萬佛城金剛菩提海 Vajra Bodhi Sea
萬佛城金剛菩提海 Vajra Bodhi Sea

金剛菩提海:首頁主目錄本期目錄

Vajra Bodhi Sea: HomeMain IndexIssue Index

《專題》

 

SPECIAL SECTION

宇宙白試解及聯想
An Attempt to Interpret hite Universe” and Some Thoughts

■  張文毅寫於一九九四年六月二日舊金山––北京飛途中
Written by Wen-I Chang on June 2, 1994, on the flight from San Francisco to Beijing

九九四年四月二十四日,在宣公上人的壽宴上,第一次看到這首詩,讀第一句「冰天雪地,無數條小蟲凍斃,且蟄眠」時,即已心潮胸湧澎湃不已,直覺上認為作者一定是超乎認知經驗,而以自己的意識在入禪時滲進及融入整個宇宙。當時部份文字被擋,經果歸居士指點,才知道是宣公上人之作,法師把全文給我,每讀一次,都增加另一層次的境界,彌習彌佳;茲將自己揣摩心得,和諸位同修切磋,以收拋磚引玉之效。

哲裡講的大悲同體的概念,用科學來解釋,即指著整個宇宙內裡沒有任何可分開的獨立個體,內裡每一部份和任何其他部分,都是以「能」與「光」交織而成的息息相關之網。所謂個體,也只不過是不可分的局部光網,即小宇宙。而這個小宇宙的成壞律動和大宇宙的生滅律動完全一樣。

David Bohm(受愛因斯坦和克利斯那穆提影響極深的名物理學家)在他的名著,整體觀念與暗藏的玄機(Wholeness & The Implicate Order)亦一再反覆《華嚴經》裡一包含多大小相容、微塵剎海、重重交光的概念,Fritjof Capra更是在其名著物理之道(The Tao of Physics)。舉證以目前所知最小的宇宙,原子的世界裡,電子和核子的相互作用的兩力量––電子一面被核子吸引進來(attracted to nucleus),另一面又不願被侷限在核子旁的有限空間(reluctant to become conined),而本能地要往外飛離。這兩個相互作用的力量及均衡,竟然是宇宙萬像的基楚,例如在輪迴道上繞圈子的人,一面被生命欲吸引進來(像是電子被核子吸引進來),起惑造業(迷的因),而累集了諸多苦惱(迷的果),而另一方面,又在原有的慧根裡,蠢動著一股潛在的力量––佛性,逐漸或頓然覺悟,而以正道(悟的因)去滅斷累積的痛苦,期冀登彼岸(悟的果)(像是電子的往外飛離)。

從這小宇宙相互作用的均衡力量,竟然道出了佛家中心思想––苦、集、滅、道。而苦集滅道思想,包涵的一沙一界,性空緣起,慈悲普度,都隱喻在「宇宙白」這首詩裡。

宙白」,開宗明義即指複度時空的宇(空間)宙(時間)裡,所發生的任何事項、事物(一切有為法),都潛藏著它「空」的原本自性。白色為百色之總匯,在最簡單的物理實驗,把代表紅塵世間五花八門、成敗榮枯、悲歡離合、瞋癡執著等諸現象,以紅、橙、黃、綠、藍、靛、紫諸色代表,放在圓盤上轉動,隨時轉動,由於速度由慢而快,這些顏色也由鮮明變為淡,而終於成為白色的快轉盤。我們何嘗不可以此作為解釋「色即是空」的方便法門。

這裡的「快」,表面上是指速度,其實是指時空層次的高低,而時空層次的高低,即為意識境界(智慧)的高低。智慧愈高,則愈能領悟「原來無一物」的本性。智慧高之極致,則為無上正等正覺的佛。

天雪地,無數條小蟲凍斃,且蟄眠」,這是作者藉著大自然在說法,「溪聲便是廣長舌」。作者不把死亡當作生命的終止,旅程的終點是另外一段旅程的起點,請看!「且蟄眠」這三字最能啟發禪思,暫時冬眠吧!被凍斃的小蟲們。在印度的跳舞之神 Shiva (中譯濕婆)的概念裡,任何生命、時空過程分成四部份(即四步舞):

    小如粒子者     為     生、成、異、滅
    短如一天者     為     晨、午、昏、夜
    人生中     為     生、長、老、死
    宇宙     為     成、住、壞、空

所有生命的輪迴,也只不過是大自然的四步舞的返復而已。

上述的「滅」、「夜」、「死」、「空」,都可以「空」為總代表,而「空」又是「生」、「晨」、「生」、「成」的緣起。第四步的終結,即為第一步的起始,如是周而復始,老子的「大曰逝,逝曰遠,遠曰返」也是說明復甦、轉世的必然性。請看下列兩首性空緣起的詩行,與「且蟄眠」相符節。

黑夜吻著正在消逝的白日,
並在他耳邊低語:
我是死亡,我是你的母親,
我正在給你催促一個新日的誕生。
            --泰戈爾
西風……
毀滅者兼保藏者啊!……
請趕掃我的枯思到宇宙各地,
像趕掃枯葉,以催新生的來臨,
……假如冬天到了,春天還會遠嗎?
            --雪萊(1792-1822)西風頌

且蟄眠吧!凍斃的小蟲兒,自稱為「想像物理學家」的Fred Alan Wolf 教授亦以愛因斯坦相對論及量子學為基礎,想像出人類未曾有人死亡過,只是意識層次的更變(六道輪迴),只是更換宇宙的地址。印度詩人泰戈爾(1861-1941)以這些字眼,描繪在沒跳出輪迴圈圈到達涅槃之境前,轉世搬家後,他鄉遇故知的美麗情境;

總有一天在另一個世界的旭光裡,
我將為你歌唱:
從前我曾經見過你,
在那地球的光中,
在那人類的愛裡。
            --泰戈爾

這首短詩,只是對於未來矇矓美的憧憬;可是現實的、以及難以避免的,那些好的、壞的業力,都會隨著轉世一起帶到另一生命的輪迴,浮沉在愛憎離苦的有情世界。「欲知前世因,今生受者是;欲知來世果,今生作者是。」結果,轉世只不過是今生的自己和前生的自己對話回響而已。凡夫畏果,佛門畏因,良有以也。臺灣詩人趙蔚民,亦以此詩句,鼓勵人們為自己的因果(前因後果)的稱秤上多累積一些好的稱塊(陰德避惡)。

一切已去,
一切再來;
那些已逝的仍將復活,
且讓我們惜取今生。

裡觀察,動中審諦。」詩人華滋華斯(1770-1850) 說:「詩是起自沉靜之中得來的回憶。」在心境清澈時,也就是入禪的最佳境界,而在宇宙萬象的冗動幻變中,入世的喧囂擾攘裡,只要能靜心觀物,也同樣能夠參悟無常及萬法空相的真理。

「龍爭虎鬥常遊戲,鬼哭神嚎幻化奇。」據宣公上人說,這是他在坐禪時看到的景像。筆者問上人:「是真正看到的?哪一眼(第三眼)看到的?」上人回答:「這就不用問了,看了就是看了,看到的東西也是空的。」

希特勒、毛澤東、胡笙等這些妖魔鬼怪的鬼哭神嚎,以及亞力山大帝、忽必烈的龍爭虎鬥,三國演義的亂石崩雲,驚濤拍岸––談笑間,檣櫓飛灰湮滅,也只能做慣看春花秋月的江堵漁翁斟酒的笑談題材。這些都是在西洋的一句哲言,道破其空的原來面目:

歷史是將一個轟轟烈烈的征服者,
轉變成書上寂靜的註腳。

野史家以如此酷似太極陰陽圖的對稱均衡的文字,描寫從拿破崙當皇帝的權柄在握,到淪入ELBA(艾爾巴)島為被放逐之囚犯。花非花的世事常而慨嘆,令人唏噓不已。

"Able was I ere I saw Elba"

(請看ERE的R為全句中心,其左右皆相同字母)中譯:「在我被放逐到艾爾巴島之前,我是多麼權柄在握啊!」ERE=BEFORE之意。是故《金剛經》的智慧,在我們心裡閃爍著佛光:「一切有為法,如夢幻泡影,如夢亦如電,應作如是觀。」

→待續

T he Buddhist concept of great compassion based on identity in substance, when explained in terms of science, means that in the entire universe there is no independent entity which can be isolated. Each part of the universe is closely connected to every other part in a net of interwoven energy and light. The so-called individual entity is only a part of this indivisible net of light, a small universe. The rhythmic movements of the formation and decay of this small universe are identical to that of the great universe.

David Bohm (a well-known physicist deeply influenced by Einstein and Krishnamurti), in his book Wholeness and the Implicate Order, repeatedly mentions such concepts found in the Avatamsaka Sutra as the one containing the many, great and small being mutually inclusive, the sea of Buddhalands appearing in a single dustmote, and interwoven layers of light. In his masterpiece, The Tao of Physics, Fritjof Capra also cites that in the smallest universe, which is the world of the atom, the balance between the two interacting forces of the electrons and the nucleus—the electrons are on the one hand attracted to the nucleus, but on the other hand reluctant to become confined in a limited space next to the nucleus and intuitively want to fly outwards—is the basis of the myriad phenomena in the universe. For example, people turning in the cycle of rebirth are on the one hand drawn in by the desires of life (like the electrons being drawn in by the nucleus) so they become deluded, create bad karma (the cause of delusion), and accumulate a myriad afflictions and sufferings (the result of delusion); on the other hand, within their inherent roots of wisdom, there exists a hidden force—the Buddha-nature—which is ready to come alive. Thus through either gradual or sudden enlightenment, they extinguish the accumulated sufferings by means of the proper Way (the cause of enlightenment) and aspire to reach the other shore (the result of enlightenment) (like the electrons trying to fly outwards).

The balance of the interacting forces of this small universe expresses the central doctrine of Buddhism—suffering, accumulation, extinction, and the Way. The underlying philosophy of this doctrine—that each grain of sand is a world unto itself, that all things are void in nature but arise due to conditions, and that one should compassionately save all beings—are all hidden in the poem “White Universe.”

W hite Universe” starts out by indicating that any event or thing (any conditioned dharma) occurring in the universe of overlapping time and space conceals within itself the voidness of its original nature. The color white is the combination of all colors. In a very simple physics experiment, let’s use the colors orange, red, yellow, green, blue, and purple to represent the myriad phenomena of the mundane world—success, failure, prosperity, decay, sorrow, joy, separation, union, anger, stupidity, attachments, and so on. Suppose we put these colors on a disk and spin it. As the speed of spinning increases, we find that the vivid colors start to fade in intensity, until eventually the disk spinning at high speed appears white. Let us try using this expedient method to interpret “form itself is emptiness.”

The high and low seem to refer to speed, but actually they refer to the high and low levels of time and space. Levels of time and space are just levels of our state of consciousness (wisdom). The higher our wisdom, the better our ability to understand our original nature in which “originally there is not a thing.” The ultimate level of wisdom is the state of Buddhas who have attained unsurpassed, right, equal , and proper enlightenment.

I ce in the sky, snow on the ground. / Numberless tiny bugs die in the cold, or sleep in hibernation. The writer is speaking Dharma using images from Nature. “The sound of flowing creek is, in fact, manifesting the truth of the Buddha-nature.” The writer takes death not as the end of life, but as the beginning of another journey. Take a look! The three words “sleep in hibernation” are most inspiring for Chan investigation. All of you tiny creatures who die in the cold: go ahead and hibernate for the time being! In the philosophy of Shiva, the Hindu god of dance, any process in time and space and any life can be divided into four parts (that is, the four-step dance):

That which is small as a grain:
    production, formation, change, and extinction
That which is short as one day:
    morning, noon, evening, night
Human life: birth, growth, aging, death
The universe: formation, dwelling, decay, and annihilation

The transmigration of all lives is merely Nature doing her four-step dance over and over.

The above-mentioned “extinction,” “night,” “death,” and “annihilation” can generally be represented by “annihilation.” And “annihilation” is again the beginning of “production,” “morning,” “birth,” and “formation.” The ending of the fourth step is the beginning of the first step. Thus the cycle revolves. Lao Zi’s statement, “Being great, it flows. It flows far away. Having gone far, it returns” also describes the certainty of reincarnation and transmigration. Let us look at the following two verses which coincide with the “White Universe” in expressing that all things are void in nature but arise due to conditions:

The night kisses the fading day,
Whispering to his ear:
“I am death, your mother.
I am to give you fresh birth.”
            —Rabindranath Tagore
O wild West Wind (...).
Destroyer and preserver (...)
Drive my dead thoughts over the universe,
Like withered leaves to quicken a new birth!
(...) If winter comes,
Can spring be far behind?
            — from “Ode to the West Wind”
            by Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)

Hibernate, you creatures who are dying in the cold! Professor Fred Alan Wolf, who calls himself a visionary physicist, came up with a vision—also based on Einstein’s theory of relativity and quantum mechanics—that human beings never die, but merely go through changes in their levels of consciousness (transmigration in the six realms). They merely change their address in the universe. The Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) used the following words to describe the beautiful scene of deja vu one encounters after reincarnation, before one has escaped the cycle of transmigration and entered Nirvana:

Someday I shall sing to you,
In the sunrise of some other world.
"I have seen you before,
In the light of earth,
In the love of man.”             —Rabindranath Tagore

This short poem envisions only the beautiful side of the hazy future. In reality, both good and bad karma will inevitably follow us into another life through transmigration, as we bob up and down in the sentient world full of love, hate, and the bitterness of separation. “If you want to know the causes you created in previous lives, just look at the retribution you are receiving in this life. If you want to know what retribution you will receive in future lives, just look at what you are doing in this life.” Consequently, reincarnation is but the echo of conversations between the self of the present life and the self of previous lives. Ordinary people fear consequences, while Buddhists fear causes. Truly, there’s a good reason. The Taiwanese poet Zhao Weiming wrote the following poem to encourage people to add more weights to the good side (by doing good deeds in secret and avoiding evil) of the scale of causes and effects (previous causes and later effects).

All have gone,
And all shall return.
Those perished shall revive.
Let’s cherish our present life.

I n the midst of stillness you should contemplate, and within movement you should investigate. The English poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850) said, “Poetry is emotion recollected in tranquility.” The best state in Chan is when the mind is pure. However, amid worldly noise and the commotion of the myriad illusory transformations of the universe, if one can contemplate with a still mind, one can also investigate and awaken to impermanence and to the truth that all dharmas are empty.

Dragons spar and tigers wrestle in continual playful sport; / Ghosts cry and spirits wail, their illusory transformations strange. According to the Master, that is what he saw during meditation. I asked him whether he actually saw these things, and with which eye (the third eye?). The Master replied, “There’s no need to ask. I saw it, and that’s it. What I saw was also empty.”

The crying and wailing of demons and ghosts such as Hitler, Mao Zedong, and Hussein, the sparring and wrestling of dragons and tigers such as Alexander the Great and Kublai Khan, and the stories told in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms are conversation topics for drinking and chatting fishermen who like to gaze at spring flowers and the autumn moon. The true nature of all these great events, which is emptiness, is expressed in this Western aphorism:

History is what transforms tumultuous
    conquerors into silent footnotes.

A fictitious historian used a palindrome that resembles the yin and yang diagram, to describe how Napoleon, from being a powerful emperor, was exiled to the island of Elba as a prisoner. This mournful statement about the impermanent nature of worldly affairs moves people to tears: “Able was I ere I saw Elba.” (Note: the “r” in “ere” is the center of the sentence, and the letters on both sides are symmetrically matched.) Ere means before. Therefore, the wisdom of the Vajra Sutra glistens with the Buddha light in our minds, “All conditioned dharmas are like dreams, illusions, bubbles, and shadows, like dewdrops and lightning. We should contemplate them thus.”

→To be continued

▲Top

法界佛教總會 Dharma Realm Buddhist Association© Vajra Bodhi Sea