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試論絕對的真理
Discussions on the Absolute Truth

■  岳興華     文     By Yue Xinhua

前期提示:破空相(解空)

教哲學吸收了「無」、「有」,將之發展為「空」、「有」;「空」、「有」,形成了佛教哲學的專用術語。

小乘佛教哲學認為「空有分離,而不相涉。」在部派學說中,有的執有,認為「法我俱實」,如上座系的犢子部。有的執空,認為「法為空假」,如大眾系說假部。有的認為「我空法有」,即在某一範疇又執空,如上座系說一切有部。空不遣有,有不離空,空中攝有,有內存空,空、有雖是兩家,但內在聯繫,不是截然分割,兩不相干。例如中觀派哲學著重談「空」,但不斥有,而以空即有,假有明中。又如瑜伽行派哲學,著重說「有」,但不捨空,而以有即空,會空顯中,如是兩派大乘哲學運用空有相,即真俗圓融來表達勝義。因此,人們常稱「中觀派哲學」為大乘「空宗」,稱「瑜伽行派哲學」為大乘「有宗」。

From last issue:
To Penetrate the Mark of Emptiness (Explaining Emptiness)

B uddhist philosophy absorbed the ideas of “emptiness” and “existence” and developed them into the concept of “emptiness and existence,” which became part of the special terminology of Buddhism.

Theravadan Buddhist philosophy maintains that “emptiness and existence are separate and unrelated.” Some Buddhist sects, such as the Sthavirah (school of elders), assert that “dharmas and self are both real.” Others, such as the Prajnaptivadinah sect of the Mahasanghikah (school of the assembly), assert that “dharmas are empty and false.” Still others, such as the Sarvastivadah (school of the reality of all phenomena), maintain that “dharmas exist but the self is empty,” and to a certain extent they become attached to emptiness. Emptiness does not banish existence, and existence is not apart from emptiness. Existence is included within emptiness, and emptiness is preserved within existence. Although emptiness and existence are two things, they are associated in essence, not completely cut off and unrelated to each other. For example, Madhyamika (Middle School) philosophy emphasizes emptiness, but does not deny existence. They assert that emptiness is just existence and use existence to clarify the middle. The Yogacharya philosophy emphasizes existence, but does not renounce emptiness. They say that existence is just emptiness and use emptiness to manifest the middle. In this way, these two schools of Mahayana philosophy use the characteristics of emptiness and existence and the perfect interfusion of ultimate truth and worldly truth to express the supreme meaning. As a consequence, people usually refer to the Madhyamika philosophy as the Mahayana School of Emptiness and the Yogacharya philosophy as the Mahayana School of Existence.

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