should also learn this lesson from him.

Relationships between husband and wife are the manifestation of past affinities--both good and bad. These affinities cause people to get afflicted and to quarrel and fight in their own families, in the society at large, and even on an international scale. Even the richest and most noble person has nothing at the time of death. An old proverb says, "The Great Wall is still around, but has anyone seen the Emperor of Qin (under whom it was built)? We should quickly awaken and relinquish our attachments. While we're alive, we find many things unbearable, but when it comes time to die, we leave empty-handed, forgetting everything. So why should we take things so seriously? Why should we be so obsessed?

Sundarananda's story has an important message for couples who are deeply in love. Loving couples should hurry up and awaken, and afflicted, incompatible couples should also wake up soon. Do not wander astray and forget to return. Having seen today's "reflection in waters and mirrors," can you turn your minds around and avert calamities? It all depends on your personal understanding.

A verse in praise says:
Emotional love is but attachment and defilement;
Without desire, one is pure and clean.
Returning to the source and going back to the origin--
The great samadhi of stillness and light.
A monkey and a beauty
Can hardly be compared.
The bliss and suffering
Of the heavens and hells are mere states.

Commentary:
Emotional love is but attachment and defilement. People are stained and defiled by emotional love. Without desire, one is pure and clean. Only when one is free from desires can one obtain purity. If you can understand the meaning of returning to the source and going back to the origin, you will know that people originally are free from desires and basically no different from the Buddha. However, having forgotten our true identity, we drift along in the current of birth and death, drowning in the sea of suffering. If we could return to the origin, we would enter into and attain the great samadhi of stillness and light.

A monkey and a beauty can hardly be compared. Sundarananda said his wife could not be compared to a monkey, yet when compared to a heavenly maiden, his wife seemed like a monkey. A monkey is no match for a beautiful lady, but when the beauty is set next to a heavenly maiden, she becomes a monkey herself. And so Sundarananda transferred his love for his wife to the heavenly maidens. If Sundari had found out about this, probably she would have rammed her head against the wall and killed herself. However, Sundari was an intelligent lady who also began cultivating later on.

The bliss and suffering of the heavens and hells are mere states. Heaven and hell, joy and misery are all states. Everything is made from the mind. If the mind goes to the heavens you are in the heavens; if the mind goes to the hells, you are in the hells. How can the mind be in heavens? If you are happy, you are in the heavens. If you are afflicted, you are in the hells.

Another verse says:
Born in the Buddha's family, he was handsome as could be.
In a single confused thought, he was beguiled by her feminine charms.
Wandering in forgetfulness, when would he return?
Through an expedient device, he was lured to the Way-place,
But never for an instant did he forget the road back home.
Sneaking away, he happened to run into the Dharma King.
With no place to hide, he was forced to return to the monastery.
Contemplating his nose and emitting light, a foolish man was saved.

Commentary:
Born into the Buddha's family, he was handsome as could be. Sundarananda had a full and perfect appearance. He possessed thirty of the fine hallmarks. In a single confused thought, he was beguiled by her feminine charms. In a moment of confusion, he fell in love with Sundari and could not bear to part from her.

Wandering in forgetfulness, when would he return? He was so infatuated with her there seemed to be no end to it. Through an expedient device, he was lured to the Way-place. The Buddha employed his awesome spiritual power and used a clever trick to lead Sundarananda to the Jeta Grove.

But never for an instant did he forget the road back home. In thought after thought, he wanted to flee back to the palace and return to lay life. Sneaking away, he happened to run into the Dharma King. He ran away stealthily, wanting to return to lay life. On his way home, he took a by-path. Who would have guessed that he would run into the Buddha on the by-path?

With no place to hide, he was forced to return to the monastery. There was no way he could escape, so he returned to the Jeta Grove. Contemplating his nose and emitting light, a foolish man was saved. Then the Buddha taught him to contemplate his nose, that is, to concentrate on a single point. When the mind dwells on one spot, everything is possible. When your mind is free from wild, deluded, scattered, and random thoughts, you can definitely attain the Way. And so the Shurangama Sutra says, "When the mad mind is subdued, just that is Bodhi."   

- -End- -

Hopping Frogs

Once when leading the Three Thousand Buddhas Repentance, the cantor speeded up the bowing in order to finish by the time for the Noon Meal Offering. During lunch that day, an American Dharma Master who had just come to Taiwan remarked in puzzlement, “I never knew people in Taiwan bowed as fast as hopping frogs!”

It turned out that he was the tallest member of the Sangha. By the time he stood up from his first bow, we short ones were already on our second bow!

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