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宇宙白試解及聯想
An Attempt to Interpret “White Universe” and Some Thoughts

(接上期 Continued from the last issue)

■   張文毅寫於一九九四年六月二日舊金山––北京飛途中
Written by Wen-I Chang on June 2, 1994, on the flight from San Francisco to Beijing


【明 鏡 禪 悟】

The Bright Mirror and Chan Enlightenment

實義絕言,不思議,當進趨。」當你找到一條通往無上正等正覺之路,了解到「菩提本無樹,明鏡亦非臺;本來無一物,何處惹塵埃?」的真義時,這些都是不可以心思量,以言語議論空談,而應當不猶豫,勇往直前精進,以求般若禪定。


U ltimate truth transcends words; / Not thought about or talked about, you ought to advance with haste. When you find a path leading to the unsurpassed, right, equal, and proper enlightenment and understand the true meaning of “Originally Bodhi has no tree; / The bright mirror has no stand. / Originally, there is not a single thing: / Where can dust alight?” you will find that none of these can be conceived of with the mind, and any discussion of them is just empty talk. Thus we should not hesitate, but advance vigorously in quest of Prajna wisdom and Dhyana concentration.

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【蓮 藏 世 界】

The Lotus Treasury of Worlds

小泯,內外非,微塵遍,法界周,囫圇個圓融,互相無礙。」在入禪的境界裡,因宇宙各部的息息相關連,小宇宙本身竟然包含了大宇宙的全部,同時又是大宇宙的一部分,這正是現代領導一群物理學家支持「一沙一法界」的華人Geoffy Chew的Bootstrap Hypothesis(共益放大假說)所言的「一粒強子包含所有全體的強子,而又是所有強子的一部分。」「每粒強子折縮(enfold)著,所有整體強子的條件,一旦條件機緣成熟,則可把潛藏的訊息開展(unfold)成一整體。」西諺也有「橡子孕橡樹」的哲言。大小的差別就沒了(泯),而也就無內無外,所以大和小互相圓滿融化,交織成關聯之網,而互相無礙。

《華嚴經疏》更是詳盡的描述,一多相涵,一多無礙的玄機,大小具足,同時猶如小水滴之具足大海之味道,及和其他所有水的關連不可分。

若帝網之垂珠,
明珠內萬象俱現,珠珠俱爾……

「廣大即入於無間(細微),塵毛(最小)包納(最大)而無外(在此境界也就無所內外之分了)。」所謂「坐微塵裡,轉大法輪」是也。

……亦如鏡燈,重重交光,佛佛無盡,此華
葉中,各現無邊剎海,剎海之中復有微塵,
彼諸塵中復有剎海……如是重重不可窮盡。

英哲詩人藝術家威簾布萊克(1757-1827),也曾在沉思於詩的禪境中「回憶」了,大小相容圓融無礙的佛理:

由一粒細沙觀看世界,
從一朵野花想見天堂;
在你的手中把握無限,
於須臾之中抓住永恆。

W ith great and small destroyed, with no inside or out, / It pervades every mote of dust and encompasses the Dharma Realm, / Complete, whole, and perfectly fused, interpenetrating without obstruction. In the state of samadhi, since all parts of the universe are closely related and connected, the small universe encompasses the entire great universe. At the same time, it is also a part of the great universe. This is exactly what Geoffrey Chew, the leader of a group of physicists who advocate the theory that “each grain of sand is a Dharma Realm,” says in his book Bootstrap Hypothesis, “One proton encompasses all protons and is also a part of all protons.” Every proton enfolds within it the conditions of all protons. Once the conditions are ripe, the latent power will develop into the entire substance. A Western proverb says, “Mighty oaks from tiny acorns grow.” The difference between great and small disappears (is destroyed), and both inside and outside and proper and deviant are gone. Thus great and small are perfectly fused; they are interwoven in a net and are mutually non-obstructing.

The Prologue to the Avatamsaka Sutra describes in extensive detail the secrets of mutual inclusion and the perfect, unobstructed fusion of the one and the many. Even a drop of seawater is replete with the taste of the great ocean and is inseparable from the rest .

...like Lord Shakra’s net of pearls, so arranged that if you look at one pearl you see all the others reflected in it...

“Vastness enters the unintermittent [subtle and fine], dust and hair [the smallest] encompass all [the greatest], and there is nothing outside. [In this state, there is no distinction of outside and inside.]” This is called, “Sitting in a fine mote of dust and turning the great Dharma wheel.”

....like mirrors and lamps, the lights reflecting each other in layer after layer. Buddha after Buddha, they are infinite. In each flower petal, limitless oceans of Buddhalands manifest. In each ocean, there are motes of dust. Within those motes of dust, there are again oceans of Buddhalands....Thus, layer after layer, it goes on without end.

The English mystic, poet, and artist William Blake (1757-1827) had also contemplated in the deep Chan of poetry and “recollected” the Buddhist principle of the perfect, unobstructed fusion of great and small:

To see the world in a grain of sand,
And a heaven in a wild flower.
To hold infinity in the palm of your hand,
And eternity in an hour.

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【勇 猛 精 進】

Advance Vigorously

拳打破虛空蓋,一口吞進剎海源。」雙拳代表勇氣,虛空蓋意指無明及幻相,海為空間,時間為第四度空間。所以,複度時空的源頭,即為萬物之空的自性。「宇宙白」在此結論,真義大白。以勇猛精進去打破,因無明執著而產生的幻覺執著,以一口吞的磅礡氣勢去接近及回復到我們的本真––即「我即宇宙,宇宙即我」、「我即佛,佛即我」的真理。此兩句詩文有年青人的狂氣和勇猛精進的氣質,上人說這是他最喜歡的一首詩,在二、三十年前寫的。


W ith two clenched fists, break to pieces the covering of empty space. / In one mouthful swallow the source of seas of Buddhalands. Two fists symbolize courage, while the covering of empty space refers to ignorance and illusory appearances. The sea represents space, of which time is the fourth dimension. The very source of the overlapping of time and space is the voidness of the myriad things. “White Universe” concludes here, and its true meaning is revealed. With vigor and courage, shatter the illusory awareness and attachment that are produced by ignorance; with the extensive energy of swallowing the ocean of all Buddhalands in one gulp, approach and return to our original true self, which is the truth that “I am the universe, and the universe is me,” and “I am the Buddha, and the Buddha is me.” These lines of this poem carry the unrestrained energy of youth, the attitude of vigor and courage. The Master said this poem, which he wrote some twenty or thirty years ago, is his favorite.

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【慈 悲 普 度】

With Compassion Rescue All

慈悲普度,流血汗,不休息。」因為眾生在大悲同體內,都是民胞物與、命運與共,高智慧者轉型成大慈大悲的能,以普渡眾生。西諺:「陽光廣被,普及惡人。」地藏菩薩云:「眾生度盡,方證菩提;地獄不空,誓不成佛。」為此辛苦自己流血流汗,在所不惜。

諾貝爾文學獎得主齊格勒,所描述的人類永恆不變的真理,與這兩句有異曲同工之妙:
愛,榮譽,憐憫,自尊,同情,犧牲

回想在美國及伊拉克的鮮血,火光煙火瀰漫之時,上人生了一場大病,那時還不願就醫,是時間的巧合,還是上人以己之肉身為世人承受苦痛?


W ith great compassion rescue all, / Sparing no blood or sweat, and never pause to rest! Since living beings are all within the same body of great compassion, all people are brothers and all creatures are our kin; thus we all share the same fate. Those with high wisdom transform themselves into the energy of great kindness and compassion to universally save all living beings. There is a Western saying which goes, “The sun also shines on evil people.” And Earth Store Bodhisattva said, “I vow to certify to Bodhi only after all living beings are saved; I vow not to accomplish Buddhahood until the hells are emptied.” For this vow, he endures hardship without sparing any blood or sweat.

Ziegler, a winner of the Nobel Prize of literature, used different words to express the same wonderful idea that human beings never change:
Love, honor, compassion, self-esteem, sympathy, and sacrifice.

When the United States and Iraq were engaged in a bloodbath and the air was filled with smoke and fire, I recall that the Master was seriously ill, yet he refused to see doctors. Was it just a coincidence in timing, or was the Master undertaking the sufferings of the people in this world upon his own flesh body?

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【布 施 起 航】

To Sail with Giving

哲裡是大悲同體的宇宙,是內裡大小相容,一多無礙的和諧體,內裡的小宇宙是一連串未曾稍駐停留的律動,層層往上的複度關聯動態之網。因此沒有任何片刻,有屬於自己的獨立個體。所謂個體,也只不過是現代物理學家講的事項與流程,或者佛家講的因緣暫聚的無常。事項的發生及變化都是業力的自動調整,以便維持大宇宙的均衡律動。

西方的哲學及宗教,試圖把這和諧體拆開,計件大者,把人神分開,二元分化,人們匍伏在「神」的腳底,而與神成為主僕。(而佛教的「唯我獨尊」,小我和大我卻互相圓融。)中者,國家民族對立,兵刀相殘,人要征服自然,宰割動物,破壞自然生態,空氣、海水、人心都污染了,生態環境失調。小者,同胞物與的心沒有了,一個因車禍躺在路邊的人,沒人敢去碰,因怕善意的幫忙會引來這個受傷者律師的告訴;分化導致慈悲本性的僵化。德蕾莎修女在紐約Bronx 區,買一棟破房子想收容無家可歸的流浪者,結果因官僚的堅持,要有$100,000美金的電梯,及其他無理要求,愛心不得其門而入,結果決定只有將錢散用在買三明治及熱湯給這些惶不知所措的苦海上的受難者。(取自新書《基本常識之死》)現代的律師和《厚黑學》裡的「補鍋哲學」一樣,先把鍋敲大一點的洞再補,一切以錢為他們精力的依歸。

本文最先曾提到電子對核子相互作用的兩力––向心力及離心力,為宇宙萬象的基礎,也可說是宇宙的大潛意識。人類的潛意識的佛性,很自然地、本能地追求美善的本真,可是卻方向走錯,不知何時桃花源式的純真理想國,靜悄悄地被現代式的烏托邦取代。桃花源是人與人密切關切,關連的雞犬相聞的社會;而現代烏托邦,雖名為追求完美的生活條件,事實上物質的追求重於精神的追求。人們各自掃門前雪,而成一群寂寞的硬殼蟲(人開車)。俄國宗教思想家尼可拉‧波底耶夫(1874-1948)大聲疾呼:
……或許我們將開始一個世紀,在那一世紀所有的知識份子,都將夢寐以求地逃避烏托邦的最終實現,……愈少完美就愈自由。

人類在這地球上,肆意地去做,也錯,為要追求完美也錯。至此,人類似乎在十字路口,惶惶徘徊,不知何去何從。可是,眾生潛藏的佛性在愈黑暗時愈能放出光明,請看這些例子。

例一: 美國中部一小鎮每年的盛會是鄉紳雲集,每人持槍械,各將分配號碼的籠子,在鴿子放出的剎那,計時射死,以便酒酣耳熱之際,逞英雄話題。有一年,幾個童子軍在節目正要開始時,電視轉播已上鏡頭,––將每一鴿籠打開,還其自由飛翔。在世界輿論的指摘下,該小鎮未再舉行射鴿比賽。

例二: 前年,澳大利亞透過 CNN轉播全世界的眾目 睽睽下,一千多個慈悲的學生、老師、社會人士,用極其小心的方法,耐心將幾隻迷失到海灘的鯨魚推回海洋,每天成為這地球村熱門關切話題。當最後一隻被成功地放回海裡時,歡呼之際,每人臉上都掛了兩串淚水,這些淚水,也就是大悲同體的慈悲水。

在《觀世音菩薩普門品》中提到:「若有國土眾生,應以佛身得度者,觀世音菩薩即現佛身而為說法。應以童男童女身、居士身得度者,即現童男童女身、居士身而為說法。」最能解釋上述兩例子。

人類今後的去向,在於還本清源,回歸到大悲同體。希臘語health,意為wholeness(完整),當人們社會有病時,就要 yoga (rejoin) 到 wholeness 大悲體。分崩離合的社會病態,也可以 wholeness 整體概念重新整合(integrate);失衡的國內與國際經濟也可以E.F.Schumacher的佛教經濟的暢銷書Small Is Beautiful(小是美),內裡闡述佛教經濟,來改善得更合理化。

人類再如何無所適從,其原本潛藏的佛性本真,未嘗稍離寸步;像是小點火種,隨時等待及摸索機緣的到來。火種將像 e = mc2 (能量=質量×光速的平方)一樣,釋放出無限的光與熱。這個點燃火種大放光明的寶,就是佛家的八正道與六度。這些可以讓我們復甦原有的慈悲心和眾生皆有的佛性。

行筆至此,將「大慈悲普度」的精神和上人之名「度輪」聯在一起推敲,悟出上人以六度裡的無畏施,用他的大輪乘載苦海上的惶惶眾生,不捨晝夜,流血汗,不休息,以法施度東方、西洋人。他的弟子大都可以英文口頭溝通,或以文字翻譯佛教經典。有一次在柏克萊聚會時,一位柏克萊神學院圖書館專家在開會時說,現在全美將佛經翻譯成英文流傳的,只有萬佛聖城。讓我們大家一起跟隨著上人所啟示的佛哲,啟航駛往彼岸之旅,以期實踐上人小時的吉夢:「廣澤西夷入佛門」。而我們這些「小船」或許也可略盡棉薄,處處「十字街口渡有緣」。

航行吧!航行吧!航行到彼岸,
大家都到彼岸,
心中覺得很喜悅!

揭諦,揭諦,波羅揭諦,波羅僧揭諦,
菩提娑婆訶。


I n Buddhist philosophy, the whole universe is one identical substance of great compassion; it is a peaceful and harmonious substance in which great and small are mutually inclusive and one and many are mutually non-obstructing. The small universes inside are a string of active nets in which the multi-layered and overlapping rhythmic movements are incessant. Thus there is not a single moment in which an independent entity can be called the self. The so-called individual is but an “event” or “process” in the jargon of modern physicists, or the temporary aggregation of causes and conditions in the language of Buddhism. The occurrences and transformations of affairs are merely the automatic adjustment of the force of karma so as to maintain the rhythmic balance of the greater universe.

Western philosophy and religions have tried to take apart this harmonious substance. On a larger scale, they separate people from God. In this two-element separation, people bow down at the feet of God in the relationship of master to servant (while in Buddhism’s motto of “I alone am honored,” the small self and the great self are perfectly fused.) On a middle scale, countries and people stand in opposition and annihilate each other with troops and weapons. And human beings want to conquer nature, slaughter animals, and spoil the natural ecological balance. As a result, the air, the oceans, and people’s minds have all been polluted, and the ecological system is thrown off balance. On a small scale, the spirit of regarding all men as brothers and all creatures as kindred has been lost. No one dares to help the victim of the car accident lying by the side of the road, for fear of being sued by the victim’s lawyer. This kind of separateness leads to the stiffening of our kind and compassionate natures. Mother Teresa bought a dilapidated building to house the homeless in The Bronx, New York City. In the end, because the government insisted on the installation of $100,000 elevators and other unreasonable requirements, the loving care could not reach the needy. As a result, the money was scattered and spent on sandwiches and hot soup for these helpless refugees drifting in the sea of suffering. (Taken from the new book The Death of Common Sense.) Modern lawyers are practicing the same “pot-fixing principle” which characterizes the “philosophy of shamelessness and darkened conscience”: first they make the crack bigger before mending it. All their efforts are motivated by money.

Earlier we mentioned the two interacting forces of the electrons and the nucleus. Centripetal force and centrifugal force are the basis for all the myriad phenomena of the universe. They can also be regarded as the collective subconsciousness of the universe. The subconsciousness of mankind, the Buddha-nature, naturally and intuitively seeks for the goodness and beauty of the original truth. People took a wrong turn, however, and at some unknown time the pure and true ideal of an Arcadia was quietly replaced by the modern Utopia. Arcadia is a society in which people are closely connected in their care and concern for one another. In the modern Utopia, although people claim to be searching for the perfect lifestyle, in fact the pursuit of material satisfaction far outweighs the spiritual quest. People mind their own business, and they turn into a bunch of lonely hard-shell beetles (people driving automobiles.) The Russian religious thinker Nikolai Aleksandrovich Berdyaev (1874-1948) suggested, “...maybe we should start a century in which all well-educated people would dream to escape the realization of Utopia...less perfection means more freedom.”

Human beings on this planet seem to have lost their sense of direction and are at a crossroads, wondering which way to go; it’s wrong if they do things at will, and it’s also wrong if they pursue perfection. However, the darker the times, the more the latent Buddha-nature of living beings will be able to emit light. The following examples are proof of this fact.

Example I
In a small town in the midwestern United States, the people used to hold an annual get-together. Everyone would take his guns and allotted numbered cages of pigeons. Once the pigeons were released from their cages, people would shoot while being timed, so that later they could brag about their heroic actions. One year, just before the shoot was to start and after the live television broadcast had already begun, a few Boy Scouts opened the cages one by one and set the pigeons free. Under the pressure of world condemnation, the town has never held another pigeon shoot.

Example II
Two years ago in Australia, under the watchful eyes of the world through CNN television, over a thousand compassionate students, teachers, and prominent public figures very carefully and patiently pushed several beached whales back into the sea. This incident became the hottest and most talked about topic of the global village. When the last whale was successfully pushed back to the ocean, people were so overjoyed that tears were streaming down their faces. Those tears are the kind and compassionate water of the great compassion of identity in substance.

In the “Guanshiyin Bodhisattva Universal Door Chapter,” there is a passage: “If there are living beings who should be saved by a Buddha, Guanshiyin Bodhisattva will then manifest as a Buddha to speak Dharma for them; for those who should be saved by a young boy, young girl, or a layperson, Guanshiyin Bodhisattva will manifest as a young boy, young girl or a layperson to speak Dharma for them.” This passage aptly explains the above two examples.

To return to the original, pure source, we have to go back to the great compassion of identity in substance. The Greek word for “health” carries the connotation of wholeness. When human society is sick, people want to “yoga” (rejoin) with wholeness, great compassion. The crumbled and separated society can be re-integrated. The imbalance between national and international economy can also be improved according to E.F. Schumacher’s Buddhist economy (described in his bestseller Small Is Beautiful.) No matter how confused we human beings are, the original hidden Buddha-nature has never left us. It is like a small “fire-seed” (for example, a match), waiting for the right time to come. The fire-seed is like the formula e = mc2 (energy = mass times the square of the speed of light) in that it will give off limitless light and heat. The precious gems which ignite the fire-seed so that it can produce great light are the Buddhist Eightfold Path and the Six Perfections. They will enable us to awaken the inherent mind of kindness and compassion, the Buddha-nature possessed by all living beings.

Here, when we contemplate the spirit of saving all with great compassion in connection with the Master’s name To Lun (“ship of salvation”), we realize that the Master practices the giving of courage (part of the Six Perfections) and uses his great ship to save the helpless beings in the sea of suffering, by day and by night, sparing no blood or sweat and never pausing to rest. He also practices the giving of Dharma to cross over Easterners and Westerners alike. Most of his disciples can communicate in English, and some can translate Buddhist Sutras into English. At a meeting held in Berkeley, a library specialist from the Graduate Theological Union said that in the United States, Dharma Realm Buddhist Association is virtually the only organization that is translating and publishing the Buddhist Sutras into English. Let us follow the Buddhist principle demonstrated by the Master of sailing to the other shore and aspire to realize the Master’s childhood dream of “widely benefitting Westerners and leading them into Buddhism.” We, these small boats, can try our best to “save those with whom we have affinities at the crossroads.”

Sail! Sail! Sail to the other shore,
When everyone arrives at the other shore,
The heart is filled with bliss!

GATE GATE PARAGATE PARASAMGATE
BODHI SVAHA!

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