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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
THE FLOWER ADORNMENT SUTRA WITH COMMENTARY

【卷三世主妙嚴品第一之三】

The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Roll 3, Chapter 1, Part 3

宣化上人講     Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua
國際譯經學院記錄     Translated by the International Translation Institute

前期提示:光行莊嚴主方神。得破一切暗障生喜 樂大光明解脫門。

上人:中文也差不多這個意思。你讀ㄏㄥˋ,這 個看在什麼地方讀,讀得順口不順口。好像「 行(ㄒㄧㄥˊ)深般若波羅蜜多時」,沒有說「行( ㄏㄥˋ)深般若波羅蜜多時」。不過,有的也讀 「行(ㄏㄥˋ)深般苦波羅蜜多時」。這個意思相 差不太多。若讀ㄏㄥˋ呢,就要畫這個入聲圈; 若讀ㄒㄧㄥˊ,就不需要畫圈,這是在中文的分 別。在英文呢?這個看在哪一個地方,好像是 中國說:「這個修道修苦行!」都說苦行( ㄏㄥˋ),沒有說倏苦行(ㄒㄧㄥˊ)的。苦行(ㄏㄥˋ )莊嚴,苦行(ㄏㄥˋ)莊嚴法身;這個是光行( ㄏㄥˋ)莊嚴。所以我讀光行(ㄏㄥˋ),沒有讀光 行(ㄒㄧㄥˊ),因為光追速度很快的,這一放出 ,不行就到了,「無遠弗屆」,再遠的地方, 這光也會到。 這「光」比那個「音」還走得快,光行(ㄏ ㄥˋ)。行(ㄏㄥˋ)在英文這是個名詞,是不是?

恆靜:是!

上人:這也是個名詞,在中文也是個名詞。那 麼,你認為我讀ㄏㄥˋ是錯嗎?是對嗎?

恆靜:不!我覺得這不是太大的問題,讀ㄏㄥˋ 也可以,讀ㄒㄧㄥˊ也可以,所以您講哪一個都 可以,大約應該講ㄏㄥˋ!在這個地方,如果是 要翻譯,我因為沒有聽過,有的時候會成問題 ,有的時候不會有問題。

上人:不!不!這個不成問題!你看翻哪一個 好,就用哪一個。你上下文一對,哪一個相當,意思充足,就用哪一個。哪一個沒有意思了 ,就不用哪一個。你問這個行(ㄒㄥㄟ)的,還有 誰問的不「行」(ㄒㄥㄟ),想要不「行」(ㄒㄙㄟ )?

恆持:眾生做什麼變成的神?

上人:神是什麼?神就是眾生嘛!怎麼還會眾 生變成神。神就是眾生,怎麼還要變成神。那 麼你認為神是什麼?眾生是什麼?

恆持:有很多類的眾生,譬如人也是眾生,天 也是眾生。有一種神,他們做什麼作神?

上人:做什麼作神?你做什麼作美國人?說一 說看!我做什麼作中國人?說一說看!你就是 神,我就是眾生,來說一說看。或者我就是神 ,你就是眾生。不要在這個地方用功夫。 神,怎麼做的神,「聰明正直之謂神。」你 聰明又直,說話直,這就是神。那個神並不是 什麼奇奇怪怪、玄玄妙妙的。所謂天神,在天 上是不是啊?在天上管我們地下什麼事!天神 隨他天去了。我們就講這個人,講這個眾生。

再對你講,「從陰者鬼,從陽者神。」你有 光明就是神,你有黑暗就是鬼。怎麼樣做的神 ?因為你有般若智慧,有般若的光明,這就是 神。你不要到外邊去找。你自己有智慧,你就 是神;你自己是愚癡了,那就是鬼,就是眾生 ,就是一個愚癡的眾生。你若貪嗔癡作主,就 是一個愚癡的鬼眾生。你若戒定慧為主,你就 是一個聰明的神的眾生。不要到旁的地方找。 我方才所說這個神,是你那個神和我這個神 和他那個神。那麼這個主方神呢,和我們又不 同了,這是菩薩示現,都是過去的法身大士、 菩薩,示現一個主方神來教化眾生。他本來也 是一個眾生,你怎麼還要問眾生怎麼做的神? 那麼眾生怎麼做的佛?你說眾生怎麼做的佛? 所以,方才我說要問這個不行,這就是不行。 不行就是行不通。你知道這個眾生怎麼做佛?

恆持:我想我知道!

上人:你想你知道!那個佛比神高出幾萬萬倍 ,你都知道了,你怎麼連眾生怎麼樣做的神還 不知道?現在知道了沒有?

恆持:知道!

上人:神,有很多種神,不是一種神,我也不 知道你問的是哪一種神?啊!有山神、水神、 土神、地神、草木神、藥草樹林神、水神、火 神、風神、土神,天神、地神,神太多了。神 裡邊也不是共產黨,不是一樣的;神裡頭或者 也有共產黨,都是一樣的。那麼講這個神,老 子所講的神就是谷神,儒教所講的神是天神。 老子說的:「谷神不死,是謂玄牝。玄牝之門 ,是為天地根。」你說他是個什麼?是個天地 根。那麼儒教所說的:「充實之謂美」,是個 美人。「充實而有光輝之謂大」,是個大人。 「大而化之之謂聖」,是個聖人。「聖而不可 知謂之神」,是個神人。你說是個什麼?這裡 頭分別太多了,就眾生裡邊也分別太多。那麼 ,你若想知道每一個神是怎麼樣子成的神?不 要管他!你好好修行,成了佛,無所不知,無 所不曉,那是「正遍知」,不是邪遍知。那是 上知無量劫,下知無量劫。不要說你是個神, 你什麼都知道,何必現在沒有事情找事情來幹 ?要知道那個神,你是不是想作神去啊?

充實而有光輝了,有了光了,光輝。「充實 而有光輝之謂大」,「大而化之」,那麼大了 又會有變化,「之謂聖」,這是個聖人。聖人 就是大到極點,他又會變化了。他又不大了; 不是說大到極點他就驕傲了,說:「喔!你看 我這麼高!你看我智慧比你們都大!你看我明 白中文也比你們多!你看我翻譯得比你們誰都 好!」這就是驕傲了。聖人他就會變化,到大 上面他又變小了。所以佛呢?也不是大,也不 是小。聖人他大而能小,小而能大,他驕傲沒 有了,這叫「大而化之之謂聖」。化,就大又 化小,小又化大了,這就是聖人,就像孔夫子 。「聖而不可知」,聖人也不知道了,他變化 也化不出來了,他都是不可思議了,這叫神。

周行不礙主方神。得普現一切處不唐勞解脫門。

今天要找一個人來替我講,講得對的呢?就 是你講:講得錯的呢?是我講的。你們看哪一 位來講,要自動發心,不要教人叫。

有兩種人可以講,一種就是依教奉行的,一 種就是不依教奉行的。你能依教奉行的也可以 講,能不依教奉行的更可以講,有這兩種人。

「不依教奉行」要站在「依教奉行」的那一 邊,也不要自己「依教奉行」,站在「不依教 奉行」的那一邊。你把你的立場弄清楚。不過 ,「依教奉行的」和「不依教奉行的」都是我 的善知識。我這作師父的,最不怕人反對。誰 能反對我所講的,那是最好。那麼不反對的呢 ?也是不錯的。這兩種都是半斤八兩。不要把 時間都空過了,不等著叫名字那是最好的。

恆賢:我不是一個不依教奉行的人,也不是一 個依教奉行的人,為什麼呢?我願意依教奉行 ,可是我的身口意不幫助我依教奉行。今晚這 段經文「周行不礙主方神」:周行不礙是這個 主方神的名字。周行,指這個神周遍法界,盡 虛空遍法界。不礙,就是好像無礙,無有障礙 。他現前普遍在世間,這個主方神的一個解脫 門叫什麼?叫「普現一切處不唐勞解脫門」: 這個神明白佛的境界,明白佛普現在法界一切 處裡頭,在每一個眾生前。佛就是這個不唐勞 ,如果我們要去到一個地方,應該就有很多的 麻煩,不是容易;可是佛可以最容易。「解脫 門」:這位神明白佛有這種的境界,入這種的 解脫門。

(英譯者按:清涼國師《華嚴疏鈔》云:普現說法, 聞必惑滅,故不唐勞。)

→待續

A reminder of the Sutra text:
The Direction-Ruling Spirit named Adorned with Luminous Practice obtained the liberation door of great light which demolishes all obstacles of darkness and brings forth bliss.

Venerable Master: The meaning is about the same in Chinese. It's pronounced heng when that sounds better in the context. For exam- ple, in the line, "while practicing the profound Prajna Paramita," the character is pronounced xing, not heng. However, some people pro- nounce it heng even so. The meaning is not very different. If the character is pronounced heng, one should add a circle to indicate it's in the "entering" tone-, but if it's pronounced xing, there is no need to draw a circle. That's the distinction in Chinese. In English you need to consider the context. For example, there is the Chinese ex- pression "cultivating ascetic practice," where the pronunciation is heng, not xing. Then it would be "adorned with ascetic practice," that is using ascetic practice to adorn the Dharma-body. Here it is "adorned with luminous practice," which is why I pronounced the character heng instead of xing. That's because the speed of light is very fast. When light is emitted, it arrives immediately, without trav- elling. [note: "Travelling is another possible translation of the same Chinese character when it is pronounced xing.] It reaches any place however far.

Light travels faster than sound. So it's read guang heng. In En- glish heng is a noun, isn't it?

Heng Ching: Yes.

Venerable Master: It's a noun in Chinese, too. Do you think I'm wrong or right to pronounce it heng?

Heng Ching: Either pronunciation—I don't think this is a very big problem here. Either heng or xing will work. Probably it should be pronounced heng. In this passage, if I hadn't heard it before, but had to translate it, I would translate it as heng. Sometimes it can be a problem, but sometimes not.

Venerable Master: No, this isn't a problem. Just use whichever translation you think works best. Use whichever one fits the overall context and is most appropriate and meaningful. Don't use one which doesn't make sense. You asked about heng—is there anyone asking about non-heng, who doesn't want heng?

Heng Ch'ih: What did living beings do to become spirits?

Venerable Master: What are spirits? Spirits are living beings. How could living beings change into spirits? Since spirits are living beings all along, why would living beings have turned into spirits? In that case, what do you think spirits are, and what do you think living be- ings are?

Heng Ch'ih: There are many kinds of living beings. For example, people are living beings, and so are gods. There's one kind which is spirits. What did they do to become spirits?

Venerable Master: What did they do to become spir- its? What did you do to become an American? Tell me that. What did I do to become Chinese? Tell me that. Let's say you're a spirit and I'm a living being—what about that? Or maybe I'm a spirit and you're a living being. Don't apply effort here. How do you become a spirit? "To be wise and upright is to be spiritual." If you are keen-witted, upright, and straightforward in your speech, then you are spiritual. The spiritual is not something weird or mysterious. As to heavenly spirits, they are in the heavens, aren't they? What do they, in the heavens, have to do with us on earth? Let the heavenly spirits go their own celestial way. We're talking about people, about those living beings. To tell you more, "Ghosts comply with yin, while spirits com- ply with yang." If you have light, then you are spiritual; but if you have darkness, you are ghostly. How does one become a spirit? It's from having Prajna wisdom. If you have the light of Prajna, you are spiritual. You don't need to search for this outwardly—if you yourself have wisdom, then you are spiritual. But if you yourself are stupid, then you are ghostly—you're a living being, a stupid living being. If you are controlled by greed, anger and stupidity, then you are a stupid, ghostly living being. But if you are governed by precepts, samadhi, and wisdom, then you are a wise and spiritual living being. Don't look for this anywhere else.

The spirits I have been discussing are the spirits which are you, me, and other people. However, the Direction-Ruling Spirits are not iden- tical with us. Rather, they are Bodhisattvas, Great Knights of the dharma-body from the past, who appear as Direction-Ruling Spirits to teach and transform living beings. Fundamentally, they are living beings, so why do you ask how living beings become spirits? How do living beings become Buddhas? Tell me, how does a living being be- come a Buddha? Before I wanted to ask about non-xing—this is non-kind. I don't know which kind of spirit you were asking about. There are mountain spirits, water spirits, earth spirits, ground spirits, plant and tree spirits, medicinal herb spirits, tree and forest spirits—spirits of water, fire, wind and earth-, spirits of the heavens and spirits of the earth. There are too many spirits! It's not all "communism" among spirits—that is, not all of them are alike. And yet, there may be groups of "communist" spirits who are all the same. The spirit dis- cussed by Lao Zi the nurtured spirit; whereas when the Confucian School speaks of spirits, it means heavenly spirits. Lao Zi said, "The nurtured spirit which does not die is called the mysteriously profound. The gateway of the mysteriously profound is the root of heaven and earth." What would you say that is talking about? It's the root of heaven and earth. The Confucian School says, "Completeness is beauty." That is to be a beautiful person. "Completeness which has radiance is greatness." That's to be a great person. "Greatness which can transform is Sageliness." That's what it means to be a Sage. "Sageliness which cannot be known is the spiritual." That's what makes for a spiritual person. What would you say that was? There are too many distinctions to this, just as there are too many distinctions among living beings. Do you really want to know how each spirit became a spirit? Don't pay attention to them. Just work hard at your cultivation and become a Buddha, and then you will know and under- stand everything. Then you will have proper and pervasive knowl- edge, not deviant and partial knowledge. Your knowledge will extend for limitlessly many eons into the past and for limitlessly many eons into the future. You will know about everything, not just spirits. So why should you now look for something to do when there is nothing to do'? You want to know about spirits: do you want to become a spirit?

"Completeness which has radiance" means one has light, radiant light. "Completeness which has radiance is greatness." "Greatness which call transform," which has changes and transformations, "is Sageliness." That is what makes one a Sage. A Sage is great to the utmost and is also capable of changes and transformations. He is also not great, not big. It's not that once he is great to the utmost, he be- comes arrogant and says, "Look at how high I am! See how much greater my wisdom is than yours! Look at how much more Chinese I understand than you do! See how much better I translate than any of you!" That's arrogance. Sages can also perform transformations. From being great they can change and become small. Therefore, the

The Direction-Ruling Spirit named Travelling Everywhere with- out Obstruction obtained the liberation door of universally man- festing in all places without the effort being in vain.

Today we will find someone to lecture for me. If you lecture correctly, then it's what you said. But if you speak incorrectly, it's what I've said. See who among you will speak. You should volunteer yourselves, and not have to be called on.

There are two kinds of people who can speak. One kind is those who act in accordance with the teaching, and the other kind is those who do not act in accordance with the teaching. Those of you who can act in accordance with the teaching may speak, and those capable of not acting in accordance with the teaching have even more permission to speak. Those are the two sorts of people.

People who do not act in accordance with the teaching should stand with those who do. But people who do act in accordance with the teaching should not stand with those who do not. You need to be clear about where you stand. However, whether people act in accordance with the teaching or not, they are all my good and knowing advisors. I'm a teacher who is utterly unafraid of being opposed. Anyone who opposes what I say is very good. What about someone who doesn't oppose me? That's also not bad. The two kinds are "six of one and half a dozen of the other." Don't let the time pass in vain. It's best if you don't wait for your name to be called.

Heng Hsien: I'm neither someone who does act in accordance with the teaching, nor someone who doesn't. Why is that? I would like to act in accordance with the teaching, but my body, mouth, and mind don't help me do so. Tonight's passage of Sutra text talks about the Direction-Ruling Spirit named Travelling Everywhere without Obstruction.M "Travelling Everywhere without Obstruction" is the Direction-Ruling Spirit's name. "Travelling Everywhere" indicates this Spirit goes throughout the Dharma Realm, to the utmost reaches of empty space and everywhere in the Dharma Realm. He does this "without Obstruction," without encountering any hindrances. He ap pears before beings everywhere in the world. What is the name of the liberation door which this Direction-Ruling Spirit obtained? He ob tained the liberation door of universally manifesting in all places without (the) effort (being in vain). This Spirit understood the Bud dha's state, and how the Buddha appears before every single living being in each and every location throughout the Dharma. Realm. But the Buddha does that effortlessly. If we want to go somewhere, it's a lot of trouble, not easy at all. However, it's very easy for the Buddha. This Spirit understood that state of the Buddha, and entered this type of door to liberation.

(Translator's note: National Master Ching Liang's commentary on this pas- sage of Sutra text says: "When he universally appears and speaks the Dharma those who hear it are sure to have their delusions dispelled, and so the effort is not in vain.“)

→To be continued

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