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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

妙法蓮華經淺釋
The Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra with Commentary

【卷四提婆達多品第十二】

Roll 4, Chapter 12, Devadatta

宣化上人講     Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua
國際譯經學院記錄     Translated by the International Translation Institute

前期提示:六波羅蜜

什麼又叫持戒波羅蜜?這持戒波羅蜜,就是防止七支的過錯。什麼叫七支?七支就是身三口四。身三,殺、盜、淫這身的三支;口四,綺語、妄言、惡口、兩舌的四種,合起來這叫七支。在這個七支都不犯,就是叫一個戒,這是第二度。

第三是忍辱波羅蜜。什麼叫忍辱?忍,就是一種強忍,辱就是人污辱你。怎麼叫強忍呢?根本忍不了啦!忍不了,又能勉強來忍,這叫強忍。就是什麼呢?就是打罵不報,這叫強忍。怎麼叫打罵不報呢?就是有人打你,你也不和他對打,不反打他;有人罵你,你也不罵他,你也不還報,這就叫一個忍,這是忍辱波羅蜜。如果有人打你一拳,你也踢回去一腳,這談不到忍辱了。如果他打你一個耳光,打你這一個嘴巴,打你這一邊,你應該再叫他打打另一邊,兩邊都叫他打,為什麼呢?如果單打這一邊,那邊不打,他那邊就會生一種妒忌了。所以兩邊都叫他打,打完了,還不反打這個人,那麼這就叫忍辱。所以打罵不報,這叫一個忍。

什麼叫精進呢?這個精進波羅蜜,就是你無論做什麼事情,有始有終。你不能做事做得有始無終,開始做得很高興的,等到做了一個時期,就不願意做了,這是無終。你有始有終,這就是精進,這是精進波羅蜜。

什麼叫禪定波羅蜜呢?禪定,就是四禪八定,這就叫禪定波羅蜜。什麼叫四禪呢?四禪,就是初禪、二禪、三禪、四禪。

初禪:你到初禪的境界上,你的氣沒有了,就像死了似的,呼吸氣斷了,這是你證得初禪。所以有的人說他教人家初禪,他若到初禪的時候,你可以把他埋到地裡邊,埋三天三宿他也不會死的。就像那個yoga(瑜珈),有yoga(瑜珈)這種功夫的,可以埋到地裡頭三個鐘頭也不死。你若到初禪境界上,不要說三天三宿,就是你把他埋到地裡頭多久,他也不會死的。所以有人,他要教你初禪,他說他到了初禪了,你不就先把他埋上看一看?如果埋上他不死,這證明是到初禪了;要是埋上一樣死了,那他是沒到的。

二禪:到二禪的境界上,人的這個脈沒有了。初禪,呼吸斷了,這個脈還有。可是二禪這種境界,脈也都停止了,真像死人一樣,脈都斷了,心也不跳;或者也有少少的、好像有這麼一點點心跳,但是脈是沒有了。

三禪:三禪就念都斷了,不單這個脈斷了,你的念慮都不生了,那時候,真不打妄想了。第三禪這個念是停止住了,但是沒有斷,是止念。

四禪:第四禪到捨念清淨地,念斷了,沒有了。初禪叫離生喜樂地,離開什麼呢?離開這個煩惱,生出一種快樂,這時候還沒有定;第二禪叫定生喜樂地,有一種定;第三禪叫離喜妙樂地,離開前邊那種的妙樂地;第四禪叫捨念清淨地,這是四禪。

八定:這四禪再加上空無邊處定、識無邊處定、無所有處定、非非想處定,就叫八定,這叫禪。

→待續

From last issue: the Six Paramitas

What is meant by the Paramita of Morality? The Paramita of Morality means guarding against offenses in seven aspects. The seven aspects are: three of the body and four of the mouth--killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct with the body and loose speech, lying, harsh speech, and backbiting with the mouth. Not committing these seven offenses is being moral.

The Third Paramita is that of Patience. What is patience? Patience means to bear up under insult. It means to take what you can't take. For example, if someone hits you or scolds you and you don't retaliate in any way, you are using patience. That is, if someone hits you, you don't hit back; or if someone scolds you, you don't scold him back. Then you are practicing the Paramita of Patience. If someone hits you and you kick the person right back, you can't call that patience. If someone punches you on the ear or slaps you on the mouth, you ought to turn the other cheek and let the person hit the other side, too. Why? Because if they just slap one cheek and not the other, the other cheek will get jealous! If you can let the person hit both sides and give you a thorough beating without you striking back, that is having patience.

What is vigor? The Paramita of Vigor means that you finish everything you start. If you start things with great excitement, but then get tired and quit, then the things you do have a beginning but no end. Completing the job indicates vigor. That's the Paramita of Vigor.

What is the Paramita of Dhyana Samadhi? It refers to the Four Dhyanas and the Eight Samadhis. The Four Dhyanas are the first Dhyana, the second Dhyana, the third Dhyana, and the fourth Dhyana.

When you reach the state of the first Dhyana, your breath stops and you are as if dead. When your breathing stops, that shows you have attained the first Dhyana. There are people who say they teach others to enter the first Dhyana. Well, if they have really attained the state of the first Dhyana, you can bury them in the ground for three days and nights and they won't die. This is just like in yoga. Some yogis have the ability to be buried underground for three hours without dying. When one reaches the state of the first Dhyana, one can be buried in the ground not only for three days and nights, but for any length of time at all, and still not die. So if someone says he can teach you to attain the first Dhyana and claims to have attained the first Dhyana himself, you can first bury him and see what happens. If he doesn't die, that proves that he has really reached the first Dhyana. If he dies after being buried, then he hasn't reached it.

When a person reaches the second Dhyana, the pulse stops. In the first Dhyana the breath disappears but the pulse is still there. In the state of the second Dhyana, the pulse stops as well. One is just like a dead person; one's pulse has stopped and there is no heartbeat. Or perhaps the heart is still beating ever so slightly, but one's pulse is gone.

In the third Dhyana, thought stops as well. Not only is the pulse gone, even thoughts stop arising. Then one is really not having false thinking. In the third Dhyana, thought stops, but it's not cut off.

In the fourth Dhyana, the Ground of the Purity of Renouncing Thought, thought is cut off altogether. The first Dhyana is called the Ground of the Happiness of Leaving Production. In this state one leaves afflictions and gives rise to happiness. But this is not yet samadhi. The second Dhyana is called the Ground of the Happiness of Developing Samadhi. One has samadhi at that point. The third Dhyana is called the Ground of the Wonderful Bliss of Leaving Happiness. One leaves behind the happiness experienced in the earlier states. The fourth Dhyana is called the Ground of the Purity of Renouncing Thought. Those are the Four Dhyanas.

The Eight Samadhis are the Four Dhyanas plus the Samadhi of the Station of Limitless Emptiness, the Samadhi of the Station of Limitless Consciousness, the Samadhi of the Station of Nothing Whatsoever, and the Samadhi of the Station of Neither Pereception nor Non-Perception. That's the Eight Samadhis. The above has been a discussion of Dhyana.

→To be continued

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